209 results match your criteria Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery[Journal]


Arteries and Veins of the Sylvian Fissure and Insula: Microsurgical Anatomy.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):185-216

Department of Neurosurgery, Rennes Teaching Hospital, Rennes, 35033, France.

We present a vascular anatomical study of the arteries and veins of the sylvian fissure and insula.A good knowledge of the sylvian fissure, the insula, and their vascular relationship would seem mandatory before performing surgery in this area, whatever the type of surgery (aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, insular tumors).We start with the sylvian fissure and insula morphology, followed by the MCA description and its perforators, with special attention paid to the insular perforators. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_7DOI Listing
February 2016
10 Reads

Intracranial Meningiomas: A 30-Year Experience and Literature Review.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):139-84

Department of Neurosurgery, University Clinics of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Arnold Heller Str 3 Hs 41, 24105, Kiel, Germany.

Intracranial meningiomas are tumors arising from the covering cells of the arachnoid layer of the dura mater or from the intraventricular choroid plexus. While mostly benign tumors, they still represent a major challenge to neurosurgeons and other medical disciplines involved in their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Although this review intends to give some state-of-the-art information from the literature, it is mainly based on personal experiences since more than 30 years caring for more than 1500 meningioma patients and point to a few new strategies to further improve on patient outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_6DOI Listing
February 2016
27 Reads

Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Review.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):111-37

Department of Neurosurgery, Sourasky Hospital Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disease, the etiology of which is not entirely clear. It is the most common vascular malformation of the spinal cord, comprising 60-80 % of the cases. The clinical presentation and imaging findings may be nonspecific and misleading, often mistaking it for other entities like demyelinating or degenerative diseases of the spine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_5DOI Listing
February 2016
9 Reads

Clinical Relevance of Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers in Gliomas.

Authors:
Tali Siegal

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):91-108

Center for Neuro-Oncology, Davidoff Institute of Oncology, Rabin Medical Center, Campus Beilinson, Petach Tikva, 49100, Israel.

Sorting and grading of glial tumors by the WHO classification provide clinicians with guidance as to the predicted course of the disease and choice of treatment. Nonetheless, histologically identical tumors may have very different outcome and response to treatment. Molecular markers that carry both diagnostic and prognostic information add useful tools to traditional classification by redefining tumor subtypes within each WHO category. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_4DOI Listing
February 2016
4 Reads

5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of High-Grade Gliomas: A Systematic Review.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):61-90

Department of Neurosurgery, Timone Hospital, Marseille, France.

The current first-line treatment of malignant gliomas consists in surgical resection (if possible) as large as possible. The existing tools don't permit to identify the limits of tumor infiltration, which goes beyond the zone of contrast enhancement on MRI. The fluorescence-guided malignant gliomas surgery was started 15 years ago and had become a standard of care in many countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_3DOI Listing
February 2016
2 Reads

Merits and Limits of Tractography Techniques for the Uninitiated.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):37-60

Department of Neurosurgery, University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, Marburg, 35033, Germany.

The implementation of fiber tracking or tractography modules in commercial navigation systems resulted in a broad availability of visualization possibilities for major white matter tracts in the neurosurgical community. Unfortunately the implemented algorithms and tracking approaches do not represent the state of the art of tractography strategies and may lead to false tracking results. The application of advanced tractography techniques for neurosurgical procedures poses even additional challenges that relate to effects of the individual anatomy that might be altered by edema and tumor, to stereotactic inaccuracies due to image distortion, as well as to registration inaccuracies and brain shift. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_2DOI Listing
February 2016
4 Reads

Hearing Outcomes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas : Mechanism of Hearing Loss and How to Preserve Hearing.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016 (43):3-36

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) expanded to include the treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in 1969; since then, efforts to increase tumour control and to reduce cranial neuropathy have continued. Using the currently recommended marginal dose of 12-13 Gy, long-term reported outcomes after SRS include not only excellent tumour control rates of 92-100 % but also outstanding functional preservation of the trigeminal and facial nerves, with values of 92-100 % and 94-100 %, respectively. Nonetheless, hearing preservation remains in the range of 32-81 %. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21359-0_1DOI Listing
February 2016
6 Reads

Minor and repetitive head injury.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:147-92

MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, Pecs, Hungary,

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in the young, active population and expected to be the third leading cause of death in the whole world until 2020. The disease is frequently referred to as the silent epidemic, and many authors highlight the "unmet medical need" associated with TBI.The term traumatically evoked brain injury covers a heterogeneous group ranging from mild/minor/minimal to severe/non-salvageable damages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_8DOI Listing
June 2015
9 Reads

Optic pathway gliomas.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:123-46

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, 6th Weizmann St., Tel-Aviv, 64239, Israel.

Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are among the most challenging neoplasms in modern pediatric neuro-oncology. Recent technological advances in imaging, surgery, and chemotherapy may lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology and better clinical results. This chapter reviews these advances and the current treatment paradigms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_7DOI Listing
June 2015
7 Reads

Cavernous sinus meningiomas: imaging and surgical strategy.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:103-21

Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, University of Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

Cavernous sinus (CS) meningiomas which are by definition those meningiomas which originate from the parasellar region are difficult skull base tumors to deal with. For deciding the most appropriate surgical strategy, surgeons need detailed preoperative neuroimaging. The vicinity of the tumor with the vital and highly functional neurovascular structures, tumor extensions into the basal cisterns and skull base structures, and the arterial vascularization and venous drainage pathways, as they shape operative strategy, are important preoperative data to take into account. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_6DOI Listing
June 2015
7 Reads

Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:79-102

Department of Neurological Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany,

The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_5DOI Listing
June 2015
26 Reads

Is there a place for microsurgical vascular decompression of the brainstem for apparent essential blood hypertension? a review.

Authors:
Marc Sindou

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:69-76

Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, University Lyon 1, G.H.E, 59 Boulevard Pinel, Lyon, 69003, France,

There are anatomical and physiological evidences that the ventrolateral (VL) region of the medulla plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and that dysfunction at this level may generate hypertension (HT). Vascular compression by a megadolicho-artery from the vertebrobasilar arterial system at the root entry/exit zone (REZ) of the glossopharyngeal (IXth) and vagal (Xth) cranial nerves (CNs) and the adjacent VL aspect of the medulla has been postulated as a causal factor for HT from neurogenic origin. The first attempts at microvascular decompression (MVD) of the IX-Xth CNs together with the neighbouring VL brainstem was revealed promising. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_4DOI Listing
June 2015
13 Reads

State-of-the-art endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:33-68

Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petach-Tikva, Israel,

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the USA. An estimated 795,000 new or recurrent stroke events occur annually, mostly ischemic in nature. Arterial recanalization and subsequent reperfusion performed shortly after symptom onset can help to restore brain function in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_3DOI Listing
June 2015
6 Reads
2 Citations

Occipital nerve stimulation.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:23-32

Department of Neurological Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09066-5_2DOI Listing
June 2015
5 Reads

Neuromodulation in cluster headache.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2015 ;42:3-21

Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Nice, France,

Medically refractory chronic cluster headache (CH) is a severely disabling headache condition for which several surgical procedures have been proposed as a prophylactic treatment. None of them have been evaluated in controlled conditions, only open studies and case series being available. Destructive procedures (radiofrequency lesioning, radiosurgery, section) and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve or the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) have induced short-term improvement which did not maintain on long term in most of the patients. Read More

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Juvenile chronic arthritis and the craniovertebral junction in the paediatric patient: review of the literature and management considerations.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:143-56

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Center Haaglanden, Lijnbaan 32, 2512VA, The Hague, The Netherlands,

Introduction: Juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) is a systemic disease of childhood affecting particularly joints. JCA is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory joint disorders with onset before the age of 16 years and is comprised of 7 subtype groups. The pathogenesis of JCA seen in the cervical spine is synovial inflammation, hyperaemia, and pannus formation at the occipitoatlantoaxial joints resulting in characteristic craniovertebral junction findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_7DOI Listing
April 2016
14 Reads

Pedicle-Based Non-fusion Stabilization Devices: A Critical Review and Appraisal of Current Evidence.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:131-42

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria,

Over the last decades, spinal fusion has become one of the most important principles in surgical treatment of spinal pathologies. Despite the undoubted benefits of fusion surgery, there are several drawbacks associated with this technique, including adjacent segment degeneration and pseudoarthrosis. Based on biomechanical data, dynamic stabilization of the spine is intended to ameliorate adjacent level degeneration by stabilizing vertebral motion in defined planes and mimicking natural spine movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_6DOI Listing
April 2016
3 Reads

Cervical disc arthroplasty: a critical review and appraisal of the latest available evidence.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:107-29

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany,

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been a very successful procedure in the management of cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. Concerns with adjacent segment disease and the desire to preserve physiological motion have led to technological and clinical efforts for cervical disc arthroplasty. The suggested move to cervical disc replacement has led to this latter procedure being one of the most scrutinised surgical treatments in the twenty-first century. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_5DOI Listing
April 2016
2 Reads

Surgery for kyphosis.

