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    742 results match your criteria Advances in Anatomic Pathology[Journal]

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    New Developments in the Molecular Mechanisms of Pancreatic Tumorigenesis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a dismal prognosis in dire need of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of data on the genetic alterations that occur in pancreatic cancer, as comprehensive next-generation sequencing analyses have been performed on samples from large cohorts of patients. These studies have defined the genomic landscape of this disease and identified novel candidates whose mutations contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis. Read More

    There Are No Magic Bullets in Hematopathology: Even Immunostains for CD20 and CD3 Can Get You Into Trouble.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    *Massachusetts General Hospital, James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories of the Massachusetts General Hospital †Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Immunohistochemistry is a powerful tool for the diagnosis and subclassification of hematolymphoid neoplasms. However, the expression of certain markers is not always as expected, and unusual patterns of staining can lead to misdiagnosis. CD20 and CD3 are our most commonly used markers for identification of B cells and T cells, respectively, and they almost always yield reliable, specific staining. Read More

    Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome: Moving Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    The recent implementation of next generation sequencing and multigene platforms has expanded the spectrum of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, beyond the traditional genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. A large number of other moderate penetrance genes have now been uncovered, which also play critical roles in repairing double stranded DNA breaks through the homologous recombination pathway. This review discusses the landmark discoveries of BRCA1 and BRCA2, the homologous repair pathway and new genes discovered in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, as well as their clinicopathologic significance and implications for genetic testing. Read More

    The Role of the Surgical Pathologist in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    *The School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld †Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Carlton, Vic., Australia.
    Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are very common lesions and most frequently sporadic in nature. Some polyp subtypes are associated with rare hereditary polyposis syndromes, including juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and Cowden syndrome. However, many sporadic benign lesions of the gastrointestinal tract can mimic some of these syndromic hamartomatous polyps. Read More

    If it is Not a Glioblastoma, Then What is it? A Differential Diagnostic Review.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Pathology/Neuropathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR.
    As its historical name glioblastoma multiforme implies, glioblastoma is a histologically diverse, World Health Organization grade IV astrocytic neoplasm. In spite of its simple definition of presence of vascular proliferation and/or necrosis in a diffuse astrocytoma, the wide variety of cytohistomorphologic appearances overlap with many other neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions. Here, after a brief review of glioblastoma is provided, the differential diagnostic possibilities with an emphasis on mimics and pitfalls are discussed. Read More

    Epigenetic Alterations in Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    *Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania †University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
    Human malignancies are driven by heritable alterations that lead to unchecked cellular proliferation, invasive growth and distant spread. Heritable changes can arise from changes in DNA sequence, or, alternatively, through altered gene expression rooted in epigenetic mechanisms. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing of tumor genomes has revealed a central role for mutations in epigenetic regulatory complexes in oncogenic processes. Read More

    Importance of PCR-based Tumor Testing in the Evaluation of Lynch Syndrome-associated Endometrial Cancer.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR †Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Lynch syndrome (LS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, usually MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. The most common cancers associated with LS are colorectal adenocarcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. Identification of women with LS-associated endometrial cancer is important, as these women and their affected siblings and children are at-risk of developing these same cancers. Read More

    The New Realization About Cribriform Prostate Cancer.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    *Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI †Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL ‡Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Data from the past 6 years have shown that the presence of any amount of cribriform (or more comprehensively, large acinar cribriform to papillary) pattern of invasive prostate cancer is associated with adverse pathologic features and leads to uniquely adverse outcomes. Sixteen papers and numerous abstracts have reached these conclusions concordantly. Not only does this justify removal of all cribriform cancer from Gleason grade 3, it shows that cribriform cancer has pathologic, outcome, and molecular features distinct from noncribriform Gleason grade 4. Read More

    Surgical Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Practical Implications of Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity for Precision Medicine.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.
    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, exhibits diverse histologic and clinical manifestations. With its putative origin in the gastrointestinal pacemaker cell of Cajal, GIST can arise in association with any portion of the tubular gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, GISTs are classified as spindled or epithelioid, though each of these subtypes encompasses a broad spectrum of microscopic appearances, many of which mimic other histologic entities. Read More

    Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumors of the Uterus: An Update on Classification, Definitions, and Differential Diagnosis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    *The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Ottawa †Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Tumors with a predominant myxoid stroma are rare in the uterus. When encountered, however, they pose a diagnostic challenge. Traditionally myxoid leiomyosarcoma has been the most important consideration in this category, given its adverse prognosis and deceptively bland morphology. Read More

    Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Departments of *Pathology §§§Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne †The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology Departments of **Pathology ∥∥Medicine, University of Melbourne ¶¶Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville #Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy ††Department of Medical Oncology, Austin Health ‡‡Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Heidelberg §§School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Bundoora §§§§§Centre for Clinical Research and School of Medicine, The University of Queensland ∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane §§§§§§§§§§The Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Australian Clinical Labs, Bella Vista ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Directorate of Surgical Pathology, SA Pathology §§§§§§§§§§§§Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia ***********Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute †††††††††††††Department of Pathology ##Divisions of Diagnostic Oncology & Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ###Université Paris-Est ****INSERM, UMR 955 ††††Département de pathologie, APHP, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Créteil ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Service de Biostatistique et d'Epidémiologie, Gustave Roussy, CESP, Inserm U1018, Université-Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶INSERM Unit U981, and Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif ##########Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre †††††††Department of Surgical Pathology and Biopathology, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡University of Auvergne UMR1240, Clermont-Ferrand, France ‡‡‡‡Department of Medicine, Clinical Division of Oncology §§§§Institute of Neurology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna ††††††††††††††Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Austria ∥∥∥∥European Institute of Oncology ¶¶¶¶School of Medicine ######Department of Pathology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova #############Medical Oncology 2, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy †††††Molecular Oncology Group, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona †††††††††††Pathology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, UAM, Madrid, Spain §Department of Pathology and TCRU, GZA ¶¶¶Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Antwerp ∥Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium ¶Department of Pathology, AZ Klina, Brasschaat ††††††Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk ∥∥∥Molecular Immunology Unit ‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles ‡Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory/Breast International Group, Institut Jules Bordet **************European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Headquarters *******Department of Pathology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium §§§§§§§Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical School, Hirakata, Japan #######Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Department of Medical Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Tumor Pathology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Pathology and Tissue Analytics, Roche Innovation Centre Munich, Penzberg †††††††††Institute of Pathology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡VMscope GmbH, Berlin ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶German Breast Group GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany **********Trev & Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency ††††††††††Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria Departments of ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Medical Genetics #########Pathology and Laboratory Medicine ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ###########Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada §§§§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Lifespan Medical Center §§§§§§§§Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence ¶¶¶¶¶National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations Center/NRG Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA †††Breast Cancer Research Program, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Departments of ‡‡‡Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology ########Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre *********Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville §§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Centre, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Montefiore Medical Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY ********Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital #####Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center ******Harvard Medical School ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ††††††††Department of Cancer Biology ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO ‡‡‡‡‡Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL ∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN ¶¶¶¶¶¶Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network, Central Laboratory and Program in Immunology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA ††††††††††††Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Centre ############New York University Medical School *************Perlmutter Cancer Center §§§§§§§§§§§§§Pulmonary Pathology, New York University Center for Biospecimen Research and Development, New York University ***************Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center ####Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY *****Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Department, Stanford University Medical Centre, Stanford ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto ***Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego §§§§§§§§§§§§§§Research Pathology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA *************Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Translational Sciences, MedImmune, Gaithersberg, MD §§§§§§Academic Medical Innovation, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover ##############Translational Medicine, Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ.
    Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. Read More

