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    769 results match your criteria Advances in Anatomic Pathology[Journal]

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    Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinomas: A Review.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Department of Pathology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas belong to a group of neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. They are rare tumors of the bronchopulmonary system that incorporate a wide range of neoplasms that by definition contain a sarcomatoid component characterized by spindle or giant cells. Such classification has led to a heterogenous tumor category that includes neoplasms with different clinical, morphologic, and prognostic features. Read More

    Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas: An Update in the Classification, Definition, and Molecular Genetic Advances.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Departments of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.
    This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management. Read More

    Ewing Sarcoma and the History of Similar and Possibly Related Small Round Cell Tumors: From Whence Have We Come and Where are We Going?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Department of Anatomic Pathology/L25, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.
    The diagnosis of small round cell tumors always has been extremely difficult, and our current classification systems continue to evolve. Since its initial discovery by Dr James Ewing, the historical context of what is acceptably included under the designation "Ewing sarcoma" has changed. Although Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor were both initially described in the early 20th century, these tumors were considered likely distinct entities until the end of that same century, almost 75 years later. Read More

    Evolution in Prostate Cancer Staging: Pathology Updates From AJCC 8th Edition and Opportunities That Remain.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.
    The Tumor-Nodes-Metastasis system at the core of prognostic staging has been recently updated in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition, published in 2016. For prostate cancer, significant changes in staging of organ-confined disease, inclusion of a new grade grouping, and provision of levels of evidence for these modifications are part of what differentiates the 8th edition AJCC from prior iterations. Herein, the rationale underlying these changes is detailed. Read More

    Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)-associated Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.
    The diagnosis of a neurofibroma or a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) often raises the question of whether the patient has the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) as well as how this will impact the patient's outcome, what their risk is for developing additional neoplasms and whether treatment options differ for NF1-associated and sporadic peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Establishing a diagnosis of NF1 is challenging as this disorder has numerous neoplastic and non-neoplastic manifestations which are variably present in individual patients. Further, other genetic diseases affecting the Ras signaling cascade (RASopathies) mimic many of the clinical features of NF1. Read More

    Recent Advances in the Classification of Low-grade Papillary-like Thyroid Neoplasms and Aggressive Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas: Evolution of Diagnostic Criteria.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):263-272
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
    Papillary thyroid carcinomas account for ∼80% of well-differentiated thyroid tumors. During the past decade, several new variants of papillary-like thyroid neoplasms and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been recognized. Some of these neoplasms that were previously classified as malignant have been reclassified as low-grade neoplasms, as the diagnostic criteria have evolved. Read More

    Selected Case From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Club: Peritoneal Lipofuscinosis and Deciduosis in Pregnancy.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    The Department of Anatomical Pathology, SA Pathology at Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA, Australia.
    Peritoneal lipofuscinosis is a very rarely recognized condition occurring during pregnancy characterized by brown pigmentation of the omentum and peritoneum, a decidual reaction and benign mesothelial cells. The iron negative pigment, which is likely to be confused with hemosiderin in the hematoxylin and eosin stain, is lipofuscin. The seminar case, apparently the third published, arose in a 37-year-old woman who presented in October 2015 at 24 weeks pregnancy with abdominal pain. Read More

    Unfavorable Pathology, Tissue Biomarkers and Genomic Tests With Clinical Implications in Prostate Cancer Management.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic.
    Prostate cancer management has traditionally relied upon risk stratification of patients based on Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen and clinical tumor stage. However, these factors alone do not adequately reflect the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of prostate cancer. Accurate and individualized risk stratification at the time of diagnosis is instrumental to facilitate clinical decision-making and treatment selection tailored to each patient. Read More

    Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization in Surgical Pathology Practice.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):223-237
    Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney.
    There have been rapid and significant advances in diagnostic and predictive molecular techniques in recent years with profound impact on patient care. In situ hybridization (ISH) studies have become well entrenched in surgical pathology practice and their role in the evaluation of HER2 in breast carcinoma and their diagnostic utility in soft tissue pathology are well known. Fluorescent ISH is being increasingly used in other sites such as the head and neck and the gynecologic tract. Read More