Authors:
Mehmet Zileli

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:71-103

Department of Neurosurgery, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, 1421 sok 61-5, Alsancak, Izmir, 35230, Turkey,

Kyphosis is a difficult topic of spinal surgery, and its management contains many controversies. Surgical management needs consideration of different aspects of the kyphotic deformity such as neurological status, the presence of spinal cord compression, angle of the kyphosis, the quality of bone, and accompanying diseases. In case of significant cord compression and neurological compromise, anterior surgery should have the priority. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_4DOI Listing
April 2016
1 Read

Novel surgical approach in the management of longitudinal pathologies within the spinal canal: the split laminotomy and "archbone" technique: alternative to multilevel laminectomy or laminotomy.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:47-70

National Institute of Neurosurgery, Amerikai út 57, 1145, Budapest, Hungary,

Multilevel laminectomy to open the spinal canal carries the risk of spinal deformities and instability. With the aim of preserving and reconstructing the posterior structures the authors developed a novel, minimally invasive, multilevel spinous process splitting and distracting laminotomy approach with or without complementary corticocancellous iliac crest or PEEK cage "archbone" grafting. The technique allows exploration of the spinal canal and the removal of intramedullary pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_3DOI Listing
April 2016
6 Reads

Sagittal balance, a useful tool for neurosurgeons?

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:23-45

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany,

New instrumentation techniques have made any correction of the spinal architecture possible. Sagittal balance has been described as an important parameter for assessing spinal deformity in the early 1970s, but over the last decade its importance has grown with the published results in terms of overall quality of life and fusion rate. Up until now, most of the studies have concentrated on spinal deformity surgery, but its use in the daily neurosurgery practice remains uncertain and may warrant further studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_2DOI Listing
April 2016
7 Reads

Navigation, robotics, and intraoperative imaging in spinal surgery.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;41:3-22

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany,

Spinal navigation is a technique gaining increasing popularity. Different approaches as CT-based or intraoperative imaging-based navigation are available, requiring different methods of patient registration, bearing certain advantages and disadvantages. So far, a large number of studies assessed the accuracy of pedicle screw implantation in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, elucidating the advantages of image guidance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01830-0_1DOI Listing
April 2016
5 Reads

Pediatric craniovertebral junction trauma.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:333-53

Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.

The craniovertebral junction consists of the occiput, atlas, and axis, along with their strong ligamentous attachments. Because of its unique anatomical considerations, trauma to the craniovertebral junction requires specialized care. Children with potential injuries to the craniovertebral junction and cervical spinal cord demand specific considerations compared to adult patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01065-6_12DOI Listing
April 2016
1 Read

Craniovertebral junction pathological features and their management in the mucopolysaccharidoses.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:313-31

Clinica Neurochirurgica, Università degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo, via Pergolesi 33, Monza (MB), 20900, Italy,

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are multisystemic inherited metabolic diseases caused by the deficiency of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which variably involve the central nervous system, heart, lungs, and bones.Undegraded or only partly degraded GAGs accumulate in the extracellular matrix, joint fluid, and connective tissue leading to widespread tissue and organ dysfunction.The introduction of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has positively affected the natural history of MPS patients and their life expectancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01065-6_11DOI Listing
April 2016
2 Reads

Craniovertebral junction anomalies in achondroplastic children.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:295-312

Pediatric Neurosurgical Departement, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, APHP, 149, Rue de Sèvres, Paris, 75743, France.

The natural history of CVJ stenosis in achondroplastic children is only partially known. Achondroplastic children have a foramen magnum that is significatively smaller at birth, and it does not follow the normal growth during the first 18 months of life, leading to CVJ stenosis and, for the most severe of them, to neurological and developmental impairment and delay and even sudden death due to cervicomedullary narrowing. We reviewed our experience based on 37 patients operated for cervicomedullary decompression between 1970 and 2010 and performed a literature review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01065-6_10DOI Listing
April 2016
11 Reads

Os odontoideum syndrome: pathogenesis, clinical patterns and indication for surgical strategies in childhood.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:273-93

Department of Head Neck Diseases, Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Rome, Largo Gemelli, 8, Rome, 0068, Italy,