    Assessing Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method From the International Immunooncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 1: Assessing the Host Immune Response, TILs in Invasive Breast Carcinoma and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Metastatic Tumor Deposits and Areas for Further Research.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):235-251
    Departments of *Pathology §§§Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne †The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology Departments of **Pathology ∥∥Medicine, University of Melbourne ¶¶Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville #Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy ††Department of Medical Oncology, Austin Health ‡‡Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Heidelberg §§School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Bundoora §§§§§Centre for Clinical Research and School of Medicine, The University of Queensland ∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane §§§§§§§§§§The Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Australian Clinical Labs, Bella Vista ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Directorate of Surgical Pathology, SA Pathology §§§§§§§§§§§§Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia ***********Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute †††††††††††††Department of Pathology ##Divisions of Diagnostic Oncology & Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ###Université Paris-Est ****INSERM, UMR 955 ††††Département de pathologie, APHP, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Créteil ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Service de Biostatistique et d'Epidémiologie, Gustave Roussy, CESP, Inserm U1018, Université-Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶INSERM Unit U981, and Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif ##########Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre †††††††Department of Surgical Pathology and Biopathology, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡University of Auvergne UMR1240, Clermont-Ferrand, France ‡‡‡‡Department of Medicine, Clinical Division of Oncology §§§§Institute of Neurology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna ††††††††††††††Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Austria ∥∥∥∥European Institute of Oncology ¶¶¶¶School of Medicine ######Department of Pathology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova #############Medical Oncology 2, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy †††††Molecular Oncology Group, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona †††††††††††Pathology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, UAM, Madrid, Spain §Department of Pathology and TCRU, GZA ¶¶¶Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Antwerp ∥Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium ¶Department of Pathology, AZ Klina, Brasschaat ††††††Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk ∥∥∥Molecular Immunology Unit ‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles ‡Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory/Breast International Group, Institut Jules Bordet **************European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Headquarters *******Department of Pathology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium §§§§§§§Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical School, Hirakata, Japan #######Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Department of Medical Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Tumor Pathology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Pathology and Tissue Analytics, Roche Innovation Centre Munich, Penzberg †††††††††Institute of Pathology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡VMscope GmbH, Berlin ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶German Breast Group GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany **********Trev & Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency ††††††††††Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria Departments of ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Medical Genetics #########Pathology and Laboratory Medicine ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ###########Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada §§§§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Lifespan Medical Center §§§§§§§§Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence ¶¶¶¶¶National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations Center/NRG Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA †††Breast Cancer Research Program, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Departments of ‡‡‡Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology ########Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre *********Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville §§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Centre, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Montefiore Medical Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY ********Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital #####Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center ******Harvard Medical School ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ††††††††Department of Cancer Biology ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO ‡‡‡‡‡Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL ∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN ¶¶¶¶¶¶Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network, Central Laboratory and Program in Immunology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA ††††††††††††Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Centre ############New York University Medical School *************Perlmutter Cancer Center §§§§§§§§§§§§§Pulmonary Pathology, New York University Center for Biospecimen Research and Development, New York University ***************Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center ####Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY *****Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Department, Stanford University Medical Centre, Stanford ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto ***Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego §§§§§§§§§§§§§§Research Pathology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA *************Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Translational Sciences, MedImmune, Gaithersberg, MD §§§§§§Academic Medical Innovation, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover ##############Translational Medicine, Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ.
    Assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in histopathologic specimens can provide important prognostic information in diverse solid tumor types, and may also be of value in predicting response to treatments. However, implementation as a routine clinical biomarker has not yet been achieved. As successful use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and other forms of immunotherapy become a clinical reality, the need for widely applicable, accessible, and reliable immunooncology biomarkers is clear. Read More

    Cytologic-Histologic Discrepancies in Pathology of the Uterine Cervix: Analysis of the Clinical and Pathologic Factors.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):304-309
    Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH.
    Cytologic-histologic correlation (CHC) represents a documented effort to obtain and compare, when available, gynecologic cytology reports with an interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, with the subsequent histopathology report, and to determine the possible cause of any discrepancy. The correlation is influenced by multiple closely interdependent clinical and pathologic factors. Many of these factors including the sensitivity and accuracy of colposcopy-directed biopsy, the diligence of the colposcopist, and the attributes of the cervical lesion represent "preanalytical" factors which can significantly affect the CHC outcome, but are often less emphasized during CHC process. Read More

    The Molecular Landscape of Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-like Nuclear Features (NIFTP): A Literature Review.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):252-258
    *Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa †Unit of Pathological Anatomy, 3rd Division, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy ‡Department of Pathology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK §Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
    The encapsulated and noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has been recently reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). These tumors demonstrate indolent behavior. This change in nomenclature will have great clinical impact by avoiding overtreatment of patients with NIFTP lesions who in the past were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma and typically received completion thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation. Read More

    Social Media and Pathology: Where Are We Now and Why Does it Matter?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):294-303
    *Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL †Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.
    Social media has exploded in popularity in recent years. It is a powerful new tool for networking, collaborating, and for the communication and evolution of ideas. It has been increasingly used for business purposes and is now being embraced by physicians including pathologists. Read More