    An Update on the Clinicopathologic Features and Pathologic Diagnosis of Hepatitis E in Liver Specimens.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):273-281
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University of Zurich and University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is globally seen a leading cause of hepatitis. Now increasingly recognized also in industrialized countries, hepatitis E constitutes a significant health problem worldwide. The patient's immune status determines the clinical course and histopathology of hepatitis E. Read More

    Tumor Syndromes Predisposing to Osteosarcoma.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):217-222
    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NewYork, NY.
    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor affecting predominantly adolescents and young adults. It accounts for about 5% of all childhood cancers. Although the majority of OSs are sporadic, a small percentage occur as a component of hereditary cancer syndromes. Read More

    Cutaneous Smooth Muscle Tumors: A Review.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):282-290
    Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Department of Pathology, Orange County-Anaheim Medical Center, Anaheim, CA.
    Smooth muscle tumors occur infrequently in the skin. They consist of a diverse group of lesions representing hamartomas as well as benign and malignant neoplasms. They may arise from arrector pili muscle, specialized smooth muscle of the genitalia, or vascular smooth muscle. Read More

    Atypical Hepatocellular Neoplasms: Review of Clinical, Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, Molecular, and Cytogenetic Features.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):254-262
    Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    The distinction of hepatocellular adenoma from well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be difficult in some cases, especially on biopsy specimens. These borderline cases often occur in men or older patients and may have β-catenin activation or focal atypical morphologic features (such as small cell change, prominent pseudoacinar formation, cytologic atypia, focally thick plates, and/or focal reticulin loss) that are insufficient for an unequivocal diagnosis of HCC. The term "atypical hepatocellular neoplasm" has been advocated for these tumors, but a number of other terms, including "atypical adenoma," "hepatocellular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential," and "well-differentiated hepatocellular neoplasm with atypical or borderline features" have also been proposed. Read More

    Incorporating Advances in Molecular Pathology Into Brain Tumor Diagnostics.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May;25(3):143-171
    Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine and Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
    Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations. Read More

    Molecular and Metabolic Basis of Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May;25(3):189-196
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogenous group of tumors, >70% of which belong to the category of clear cell carcinoma. In recent years, crucial advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis of clear cell carcinoma. This tumor manifests significant alterations in the cellular metabolism, so that the tumor cells preferentially induce the hypoxia response pathway using aerobic glycolysis, rather than the normal oxidative phosphorylation for energy. Read More

    Pathologic Features of Infectious Gastritis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jul;25(4):238-253
    Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    This manuscript presents a review of infectious causes of gastritis aimed at the practicing anatomic pathologist. We shall highlight unique histologic findings and clinical attributes that will assist those analyzing endoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the stomach or resection specimens. Read More

    HPV-related Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: A Review of Clinical and Pathologic Features With Emphasis on Updates in Clinical and Pathologic Staging.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May;25(3):180-188
    Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital.
    There has been a sharp increase in the incidence of the human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, partly due to the increasingly widespread awareness and recognition of this entity. This review assimilates the recent histopathologic classifications, staging systems, rapidly expanding research base and developments in management of human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and summarizes their implications for routine diagnostic practice. Differential diagnoses and their cytologic appearances are detailed and the utility of p16 staining and other immunohistochemistry testing is discussed. Read More

    Disclosure of Harmful Medical Error to Patients: A Review With Recommendations for Pathologists.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Mar;25(2):124-130
    Department of Pathology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
    Harmful error is an infrequent but serious challenge in the pathology laboratory. Regulatory bodies and advocacy groups have mandated and encouraged disclosure of error to patients. Many pathologists are interested in participating in disclosure of harmful error but are ill-equipped to do so. Read More

    Pathologic Staging of Endometrial Carcinomas: Selected Areas of Difficulty.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Mar;25(2):71-84
    Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK.
    Accurate staging of cancers is an important determinant of prognosis and guides optimal patient treatment. Although the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting recommends that endometrial cancers (including carcinosarcomas) are pathologically staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 system, in many areas TNM [American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) or Union for International Cancer Control (UICC)] staging is used or even mandated; these latter systems are based on FIGO 2009. In this review, areas of difficulty in the pathologic staging of endometrial carcinomas are covered with practical advice for the reporting pathologist. Read More