Os odontoideum is a rare condition with a controversial pathogenesis and poorly understood natural history. Hypoplasia of the odontoid associated with an independent oval ossicle, with smooth margins widely separated from C2 and well above the superior facets of the axis, is termed "os odontoideum". The neurological manifestations arise from bulbospinal compression both at rest and during motion, due to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) instability itself. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01065-6_9DOI Listing
April 2016
3 Reads

Minimally Invasive Posterior Trans-muscular C1-C2 Screw Fixation Through an Anatomical Corridor to Preserve Occipitocervical Tension Band: Surgical Anatomy and Clinical Experience.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:261-71

Unidad de Neurocirugía, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7°, N° 40-62, 6° Piso, Bogotá, Colombia,

The C1-C2 joint is affected by multiple entities that may produce biomechanical instability. Optimal management for atlantoaxial instability has been searched by ways of different surgical techniques with different results, generating discussion between second effects of a particular treatment. Lateral dissections can place the axial neck musculature and ligaments at risk of neural denervations or vascular compromise. Read More

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April 2016
4 Reads

Craniovertebral junction instability: special reference to paediatric age group.

Authors:
Atul Goel

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:215-59

Department of Neurosurgery, K.E.M Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, 400012, India,

Craniovertebral junction is the centre for stability and of mobility of the spine. The region is ingeniously designed and structured to permit a complex array of movements whilst preserving the stability. The occipitoatlantal joint is the centre for stability, whilst atlantoaxial joint is the centre for mobility. Read More

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Technical advances in pediatric craniovertebral junction surgery.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:201-13

Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.

Surgery for conditions in the craniovertebral junction in the pediatric population poses unique challenges. The posterior approach has emerged as the gold standard for arthrodesis in this region. Anterior fixation or decompression also may be indicated. Read More

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Anaesthesiological and intensive care management in craniovertebral junction surgery.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:171-97

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Institute of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 8, Rome, 00168, Italy,

The main factors of modern perioperative care of the craniovertebral junction surgery include a comprehensive approach to the patients, including a thorough cardiorespiratory, neurophysiological, and metabolic assessment, intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord function, safe airway management, and judicious use of fluids and blood transfusions. Admission in PICU shortly after the CVJ surgery is mandatory to ensure haemodynamic and respiratory stability and to recognize postoperative complications. Anticipating complications in order to achieve an early treatment and adverse event prophylaxis can contribute to reduced morbidity and mortality and increased patients' safety. Read More

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April 2016
3 Reads

Imaging of the craniovertebral junction anomalies in children.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:141-70

Division of Neuroradiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON, M4N3M5, Canada,

The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is interposed between the unsegmented skull and the segmented spine; it is functionally unique as it allows the complex motion of the head. Because of its unique anatomy, numerous craniometric indices have been devised. Because of its complex embryology, different from that of the adjacent skull and spine, it is commonly the seat of malformations. Read More

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April 2016
3 Reads

Extracranial Segments of the Vertebral Artery: Insight in the Developmental Changes up to the 21st Year of Life.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:111-39

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Niš, Blvd. Dr Zoran Đinđić 81, Niš, 18000, Serbia,

The vertebral artery (VA) bilaterally arises usually from the subclavian artery and courses within the bony canals of cervical vertebrae, and then it reverses directions on the first vertebra before piercing the dura to enter the cranium.The aim was to follow (ab)normal developmental changes of extracranial VA from prenatal status to age 21. This chapter included a brief description of the arterial embryology and morphofunctional specificity of the VA in prevertebral, cervical, and atlantic parts, during prenatal and postnatal period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01065-6_3DOI Listing
April 2016
6 Reads

Embryology, classification, and surgical management of bony malformations of the craniovertebral junction.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:19-109

Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USA,

The embryology of the bony craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is reviewed with the purpose of explaining the genesis and unusual configurations of the numerous congenital malformations in this region. Functionally, the bony CVJ can be divided into a central pillar consisting of the basiocciput and dental pivot; and a two-tiered ring revolving round the central pivot, comprising the foramen magnum rim and occipital condyles above, and the atlantal ring below. Embryologically, the central pillar and the surrounding rings descend from different primordia, and accordingly, developmental anomalies at the CVJ can also be segregated into those affecting the central pillar and the surrounding rings, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01065-6_2DOI Listing
April 2016
19 Reads

Nosographic identification and management of pediatric craniovertebral junction anomalies: evolution of concepts and modalities of treatment.

