1,841 results match your criteria Advances In Space Research[Journal]


Advanced Illumination Modeling for Data Analysis and Calibration. Application to the Moon.

Adv Space Res 2018 Dec 25;62(11):3214-3228. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Emergent Space Technologies, MD, USA.

We present a new illumination modeling tool, called IllumNG, developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). We describe its capabilities to enhance the analysis and calibration of science data collected by planetary missions. We highlight these with examples making use of lunar data, particularly the topographic and radiometric measurements collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument, with applications to radiometric measurements from other LRO instruments as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2018.08.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398960PMC
December 2018

Evaluation of the Fluids Mixing Enclosure System for Life Science Experiments During a Commercial Spaceflight Experiment.

Adv Space Res 2013 Jun;51(12):2241-2250

Henry E. Lackey High School, 3000 Chicamuxen Road, Indian Head, MD 20640, USA.

The Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP) is a United States national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiative that aims to increase student interest in science by offering opportunities to perform spaceflight experiments. The experiment detailed here was selected and flown aboard the third SSEP mission and the first SSEP mission to the International Space Station (ISS). is a small, transparent, self-fertilizing hermaphroditic roundworm that is commonly used in biological experiments both on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684985PMC

No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblast after alpha particle irradiation.

Adv Space Res 2013 Feb;51(3):450-457

Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. of China.

A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2012.09.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3596834PMC
February 2013
28 Reads

Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight.

Adv Space Res 2012 May 27;49(10):1441-1455. Epub 2012 Feb 27.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2012.02.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570223PMC
May 2012
2 Reads

Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells.

Adv Space Res 2012 Jan;49(2):237-248

University Laboratory Animal Resources, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2011.09.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3678840PMC
January 2012
25 Reads

Kink-like mode of a double gradient instability in a compressible plasma current sheet.

Adv Space Res 2011 Nov;48(9):1531-1536

Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 Graz, Austria.

A linear MHD instability of the electric current sheet, characterized by a small normal magnetic field component, varying along the sheet, is investigated. The tangential magnetic field component is modeled by a hyperbolic function, describing Harris-like variations of the field across the sheet. For this problem, which is formulated in a 3D domain, the conventional compressible ideal MHD equations are applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2011.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174452PMC
November 2011

RADIOSENSITIVITY TO HIGH ENERGY IRON IONS IS INFLUENCED BY HETEROZYGOSITY for and

Adv Space Res 2010 Sep;46(6):681-686

Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY10032, USA.

Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.02.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890108PMC
September 2010

Early effects of low dos C ion or X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Adv Space Res 2010 Apr;45(7):832-838

College of Clinical Medicine of Lanzhou University. 222 Tianshui Nan Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study was to estimate the acute effects of low dose (12)C(6+) ions or X-ray radiation on human immune function. The human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) of seven healthy donors were exposed to 0.05Gy (12)C(6+) ions or X-ray radiation and cell responses were measured at 24 hours after exposure. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02731177090063
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853808PMC
April 2010
4 Reads

Review of the results from the International C. elegans first experiment (ICE-FIRST).

Adv Space Res 2009 Jul;44(2):210-216

University of Nottingham, School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health, Derby, DE22 3DT, United Kingdom.

In an effort to speed the rate of discovery in space biology and medicine NASA introduced the now defunct model specimen program. Four nations applied this approach with C. elegans in the ICE-FIRST experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719817PMC

γ-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and artificial skin.

Adv Space Res 2009 ;43(8):1171-1178

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, D.H.H.S., Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable in our modern society and can lead to a variety of deleterious effects including cancer and birth defects. A reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of exposure to IR and the individual response to that exposure would provide much needed information for the optimal treatment of each donor examined. We have developed a diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of the phosphorylated form of variant histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2008.10.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735274PMC
January 2009
9 Reads

Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

Adv Space Res 2008 ;42(12):1889-1897

Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 501 Rhodes Engineering Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.

Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2603056PMC
January 2008
3 Reads

Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST).