    Parasitic Infections of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissues.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Mar;25(2):106-123
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology.
    A variety of arthropods, protozoa, and helminths infect the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may be identified by anatomic pathologists in standard cytology and histology preparations. The specific organisms seen vary greatly with the patient's exposure history, including travel to or residence in endemic countries. Arthropods are the most commonly encountered parasites in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and include Sarcoptes scabei, Demodex species, Tunga penetrans, and myiasis-causing fly larvae. Read More

    Aggressive Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Hobnail, Tall Cell, Columnar, and Solid.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May;25(3):172-179
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Papillary thyroid carcinomas are the most common endocrine cancer and are usually associated with good survival. However, some variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas may behave more aggressively than classic papillary thyroid carcinomas. The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common aggressive variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Read More

    Recent Advances in the Diagnosis of Malignant Mesothelioma: Focus on Approach in Challenging Cases and in Limited Tissue and Cytologic Samples.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jan;25(1):24-30
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Mesothelial proliferations can be diagnostically challenging in small specimens, such as body fluid cytology and small tissue biopsies. A great morphologic challenge for pathologists is the separation of benign reactive mesothelial proliferations from malignant mesotheliomas. Reactive mesothelial proliferations may have histologic features that resemble malignancy including increased cellularity, cytologic atypia, and mitoses. Read More

    Extraneuraxial Hemangioblastoma: Clinicopathologic Features and Review of the Literature.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 May;25(3):197-215
    Lab Bacchi, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Extraneuraxial hemangioblastoma occurs in nervous paraneuraxial structures, somatic tissues, and visceral organs, as part of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHLD) or in sporadic cases. The VHL gene plausibly plays a key role in the initiation and tumorigenesis of both central nervous system and extraneuraxial hemangioblastoma, therefore, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms of the tumor growth are initially reviewed. The clinical criteria for the diagnosis of VHLD are summarized, with emphasis on the distinction of sporadic hemangioblastoma from the form fruste of VHLD (eg, hemangioblastoma-only VHLD). Read More

    An Update on the Diagnosis, Grading, and Staging of Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasms.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jan;25(1):38-60
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Despite advances in our understanding of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and their relationship to the pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome, the classification of mucinous tumors of the appendix is still confusing. This review will provide an update on the various classification systems that have been recently proposed for appendiceal mucinous neoplasia, with a particular emphasis on how to handle and report the histologic findings for these tumors using the newly published Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition guidelines. A simplified approach to diagnostic reporting of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms based on the 3-tier AJCC grading scheme is detailed and specific criteria for assessing grade in appendiceal mucinous neoplasia will be outlined. Read More

    Uterine Mesenchymal Tumors: Hereditary Aspects.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Mar;25(2):96-105
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    The topic of hereditary gynecologic malignancies readily evokes associations between Lynch syndrome and endometrial adenocarcinoma, or between BRCA mutations and tubo-ovarian serous carcinoma, but other familial associations are less well-known. Two hereditary syndromes are known to be related to uterine mesenchymal tumors: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome and the tuberous sclerosis complex. In the following review, we describe the current literature on these syndromes, summarizing their clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic data. Read More

    Does a p53 "Wild-type" Immunophenotype Exclude a Diagnosis of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jan;25(1):61-70
    Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.
    An aberrant p53 immunophenotype may be identified in several histotypes of endometrial carcinoma, and is accordingly recognized to lack diagnostic specificity in and of itself. However, based on the high frequency with which p53 aberrations have historically been identified in endometrial serous carcinoma, a mutation-type immunophenotype is considered to be highly sensitive for the histotype. Using an illustrative case study and a review of the literature, we explore a relatively routine diagnostic question: whether the negative predictive value of a wild-type p53 immunophenotype for serous carcinoma is absolute, that is, whether a p53-wild type immunophenotype is absolutely incompatible with a diagnosis of serous carcinoma. Read More

    New Developments in the Molecular Mechanisms of Pancreatic Tumorigenesis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Mar;25(2):131-142
    Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a dismal prognosis in dire need of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of data on the genetic alterations that occur in pancreatic cancer, as comprehensive next-generation sequencing analyses have been performed on samples from large cohorts of patients. These studies have defined the genomic landscape of this disease and identified novel candidates whose mutations contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis. Read More