Authors:
Arnold H Menezes

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2014 ;40:3-18

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA,

The clinical significance of abnormalities of the craniocervical junction has gained tremendous momentum with the increasing interest in the area as a result of better neurodiagnostic imaging. Abnormalities of the bone, soft tissue, and neural structures are easily recognized and there is a better understanding of the biomechanics of this complex region as well as the embryology. A database of symptomatic patients, children, and adults with neurological symptoms and signs secondary to abnormalities at the craniocervical junction have been evaluated by the author at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Read More

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Critical review of palliative surgical techniques for intractable epilepsy.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:165-94

Department of Neurosurgery, Epilepsy Center, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Approximately one third of epilepsy patients are not adequately treatable by antiepileptic medication. Curative resective epilepsy surgery can be performed in only a subgroup of these pharmacoresistent patients in whom the epileptogenic focus is localizable and does not overlap with eloquent brain areas. To the remaining patients (with bilateral or multiple epileptogenic foci, with epilepsy onset in eloquent areas, or with no identifiable epileptogenic focus) palliative epilepsy surgery can be offered if they suffer from disabling seizures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_7DOI Listing

Epilepsy in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:131-63

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, Italy.

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder, characterized by the presence of hamartomatous lesions involving different organ systems, including the brain. Epilepsy is the most common presenting symptom, representing a major source of morbidity and mortality. Despite multiple antiepileptic drug combinations, in about two thirds of cases the patients present high-frequency drug-resistant epilepsy, and nonpharmacologic options may be considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_6DOI Listing
August 2013
3 Reads

Treatment modalities for intractable epilepsy in hypothalamic hamartoma.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:117-30

Department of Neurosurgery, CHA University, Sungnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is usually associated with refractory epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and behavioral disturbance. There is now increasing evidence that HH can be treated effectively with a variety of neurosurgical approaches. Treatment options for intractable gelastic seizure in HH patients include direct open surgery with craniotomy, endoscopic surgery, radiosurgery with gamma knife (GKS) and stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_5DOI Listing
August 2013
17 Reads

Pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: resection based on etiology and anatomical location.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:87-116

Department of Neurosurgery, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

Advances in electrophysiological assessment with improved structural and functional neuroimaging have been very helpful in the use of surgery as a tool for drug-resistant epilepsy. Increasing interest in epilepsy surgery has had a major impact on adult patients; a refined evaluation process and new criteria for drug resistance combined with refined surgical techniques resulted in large surgical series in many centers. Pediatric surgery has lagged behind this evolution, possibly because of the diverse semiology and electrophysiology of pediatric epilepsy obscuring the focal nature of the seizures and frustrating the treatment of catastrophic epileptic syndromes specific to children. Read More

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http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_4DOI Listing
August 2013
4 Reads

Magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy.

Authors:
Kader K Oguz

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:61-83

Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

With a major role in revealing epileptogenic lesions, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has also been very helpful in surgical planning and postoperative follow-up of drug-resistant focal epilepsies. In this article, in addition to discussing the most common epileptogenic lesions, advanced quantitative and functional MRI techniques in detecting abnormalities and revealing hemodynamic and microstructural changes are emphasized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_3DOI Listing
August 2013
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Paediatric intractable epilepsy syndromes: changing concepts in diagnosis and management.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:45-60

Child Neurology, Lewis Rhodes Labs, Inc., Acton, MA, USA.

Epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant childhood epilepsy is not new. However, brain imaging, surgical and anaesthetic techniques have improved to the extent that they are now as much safer and realistic option than they were in the past. Further, the range of surgical candidates is wide, and previous concepts about likely surgical candidates are now challenged as children with previously thought widespread or apparent multifocal disease are evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1360-8_2DOI Listing
August 2013
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New insight on the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the developing brain.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;39:3-44

Department of Developmental Epileptology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

The incidence of epilepsy is at its highest in childhood and seizures can persist for a lifetime. As brain tissue from pediatric patients with epilepsy is rarely available, the analysis of molecular and cellular changes during epileptogenesis, which could serve as targets for treatment approaches, has to rely largely on the analysis of tissue from animal models. However, these data have to be analyzed in the context of the developmental stage when the insult occurs. Read More

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August 2013
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Management of cortical dysplasia in epilepsy.