Adv Space Res 2008 Sep;42(6):1072-1079

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2008.03.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493420PMC
September 2008

Potential Role of Oxidative Stress in Mediating the Effect of Altered Gravity on the Developing Rat Cerebellum.

Adv Space Res 2007 ;40(9):1414-1420

Department of Psychiatry, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

We have previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that exposure to hypergravity results in oxidative stress that may contribute to the decrease in Purkinje cell number and the impairment of motor coordination in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates. To test this hypothesis we compared cerebellar oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT; an index of oxidative protein modification) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG; an index of oxidative DNA damage) between stationary control (SC) and rat neonates exposed to 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2344128PMC
January 2007

Genomic response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to spaceflight.

Adv Space Res 2008 ;41(5):807-815

Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, M/S 239-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000, USA.

On Earth, it is common to employ laboratory animals such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to help understand human health concerns. Similar studies in Earth orbit should help understand and address the concerns associated with spaceflight. The "International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment FIRST" (ICE FIRST), was carried out onboard the Dutch Taxiflight in April of 2004 by an international collaboration of laboratories in France, Canada, Japan and the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2288577PMC
January 2008
1 Read

Comparative analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression experiments in the European Soyuz flights to the International Space Station.

Adv Space Res 2007 Apr;40(4):506-512

Departamento de Bioquímica-I.I. Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" (UAM-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

The European Soyuz missions have been one of the main routes for conducting scientific experiments onboard the International Space Station, which is currently in the construction phase. A relatively large number of life and physical sciences experiments as well as technology demonstrations have been carried out during these missions. Included among these experiments are the Gene experiment during the Spanish "Cervantes" Soyuz mission and the ICE-1st experiment during the Dutch "Delta" mission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.05.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2140006PMC

Exposure to Altered Gravity During Specific Developmental Periods Differentially Affects Growth, Development, the Cerebellum and Motor Functions in Male and Female Rats.

Adv Space Res 2006 ;38(6):1138-1147

We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1827157PMC
January 2006
4 Reads

Duration and extent of the great auroral storm of 1859.

Adv Space Res 2006;38(2):130-135

L3 Communications, GSI, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.

The great geomagnetic storm of August 28 through September 3, 1859 is, arguably, the greatest and most famous space weather event in the last two hundred years. For the first time observations showed that the sun and aurora were connected and that auroras generated strong ionospheric currents. A significant portion of the world's 200,000 km of telegraph lines were adversely affected, many of which were unusable for 8 h or more which had a real economic impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215858PMC
January 2006

Effect of simulated microgravity on oxidation-sensitive gene expression in PC12 cells.

Adv Space Res 2006 ;38(6):1168-1176

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA.

Oxygen utilization by and oxygen dependence of cellular processes may be different in biological systems that are exposed to microgravity (micro-g). A baseline in which cellular changes in oxygen sensitive molecular processes occur during micro-g conditions would be important to pursue this question. The objective of this research is to analyze oxidation-sensitive gene expression in a model cell line [rat pheochromocytoma (PC12)] under simulated micro-g conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.02.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600499PMC
January 2006
2 Reads

Magnetic levitation-based Martian and Lunar gravity simulator.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;36(1):114-8

Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

Missions to Mars will subject living specimens to a range of low gravity environments. Deleterious biological effects of prolonged exposure to Martian gravity (0.38 g), Lunar gravity (0. Read More

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November 2005
3 Reads

Applied superconductivity and superfluidity for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;36(1):99-106

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Low Temperature Science and Quantum Sensors Group, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099, USA.