    There Are No Magic Bullets in Hematopathology: Even Immunostains for CD20 and CD3 Can Get You Into Trouble.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jan;25(1):14-23
    Massachusetts General Hospital, James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories of the Massachusetts General Hospital.
    Immunohistochemistry is a powerful tool for the diagnosis and subclassification of hematolymphoid neoplasms. However, the expression of certain markers is not always as expected, and unusual patterns of staining can lead to misdiagnosis. CD20 and CD3 are our most commonly used markers for identification of B cells and T cells, respectively, and they almost always yield reliable, specific staining. Read More

    Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome: Moving Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Mar;25(2):85-95
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    The recent implementation of next generation sequencing and multigene platforms has expanded the spectrum of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, beyond the traditional genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. A large number of other moderate penetrance genes have now been uncovered, which also play critical roles in repairing double stranded DNA breaks through the homologous recombination pathway. This review discusses the landmark discoveries of BRCA1 and BRCA2, the homologous repair pathway and new genes discovered in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, as well as their clinicopathologic significance and implications for genetic testing. Read More

    The Role of the Surgical Pathologist in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jan;25(1):1-13
    The School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld.
    Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are very common lesions and most frequently sporadic in nature. Some polyp subtypes are associated with rare hereditary polyposis syndromes, including juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and Cowden syndrome. However, many sporadic benign lesions of the gastrointestinal tract can mimic some of these syndromic hamartomatous polyps. Read More

    If it is Not a Glioblastoma, Then What is it? A Differential Diagnostic Review.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Nov;24(6):379-391
    Department of Pathology/Neuropathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR.
    As its historical name glioblastoma multiforme implies, glioblastoma is a histologically diverse, World Health Organization grade IV astrocytic neoplasm. In spite of its simple definition of presence of vascular proliferation and/or necrosis in a diffuse astrocytoma, the wide variety of cytohistomorphologic appearances overlap with many other neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions. Here, after a brief review of glioblastoma is provided, the differential diagnostic possibilities with an emphasis on mimics and pitfalls are discussed. Read More

    Epigenetic Alterations in Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Nov;24(6):362-371
    *Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania †University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
    Human malignancies are driven by heritable alterations that lead to unchecked cellular proliferation, invasive growth and distant spread. Heritable changes can arise from changes in DNA sequence, or, alternatively, through altered gene expression rooted in epigenetic mechanisms. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing of tumor genomes has revealed a central role for mutations in epigenetic regulatory complexes in oncogenic processes. Read More

    Importance of PCR-based Tumor Testing in the Evaluation of Lynch Syndrome-associated Endometrial Cancer.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Nov;24(6):372-378
    *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR †Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, usually MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. The most common cancers associated with LS are colorectal adenocarcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. Identification of women with LS-associated endometrial cancer is important, as these women and their affected siblings and children are at-risk of developing these same cancers. Read More

    The New Realization About Cribriform Prostate Cancer.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2018 Jan;25(1):31-37
    Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Data from the past 6 years have shown that the presence of any amount of cribriform (or more comprehensively, large acinar cribriform to papillary) pattern of invasive prostate cancer is associated with adverse pathologic features and leads to uniquely adverse outcomes. Sixteen papers and numerous abstracts have reached these conclusions concordantly. Not only does this justify removal of all cribriform cancer from Gleason grade 3, it shows that cribriform cancer has pathologic, outcome, and molecular features distinct from noncribriform Gleason grade 4. Read More

    Surgical Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Practical Implications of Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity for Precision Medicine.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Nov;24(6):336-353
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.
    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, exhibits diverse histologic and clinical manifestations. With its putative origin in the gastrointestinal pacemaker cell of Cajal, GIST can arise in association with any portion of the tubular gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, GISTs are classified as spindled or epithelioid, though each of these subtypes encompasses a broad spectrum of microscopic appearances, many of which mimic other histologic entities. Read More

    Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumors of the Uterus: An Update on Classification, Definitions, and Differential Diagnosis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Nov;24(6):354-361
    *The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Ottawa †Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Tumors with a predominant myxoid stroma are rare in the uterus. When encountered, however, they pose a diagnostic challenge. Traditionally myxoid leiomyosarcoma has been the most important consideration in this category, given its adverse prognosis and deceptively bland morphology. Read More

    Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Nov;24(6):311-335
    Departments of *Pathology §§§Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne †The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology Departments of **Pathology ∥∥Medicine, University of Melbourne ¶¶Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville #Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy ††Department of Medical Oncology, Austin Health ‡‡Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Heidelberg §§School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Bundoora §§§§§Centre for Clinical Research and School of Medicine, The University of Queensland ∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane §§§§§§§§§§The Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Australian Clinical Labs, Bella Vista ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Directorate of Surgical Pathology, SA Pathology §§§§§§§§§§§§Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia ***********Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute †††††††††††††Department of Pathology ##Divisions of Diagnostic Oncology & Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ###Université Paris-Est ****INSERM, UMR 955 ††††Département de pathologie, APHP, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Créteil ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Service de Biostatistique et d'Epidémiologie, Gustave Roussy, CESP, Inserm U1018, Université-Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶INSERM Unit U981, and Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif ##########Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre †††††††Department of Surgical Pathology and Biopathology, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡University of Auvergne UMR1240, Clermont-Ferrand, France ‡‡‡‡Department of Medicine, Clinical Division of Oncology §§§§Institute of Neurology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna ††††††††††††††Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Austria ∥∥∥∥European Institute of Oncology ¶¶¶¶School of Medicine ######Department of Pathology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova #############Medical Oncology 2, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy †††††Molecular Oncology Group, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona †††††††††††Pathology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, UAM, Madrid, Spain §Department of Pathology and TCRU, GZA ¶¶¶Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Antwerp ∥Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium ¶Department of Pathology, AZ Klina, Brasschaat ††††††Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk ∥∥∥Molecular Immunology Unit ‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles ‡Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory/Breast International Group, Institut Jules Bordet **************European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Headquarters *******Department of Pathology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium §§§§§§§Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical School, Hirakata, Japan #######Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Department of Medical Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Tumor Pathology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Pathology and Tissue Analytics, Roche Innovation Centre Munich, Penzberg †††††††††Institute of Pathology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡VMscope GmbH, Berlin ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶German Breast Group GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany **********Trev & Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency ††††††††††Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria Departments of ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Medical Genetics #########Pathology and Laboratory Medicine ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ###########Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada §§§§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Lifespan Medical Center §§§§§§§§Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence ¶¶¶¶¶National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations Center/NRG Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA †††Breast Cancer Research Program, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Departments of ‡‡‡Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology ########Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre *********Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville §§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Centre, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Montefiore Medical Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY ********Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital #####Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center ******Harvard Medical School ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ††††††††Department of Cancer Biology ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO ‡‡‡‡‡Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL ∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN ¶¶¶¶¶¶Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network, Central Laboratory and Program in Immunology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA ††††††††††††Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Centre ############New York University Medical School *************Perlmutter Cancer Center §§§§§§§§§§§§§Pulmonary Pathology, New York University Center for Biospecimen Research and Development, New York University ***************Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center ####Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY *****Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Department, Stanford University Medical Centre, Stanford ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto ***Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego §§§§§§§§§§§§§§Research Pathology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA *************Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Translational Sciences, MedImmune, Gaithersberg, MD §§§§§§Academic Medical Innovation, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover ##############Translational Medicine, Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ.
    Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. Read More