    Lichenoid Dermatitis of the Vulva: Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis for the Gynecologic Pathologist.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):278-293
    *ProPath Dermatopathology, Dallas, TX †Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.
    Inflammatory processes affecting the vulva may present a unique challenge due to location specific changes. Different factors are behind the intricacy in the presentation of vulvar dermatoses. First, the vulva is lined by different epithelia (hair-bearing keratinized epithelium, modified mucosa, and mucosa). Read More

    What is New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):259-267
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    The classification "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" (GIST) became commonplace in the 1990s and since that time various advances have characterized the GIST lineage of origin, tyrosine kinase mutations, and mechanisms of response and resistance to targeted therapies. In addition to tyrosine kinase mutations and their constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways, GISTs acquire a sequence of chromosomal aberrations. These include deletions of chromosomes 14q, 22q, 1p, and 15q, which harbor putative tumor suppressor genes required for stepwise progression from microscopic, preclinical forms of GIST (microGIST) to clinically relevant tumors with malignant potential. Read More

    Current Valuation of Pathology Service.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):222-225
    *Department of Pathology, Robert J Tomsich Institute of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH †Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC ‡College of American Pathologists, Washington, DC §Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Health care reform has accelerated as the existing health care system undergoes continuing financial stress. Medicare's new value-based payment system, commonly referred to as MACRA, provides opportunities for physicians to participate in this new system in a variety of ways. However, many of the value-based adjustments are based on existing valuations of services through traditional mechanisms. Read More

    Clinical Applications of Whole-slide Imaging in Anatomic Pathology.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):215-221
    Laboratory Medicine Program, Department of Pathology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    The development of whole-slide imaging has paved the way for digitizing of glass slides that are the basis for surgical pathology. This transformative technology has changed the landscape in research applications and education but despite its tremendous potential, its adoption for clinical use has been slow. We review the various niche applications that initiated awareness of this technology, provide examples of clinical use cases, and discuss the requirements and challenges for full adoption in clinical diagnosis. Read More

    Role of Human Papillomavirus in Vulvar Cancer.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):201-214
    Departments of *Pathology †Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínic ‡Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona §ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in one of the at least 2 pathways leading to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma by the viral products E6 and E7 is involved in malignant transformation. The percentage of HPV-positive VSCCs ranges from 18% to 75%, depending on the geographical area. Read More

    Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Review of the Eighth Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Guidelines, Prognostic Factors, and Histopathologic Variants.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):171-194
    *Department of Dermatology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL †Miraca Life Sciences Research Institute, Irving, TX ‡Miraca Life Sciences Research Institute, Newton, and Department of Dermatology at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA.
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma and accounts for the majority of nonmelanoma skin cancer-related deaths. In 2017, the American Joint Committee on Cancer revised the staging guidelines of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to reflect recent evidence concerning high-risk clinicopathologic features. This update reviews the literature on prognostic features and staging, including the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual. Read More

    Pathophysiology of ANCA-associated Vasculitis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):226-234
    Departments of *Pathology and Laboratory Medicine †Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is characterized as inflammation of small-sized to medium-sized blood vessels and encompasses several clinicopathologic entities including granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitis. Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Although neutrophils contain a multitude of granular proteins, clinically significant autoantibodies are only recognized against myeloperoxidase and proteinase 3, both of which are present in the azurophilic granules. Read More

    S100P as a Marker for Urothelial Histogenesis: A Critical Review and Comparison With Novel and Traditional Urothelial Immunohistochemical Markers.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 May;24(3):151-160
    *Department of Laboratory and Transfusion Services, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Research Institute, Delhi, India †Department of Pathological Anatomy, San Carlos Hospital Clinic/Complutense University, Madrid, Spain §Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy ‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA ∥Departments of Pathology and Urology, VCU School of Medicine, Richmond, VA ¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.
    S100P, or placental S100, is a member of a large family of S100 proteins and considered to be a promising immunohistochemical marker to support urothelial differentiation. This review synthesizes published data regarding the expression of S100P in urothelial carcinoma across histological grade and variant patterns, and in other malignancies, in an effort to summarize the state of understanding of this marker and evaluate its potential. We provide also a broad comparison of S100P with other contemporary and traditional urothelial markers and outline the potential utility of S100P in various diagnostically challenging scenarios. Read More