We discuss how superconductivity and superfluidity can be applied to solve the challenges in the exploration of the Moon and Mars. High sensitivity instruments using phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity can potentially make significant contributions to the fields of navigation, automation, habitation, and resource location. Using the quantum nature of superconductivity, lightweight and very sensitive diagnostic tools can be made to monitor the health of astronauts. Read More

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November 2005
2 Reads

Temporal regulation of global gene expression and cellular morphology in Xenopus kidney cells in response to clinorotation.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1654-61

Department of Life Sciences (Biology), Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Here, we report changes gene expression and morphology of the renal epithelial cell line, A6, which was derived from Xenopus laevis adult kidney that had been induced by long-term culturing with a three-dimensional clinostat. An oligo microarray analysis on the A6 cells showed that mRNA levels for 52 out of 8091 genes were significantly altered in response to clinorotation. On day 5, there was no dramatic change in expression level, but by day 8 and day 10, either upregulation or downregulation of gene expression became evident. Read More

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September 2005
2 Reads

Estimation and assessment of Mars contamination.

Authors:
A Debus

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1648-53

Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France.

Since the beginning of the exploration of Mars, more than fourty years ago, thirty-six missions have been launched, including fifty-nine different space systems such as fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, cruise modules, landing or penetrating systems. Taking into account failures at launch, about three missions out of four have been successfully sent toward the Red Planet. The fact today is that Mars orbital environment includes orbiters and perhaps debris, and that its atmosphere and its surface include terrestrial compounds and dormant microorganisms. Read More

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September 2005

Pre-biotic stage of life origin under non-photosynthetic conditions.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1643-7

Laboratory of Theoretical Biophysics, Institute for Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Spontaneous assembling of a simplest bacterial cell even if all necessary molecules are present in a solution seems to be extremely rare event and from the scientific standpoint has to be considered as impossible. Therefore, a predecessor of a living cell has to be very simple for providing its self-assembling and at the same time it should be able of progressive increase in complexity. Now phase-separated particles, first of all micelles, are put forward as possible predecessors of living cell. Read More

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September 2005
1 Read

Analysis of the archaeal sub-seafloor community at Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1634-42

Department of Molecular Biology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.

A sub-surface archaeal community at the Suiyo Seamount in the Western Pacific Ocean was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-cell in situ hybridization analyses. In this study, we drilled and cased holes at the hydrothermal area of the seamount to minimize contamination of the hydrothermal fluid in the sub-seafloor by penetrating seawater. PCR clone analysis of the hydrothermal fluid samples collected from a cased hole indicated the presence of chemolithoautotrophic primary biomass producers of Archaeoglobales and the Methanococcales-related archaeal HTE1 group, both of which can utilize hydrogen as an electron donor. Read More

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September 2005
2 Reads

Chemical evolution of RNA under hydrothermal conditions and the role of thermal copolymers of amino acids for the prebiotic degradation and formation of RNA.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1626-33

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

The roles of thermal copolymers of amino acids (TCAA) were studied for the prebiotic degradation of RNA. A weak catalytic ability of TCAA consisted of Glu, L-Ala, L-Val, L-Glu, L-Asp, and optionally L-His was detected for the cleavage of the ribose phosphodiester bond of a tetranucleotide (5'-dCrCdGdG) in aqueous solution at 80 degees C. The rate constants of the disappearance of 5'-dCrCdGdG were determined in aqueous solutions using different pH buffer and TCAA. Read More

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September 2005

Management and control of microbial populations' development in LSS of missions of different durations.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1621-5

Institute of Biophysics, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

The problem of interaction between man and microorganisms in closed habitats is an inextricable part of the whole problem of co-existence between macro- and microorganisms. Concerning the support of human life in closed habitat, we can, conventionally, divide microorganisms, acting in life support system (LSS) into three groups: useful, neutral and harmful. The tasks, for human beings for optimal coexistence with microhabitants seem to be trivial: (1) to increase the activity of useful forms, (2) decrease the activity harmful forms, (3) not allow the neutral forms to become the harmful ones and even to help them to gain useful activity. Read More

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September 2005

The conceptual design of a hybrid life support system based on the evaluation and comparison of terrestrial testbeds.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1609-20

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Koeln, Germany.

This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Read More

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September 2005

Simulation model for the closed plant experiment facility of CEEF.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1597-608

Department of Environmental Simulation, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Obuchi, Rokkasyo, Aomori, Japan.