    Assessing Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method From the International Immunooncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 1: Assessing the Host Immune Response, TILs in Invasive Breast Carcinoma and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Metastatic Tumor Deposits and Areas for Further Research.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):235-251
    Departments of *Pathology §§§Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne †The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology Departments of **Pathology ∥∥Medicine, University of Melbourne ¶¶Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville #Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy ††Department of Medical Oncology, Austin Health ‡‡Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Heidelberg §§School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Bundoora §§§§§Centre for Clinical Research and School of Medicine, The University of Queensland ∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane §§§§§§§§§§The Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Australian Clinical Labs, Bella Vista ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Directorate of Surgical Pathology, SA Pathology §§§§§§§§§§§§Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia ***********Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute †††††††††††††Department of Pathology ##Divisions of Diagnostic Oncology & Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ###Université Paris-Est ****INSERM, UMR 955 ††††Département de pathologie, APHP, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Créteil ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Service de Biostatistique et d'Epidémiologie, Gustave Roussy, CESP, Inserm U1018, Université-Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶INSERM Unit U981, and Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif ##########Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre †††††††Department of Surgical Pathology and Biopathology, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡University of Auvergne UMR1240, Clermont-Ferrand, France ‡‡‡‡Department of Medicine, Clinical Division of Oncology §§§§Institute of Neurology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna ††††††††††††††Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Austria ∥∥∥∥European Institute of Oncology ¶¶¶¶School of Medicine ######Department of Pathology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova #############Medical Oncology 2, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy †††††Molecular Oncology Group, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona †††††††††††Pathology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, UAM, Madrid, Spain §Department of Pathology and TCRU, GZA ¶¶¶Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Antwerp ∥Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium ¶Department of Pathology, AZ Klina, Brasschaat ††††††Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk ∥∥∥Molecular Immunology Unit ‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles ‡Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory/Breast International Group, Institut Jules Bordet **************European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Headquarters *******Department of Pathology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium §§§§§§§Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical School, Hirakata, Japan #######Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Department of Medical Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Tumor Pathology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Pathology and Tissue Analytics, Roche Innovation Centre Munich, Penzberg †††††††††Institute of Pathology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡VMscope GmbH, Berlin ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶German Breast Group GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany **********Trev & Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency ††††††††††Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria Departments of ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Medical Genetics #########Pathology and Laboratory Medicine ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ###########Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada §§§§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Lifespan Medical Center §§§§§§§§Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence ¶¶¶¶¶National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations Center/NRG Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA †††Breast Cancer Research Program, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Departments of ‡‡‡Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology ########Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre *********Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville §§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Centre, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Montefiore Medical Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY ********Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital #####Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center ******Harvard Medical School ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ††††††††Department of Cancer Biology ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO ‡‡‡‡‡Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL ∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN ¶¶¶¶¶¶Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network, Central Laboratory and Program in Immunology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA ††††††††††††Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Centre ############New York University Medical School *************Perlmutter Cancer Center §§§§§§§§§§§§§Pulmonary Pathology, New York University Center for Biospecimen Research and Development, New York University ***************Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center ####Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY *****Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Department, Stanford University Medical Centre, Stanford ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto ***Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego §§§§§§§§§§§§§§Research Pathology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA *************Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Translational Sciences, MedImmune, Gaithersberg, MD §§§§§§Academic Medical Innovation, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover ##############Translational Medicine, Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ.
    Assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in histopathologic specimens can provide important prognostic information in diverse solid tumor types, and may also be of value in predicting response to treatments. However, implementation as a routine clinical biomarker has not yet been achieved. As successful use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and other forms of immunotherapy become a clinical reality, the need for widely applicable, accessible, and reliable immunooncology biomarkers is clear. Read More

    Cytologic-Histologic Discrepancies in Pathology of the Uterine Cervix: Analysis of the Clinical and Pathologic Factors.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):304-309
    Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH.
    Cytologic-histologic correlation (CHC) represents a documented effort to obtain and compare, when available, gynecologic cytology reports with an interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, with the subsequent histopathology report, and to determine the possible cause of any discrepancy. The correlation is influenced by multiple closely interdependent clinical and pathologic factors. Many of these factors including the sensitivity and accuracy of colposcopy-directed biopsy, the diligence of the colposcopist, and the attributes of the cervical lesion represent "preanalytical" factors which can significantly affect the CHC outcome, but are often less emphasized during CHC process. Read More

    The Molecular Landscape of Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-like Nuclear Features (NIFTP): A Literature Review.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):252-258
    *Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa †Unit of Pathological Anatomy, 3rd Division, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy ‡Department of Pathology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK §Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
    The encapsulated and noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has been recently reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). These tumors demonstrate indolent behavior. This change in nomenclature will have great clinical impact by avoiding overtreatment of patients with NIFTP lesions who in the past were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma and typically received completion thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation. Read More

    Social Media and Pathology: Where Are We Now and Why Does it Matter?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):294-303
    *Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL †Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.
    Social media has exploded in popularity in recent years. It is a powerful new tool for networking, collaborating, and for the communication and evolution of ideas. It has been increasingly used for business purposes and is now being embraced by physicians including pathologists. Read More