Authors:
S Fauser J Zentner

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:137-63

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are increasingly diagnosed as a cause of symptomatic focal epilepsy in paediatric and adult patients. Nowadays, focal cortical dysplasias are identified as the underlying pathology in up to 25% of patients with focal epilepsies. The histological appearance can vary from mild architectural disturbances to severe malformation containing atypical cellular elements like dysmorphic neurons and Balloon cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0676-1_7DOI Listing
April 2016
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Decompressive craniectomy - operative technique and perioperative care.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:115-36

Academic Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

With improvements in neurocritical care advanced measures of treating raised intracranial pressure (ICP) are more frequently utilised. Decompressive craniectomy is an effective ICP-lowering procedure; however its benefits are maximised with optimal surgical technique and perioperative care, as well as by paying attention to possible complications. This article focuses on the current indications and rationale for decompressive craniectomy, and the surgical technique of bifrontal and unilateral decompression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0676-1_6DOI Listing

The choroidal fissure: anatomy and surgical implications.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:97-113

Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU de Tours, 2 Boulevard Tonnellé, Tours, France.

The choroidal fissure (CF) is an important landmark that allows approaches to the deepest aspects of the brain. It is the C-shaped site of attachment of the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles, which runs between fornix and thalamus. The thinness and the absence of neural tissue between the ependyma and pia matter of this part of the medial wall of the lateral ventricles provides a surgical pathway to the third ventricle and perimesencephalic cisterns. Read More

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Percutaneous pedicle screw implantation for refractory low back pain: from manual 2D to fully robotic intraoperative 2D/3D fluoroscopy.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:75-93

Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology, Clinique Universitaire St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium.

Many surgical treatments for chronic low back pain that is refractory to medical treatments focus on spine stabilization. One of the main surgical procedures consists of placing an interbody cage with bone grafts associated with pedicle screws [2, 25, 30]. This technique can be performed using different approaches: a large open posterior approach, tubular approaches (minimal open) or percutaneously (minimally invasive percutaneous or MIP) [5, 28]. Read More

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Percutaneous biopsy through the foramen ovale for parasellar lesions: surgical anatomy, method, and indications.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:57-73

Department of Neurosurgery, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, University of Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

Knowledge of the pathological diagnosis before deciding the best strategy for treating parasellar lesions is of prime importance, due to the relative high morbidity and side-effects of open direct approaches to this region, known to be rich in important vasculo-nervous structures. When imaging is not evocative enough to ascertain an accurate pathological diagnosis, a percutaneous biopsy through the transjugal-transoval route (of Hartel) may be performed to guide the therapeutic decision.The chapter is based on the authors' experience in 50 patients who underwent the procedure over the ten past years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0676-1_3DOI Listing

Spinal cord injury and its treatment: current management and experimental perspectives.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:29-56

Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

Clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) has significantly improved its general prognosis. However, to date, traumatic paraplegia and tetraplegia remain incurable, despite massive research efforts. Current management focuses on surgical stabilisation of the spine, intensive neurological rehabilitation, and the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0676-1_2DOI Listing

A new concept of diffuse (low-grade) glioma surgery.

Authors:
H Duffau

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2012 ;38:3-27

Department of Neurosurgery, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier University Medical Center, Montpellier, France.

Preservation and even improvement of the quality of life is currently a priority in surgery for gliomas, in addition to the optimization of the extent of resection with significant increase of the overall survival. In this setting, the goal of the present review is to revisit technical aspects of glioma surgery in the lights of new concepts both in the fields of neurooncology and cognitive neurosciences, which recently emerged from translational researches - with special emphasis on diffuse low grade gliomas.Firstly, the vascularisation (arteries and veins) has to be more systematically spared, by performing subpial dissection and by limiting the use of coagulation within the brain. Read More

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Treatment of infections of the spine.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2011 (37):213-43

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität Munchen, Munich, Germany.

Spinal infection may involve the vertebrae, the intervertebral discs, and the adjacent intraspinal and paraspinal soft tissues. It often starts with subtle and insidious clinical signs and symptoms and may development to a debilitating and even life threatening disease. Spinal infections occur with increasing incidence and are nowadays a disease of everyday's practice for physicians treating spinal disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0673-0_7DOI Listing

Chiari type I malformation in children.

Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2011 (37):143-211

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, Italy.

The diagnosis of Chiari type I malformation (CIM) is more and more frequent in clinical practice due to the wide diffusion of magnetic resonance imaging. In many cases, such a diagnosis is made incidentally in asymptomatic patients, as including children investigated for different reasons such as mental development delay or sequelae of brain injury. The large number of affected patients, the presence of asymptomatic subjects, the uncertainties surrounding the pathogenesis of the malformation, and the different options for its surgical treatment make the management of CIM particularly controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0673-0_6DOI Listing