    Vulvar and Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Terminology, Diagnosis, and Ancillary Studies.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 May;24(3):136-150
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.
    Currently, it is recognized that there is an HPV-related and an HPV-independent pathway to developing squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the anus and vulva. The majority of precursor lesions and SCC in the anus and vulva are high-risk HPV-associated, with HPV16 the most common type. Given the morphologic overlap and biological equivalence of HPV-related preinvasive squamous lesions of the lower anogenital tract, a unified, 2-tiered histopathologic nomenclature is now recommended. Read More

    Challenges in Pathologic Staging of Bladder Cancer: Proposals for Fresh Approaches of Assessing Pathologic Stage in Light of Recent Studies and Observations Pertaining to Bladder Histoanatomic Variances.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 May;24(3):113-127
    *Department of Pathology and Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL ‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN †Section of Pathological Anatomy, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, Ancona, Italy.
    The paradigm of pathologic stage (pT) categorization in bladder cancer remains the depth of invasion into the different histologic layers of the bladder wall. However, the approaches to assigning pT stage category toward an enhanced outcome stratification have been marked by challenges and innovations, due in part to our growing appreciation of the surprisingly perplexing bladder histoanatomy. Upstaging of pT1 tumors after radical cystectomy is substantial and underscores the potential value of pT1 substaging in transurethral resection (TUR) specimens. Read More

    Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumor, Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor, and Myxoinflammatory Fibroblastic Sarcoma: Related or Not?
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Sep;24(5):268-277
    Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor is an unusual, distinctive soft tissue neoplasm with locally recurring potential, which most commonly occurs in the ankle and foot. Morphologic evidence strongly suggests that hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor is related to another rare, locally aggressive tumor of the distal extremities, pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, with areas identical to hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor seen at the periphery in most if not all pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor. This morphologic evidence is further supported by molecular genetic data, showing recurrent TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements in both hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor and pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor. Read More

    Differential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Larynx.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 May;24(3):161-168
    *Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR ‡Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal †International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua §ENT Service, University of Udine School of Medicine, Udine, Italy ∥Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University in Prague, Plzen, Czech Republic ¶Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen #Department of Pathology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands **Department of Anatomic Pathology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal neoplasms. The prognosis and treatment are also different among these tumor types, which necessitates making these distinctions clinically. Read More

    Perspectives on Low-grade Sarcomas: The Extraordinary Contributions of Sharon W. Weiss, MD.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jul;24(4):195-200
    *Department of Pathology, MetroHealth Medical Center/Case Western Reserve University †Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.
    Soft-tissue pathology encompasses a wide spectrum of neoplasms that represent some of the most challenging and problematic tumors in surgical pathology. Owing to the intensive work of dedicated pathologists, this once esoteric field has become increasingly well defined. In this review, Dr Sharon Weiss' monumental contributions to low-grade sarcomas, including low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma/so-called hyalinizing spindle cell tumor, atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with fibrosarcomatous transformation will be discussed. Read More

    Pediatric-type Follicular Lymphoma and Pediatric Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma: Recent Clinical, Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Genetic Insights.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 May;24(3):128-135
    *Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles †Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA.
    Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma and pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma are 2 of the rarest B-cell lymphomas. Although they are both predominantly seen in children, they can manifest in the adult population as well. Our understanding of these lymphomas has advanced rapidly in recent years such that we not only have a firm grasp of the morphologic and immunophenotypic findings, but also have a deeper insight into critical genetic and molecular pathways of these diseases. Read More

    Immunohistochemistry and Special Stains in Medical Liver Pathology.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Mar;24(2):99-109
    *Department of Pathology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK †Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Histochemical and immunostains are routinely used to evaluate medical liver biopsy specimens. The use of these special stains allows the identification of more clinically important information than is available on hematoxylin and eosin stains alone. These special stains are important for evaluating active and chronic injury and for establishing a specific diagnosis. Read More

    Perineural Pseudoinvasion: An Unusual Phenomenon in Nonmalignancies.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Mar;24(2):88-98
    Departments of *Pathology ‡Nutrition, Faculty of Health §English Language, Faculty of Medicine †Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
    Perineural invasion (PNI) is characterized as tumoral or nontumoral cells invading in or around the nerves. The neural invasion is considered as a histopathologic characteristic for malignancy and is considered a mechanism for its spread. Both of these patterns usually portend a poor prognosis and very often are markers to prompt additional treatment. Read More