    Lichenoid Dermatitis of the Vulva: Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis for the Gynecologic Pathologist.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):278-293
    *ProPath Dermatopathology, Dallas, TX †Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.
    Inflammatory processes affecting the vulva may present a unique challenge due to location specific changes. Different factors are behind the intricacy in the presentation of vulvar dermatoses. First, the vulva is lined by different epithelia (hair-bearing keratinized epithelium, modified mucosa, and mucosa). Read More

    What is New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):259-267
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    The classification "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" (GIST) became commonplace in the 1990s and since that time various advances have characterized the GIST lineage of origin, tyrosine kinase mutations, and mechanisms of response and resistance to targeted therapies. In addition to tyrosine kinase mutations and their constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways, GISTs acquire a sequence of chromosomal aberrations. These include deletions of chromosomes 14q, 22q, 1p, and 15q, which harbor putative tumor suppressor genes required for stepwise progression from microscopic, preclinical forms of GIST (microGIST) to clinically relevant tumors with malignant potential. Read More

    Current Valuation of Pathology Service.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):222-225
    *Department of Pathology, Robert J Tomsich Institute of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH †Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC ‡College of American Pathologists, Washington, DC §Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Health care reform has accelerated as the existing health care system undergoes continuing financial stress. Medicare's new value-based payment system, commonly referred to as MACRA, provides opportunities for physicians to participate in this new system in a variety of ways. However, many of the value-based adjustments are based on existing valuations of services through traditional mechanisms. Read More

    Clinical Applications of Whole-slide Imaging in Anatomic Pathology.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):215-221
    Laboratory Medicine Program, Department of Pathology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    The development of whole-slide imaging has paved the way for digitizing of glass slides that are the basis for surgical pathology. This transformative technology has changed the landscape in research applications and education but despite its tremendous potential, its adoption for clinical use has been slow. We review the various niche applications that initiated awareness of this technology, provide examples of clinical use cases, and discuss the requirements and challenges for full adoption in clinical diagnosis. Read More

    Role of Human Papillomavirus in Vulvar Cancer.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):201-214
    Departments of *Pathology †Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínic ‡Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona §ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in one of the at least 2 pathways leading to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma by the viral products E6 and E7 is involved in malignant transformation. The percentage of HPV-positive VSCCs ranges from 18% to 75%, depending on the geographical area. Read More

    Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Review of the Eighth Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Guidelines, Prognostic Factors, and Histopathologic Variants.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):171-194
    *Department of Dermatology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL †Miraca Life Sciences Research Institute, Irving, TX ‡Miraca Life Sciences Research Institute, Newton, and Department of Dermatology at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA.
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma and accounts for the majority of nonmelanoma skin cancer-related deaths. In 2017, the American Joint Committee on Cancer revised the staging guidelines of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to reflect recent evidence concerning high-risk clinicopathologic features. This update reviews the literature on prognostic features and staging, including the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual. Read More

    Pathophysiology of ANCA-associated Vasculitis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):226-234
    Departments of *Pathology and Laboratory Medicine †Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is characterized as inflammation of small-sized to medium-sized blood vessels and encompasses several clinicopathologic entities including granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitis. Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Although neutrophils contain a multitude of granular proteins, clinically significant autoantibodies are only recognized against myeloperoxidase and proteinase 3, both of which are present in the azurophilic granules. Read More

    S100P as a Marker for Urothelial Histogenesis: A Critical Review and Comparison With Novel and Traditional Urothelial Immunohistochemical Markers.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 May;24(3):151-160
    *Department of Laboratory and Transfusion Services, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Research Institute, Delhi, India †Department of Pathological Anatomy, San Carlos Hospital Clinic/Complutense University, Madrid, Spain §Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy ‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA ∥Departments of Pathology and Urology, VCU School of Medicine, Richmond, VA ¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.
    S100P, or placental S100, is a member of a large family of S100 proteins and considered to be a promising immunohistochemical marker to support urothelial differentiation. This review synthesizes published data regarding the expression of S100P in urothelial carcinoma across histological grade and variant patterns, and in other malignancies, in an effort to summarize the state of understanding of this marker and evaluate its potential. We provide also a broad comparison of S100P with other contemporary and traditional urothelial markers and outline the potential utility of S100P in various diagnostically challenging scenarios. Read More

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