    Can the Misinterpretation Amendment Rate Be Used as a Measure of Interpretive Error in Anatomic Pathology?: Implications of a Survey of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Mar;24(2):82-87
    *Department of Pathology at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT & Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT †University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA ‡University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI §Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL ∥University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
    A repeat survey of the Association of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology, done 10 years after the original was used to assess trends and variability in classifying scenarios as errors, and the preferred post signout report modification for correcting error by the membership of the Association of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology. The results were analyzed to inform on whether interpretive amendment rates might act as surrogate measures of interpretive error in pathology. An analyses of the responses indicated that primary level misinterpretations (benign to malignant and vice versa) were universally qualified as error; secondary-level misinterpretations or misclassifications were inconsistently labeled error. Read More

    Clinicopathologic and Molecular Pathology of Collecting Duct Carcinoma and Related Renal Cell Carcinomas.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Mar;24(2):65-77
    *Department of Pathology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea †Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston, TX.
    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) and related tumors [ie, renal medullary carcinoma (RMC)] are rare types of highly aggressive renal cell carcinomas (RCC) with poor prognosis. Because of the rarity and diagnostic uncertainty of them, their molecular pathology and significance have not yet been fully elucidated. CDC, RMC, fumarate hydratase-deficient RCC (including hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC-associated RCC HLRCC-RCC), and recently reported anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearrangement RCC have significant morphologic overlaps, but they are separately distinct entities having different molecular pathway and clinical settings. Read More

    Metastatic Organotropism: An Intrinsic Property of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Mar;24(2):78-81
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
    It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone. Read More

    Pathophysiology of IgA Nephropathy.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):56-62
    Departments of *Pathology and Laboratory Medicine †Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy is the most prevalent primary chronic glomerular disease in the world. Studies of molecular and cellular interactions involved in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy have revealed several inherent abnormalities in the production and subsequent handling of IgA1. In patients with this disease, altered glycan structures in the unique hinge region of the heavy chains of IgA1 molecules lead to the exposure of antigenic determinants, which are recognized by naturally occurring antiglycan antibodies of the IgG and/or IgA1 isotype. Read More

    Cytopathology of Follicular Cell Nodules.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):45-55
    *Division of Anatomic Pathology and Histology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy †Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP), Porto, Portugal ‡Department of Pathology, Laboratoire National de Santé, Dudelange, Luxembourg.
    The detection of thyroid nodules, consisting of different diseases, represents a common finding in population. Their evaluation and diagnosis are mostly achieved with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Even though the majority of thyroid nodules are correctly diagnosed, a total of 25% to 30% of them are classified "indeterminate" comprising lesions with varying risk of malignancy and different types of management. Read More

    New and Emerging Diagnostic and Prognostic Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Prostate Pathology.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):35-44
    *Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center †Department of Veterans Affairs, Nashville, TN.
    The diagnosis of minimal prostatic adenocarcinoma can be challenging on prostate needle biopsy, and immunohistochemistry may be used to support the diagnosis of cancer. The International Society of Urologic Pathology currently recommends the use of the basal cell markers high-molecular-weight cytokeraratin and p63, and α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase. However, there are caveats associated with the interpretation of these markers, particularly with benign mimickers. Read More

    Primary Salivary Gland Type Tumors of the Thymus.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):15-23
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    The existence of primary salivary gland type tumors (SGTs), similar to those occurring in the major salivary glands, is well known in the thoracic cavity. When they occur in this anatomic area, these tumors more commonly arise from the lung. However, the existence of these tumors primarily affecting the thymus, although recognized in the literature, is rather not well documented or known. Read More

    NF1 and Neurofibromin: Emerging Players in the Genetic Landscape of Desmoplastic Melanoma.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):1-14
    VA Consolidated Laboratories, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dermatopathology Section, West Roxbury, MA.
    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), a monogenic disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, is caused by alterations in the NF1 gene which codes for the protein neurofibromin. Functionally, NF1 is a tumor suppressor as it is GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates the MAPK pathway. More recently, much attention has focused on the role of NF1 and neurofibromin in melanoma as mutations in NF1 have been found to constitute 1 of the 4 distinct genomic categories of melanoma, with the other 3 comprising BRAF, NRAS, and "triple-wild-type" subtypes. Read More

    Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinoma With Large Cystic Growth Configuration and Deceptive Pattern of Invasion Associated With Abundant Nodular Fasciitis-like Stroma: A Unique Hitherto Unreported Histology in Endometrioid Carcinoma.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Nov;23(6):381-384
    *Šikl's Department of Pathology, The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, Charles University, Prague †Bioptická laboratoř, s.r.o., Pilsen, Czech Republic ‡Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncology Institute §Department of Pathology, Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Košice, Slovakia.
    We describe a case of an unusual endometrial endometrioid carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old woman. The tumor involved uterine corpus as well as lower uterine segment and presented as polypoid tumor protruding through the cervical orifice. Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by broad zones of cytologically bland fibromyxoid stroma resembling nodular fasciitis, showing vaguely nodular architecture. Read More

    Basic Molecular Pathology and Cytogenetics for Practicing Pathologists: Correlation With Morphology and With a Focus on Aspects of Diagnostic or Therapeutic Utility.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Nov;23(6):368-380
    *Department of Pathology, North Hospital, University Hospital of St-Etienne, St-Etienne, France †Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Morphology, as confronted in the everyday practice, often correlates with specific molecular features, which have important implications not only in pathogenesis and in diagnosis but also in prognosis and therapy. Thus, it is important that the classical pathology includes a sound knowledge of molecular aspects of disease. These molecular concepts are complex and not easily understood by all engaged in the routine practice of histopathology. Read More

    'Omics Approaches in Breast Cancer Research and Clinical Practice.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Nov;23(6):356-367
    *UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital §School of Medicine, The University of Queensland †QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute ‡Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane Women's Hospital, Herston, Qld, Australia.
    Our understanding of the natural history of breast cancer has evolved alongside technologies to study its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics landscapes. These technologies have helped decipher multiple molecular pathways dysregulated in breast cancer. First-generation 'omics analyses considered each of these dimensions individually, but it is becoming increasingly clear that more holistic, integrative approaches are required to fully understand complex biological systems. Read More

    Starry Sky Pattern in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review of Pathophysiology and Differential Diagnosis.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Nov;23(6):343-355
    *Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX †Department of Pathology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
    The starry sky pattern is a distinctive histologic feature wherein a rapidly proliferating hematolymphoid neoplasm contains scattered histiocytes with abundant pale cytoplasm in a background of monomorphic neoplastic cells. The cytoplasm of these histiocytes typically contains cellular remnants, also known as tingible bodies, incorporated through active phagocytosis. Although common and widely recognized, relatively little is known about the pathophysiological underpinnings of the starry sky pattern. Read More

    Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2017 Jan;24(1):24-34
    Departments of *Pathology and Laboratory Medicine †Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. Read More

    Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Sep;23(5):285-309
    Departments of *Hematopathology †Thoracic Pathology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. Read More

    Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist's Perspective.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Sep;23(5):273-84
    *Department of Pathology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA †Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.
    Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Read More

    Selected Case From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Seminar: Benign Warthin Tumor of the Thyroid.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Sep;23(5):339-42
    *Department of Pathology, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen †Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen and Charles University Hospital Plzen, Pilsen ‡Department of Pathology, Liberec Regional Hospital, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    We report on an exceedingly rare lesion of the thyroid probably of a branchial cleft origin, which was not published in the world literature before. A 58-year-old woman underwent a total thyroidectomy for bilateral goiter. Grossly, there was one yellowish nodule sized 15 mm in the largest dimension found in the right lobe. Read More

    Antineoplastic Treatment and Renal Injury: An Update on Renal Pathology Due to Cytotoxic and Targeted Therapies.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Sep;23(5):310-29
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Cancer patients experience kidney injury from multiple sources, including the tumor itself, diagnostic procedures, hypovolemia, infection, and drug exposure, superimposed upon baseline chronic damage. This review will focus on cytotoxic or targeted chemotherapy-associated renal injury. In this setting, tubulointerstitial injury and thrombotic microangiopathy (vascular injury) are more common than other forms of kidney injury including glomerular. Read More

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