The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is a testbed for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) investigations. CEEF including the physico-chemical material regenerative system has been constructed for the experiments of material circulation among plants, breeding animals and crew of CEEF. Because CEEF is a complex system, an appropriate schedule for the operation must be prepared in advance. Read More

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September 2005
9 Reads

Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1589-93

Institute of Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation.

Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. Read More

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September 2005
1 Read

Effects of temperature, CO2/O2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1584-8

Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. Read More

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September 2005
3 Reads

Population dynamics of an algal-bacterial cenosis in closed ecological system.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1579-83

Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation.

The paper deals with microalgae-bacteria interrelationships in the "autotroph-heterotroph" aquatic biotic cycle. Explanations of why and how algal-bacterial ecosystems are formed still remain controversial. The paper presents results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the functioning of the algal-bacterial cenosis (the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and concomitant microflora). Read More

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September 2005

Population dynamics of transgenic strain Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 in freshwater and saline lake water microcosms with differing microbial community structures.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1573-8

Laboratory of Controlled Heterotroph Biosynthesis, Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation.

Populations of Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7, a transgenic microorganism, were heterogenic in the expression of plasmid genes when adapting to the conditions of water microcosms of various mineralization levels and structure of microbial community. This TM has formed two subpopulations (ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive) in every microcosm. Irrespective of mineralization level of a microcosm, when E. Read More

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September 2005

Material balance and diet in bioregenerative life support systems: connection with coefficient of closure.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1563-9

Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation.

Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) with different coefficients of closure are considered. The 66.2% coefficient of closure achieved in "BIOS-3" facility experiments has been taken as a base value. Read More

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September 2005

Biological and physiochemical methods for utilization of plant wastes and human exometabolites for increasing internal cycling and closure of life support systems.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1559-62

Institute of Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Wheat was cultivated on soil-like substrate (SLS) produced by the action of worms and microflora from the inedible biomass of wheat. After the growth of the wheat crop, the inedible biomass was restored in SLS and exposed to decomposition ("biological" combustion) and its mineral compounds were assimilated by plants. Grain was returned to the SLS in the amount equivalent to human solid waste produced by consumption of the grain. Read More

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September 2005
4 Reads

Atmospheric dynamics in the "Laboratory Biosphere" with wheat and sweet potato crops.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1552-6

Biospheric Design, Inc., Santa Fe, NM 87508, USA.

Laboratory Biosphere is a 40-m3 closed life system equipped with 12,000 W of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, e. Read More

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September 2005
3 Reads

Soil and crop management experiments in the Laboratory Biosphere: an analogue system for the Mars on Earth(R) facility.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1544-51

Laboratory Biosphere Division, Biosphere Foundation, Santa Fe, NM 87508, USA.

During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation of "Hoyt" Soy Beans, (experiment #1) USU Apogee Wheat (experiment #2) and TU-82-155 sweet potato (experiment #3) using a 5.37 m2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. Read More

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September 2005
2 Reads

Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1539-43

Institute of Ecotechnics, London, UK.

Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48. Read More

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September 2005
6 Reads

The Mini-Earth facility and present status of habitation experiment program.

Authors:
Keiji Nitta

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1531-8

Institute for Environmental Sciences, Obuchi, Rokkasho Kamikitagun, Aomori, Japan.

The history of construction of the CEEF (the Mini-Earth), the configuration and scale of the CEEF are initially described. The effective usable areas in plant cultivation and animal holding and habitation modules and the accommodation equipment installed in each module are also explained. Mechanisms of the material circulation systems belonging to each module and subsystems in each material circulation system are introduced. Read More

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September 2005
2 Reads

Experimental and mathematical modeling of the consumer's influence on productivity of algae in a model aquatic ecosystem.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1521-7

Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

A "producer-consumer" (Chlorella vulgaris-Paramecium caudatum) closed aquatic system has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. It has been found that there is a direct relationship between the growth of the paramecia population and their release of ammonia nitrogen, which is the best form of nitrogen for Chlorella growth. The theoretical study of a model of a "producer-consumer" aquatic biotic cycle with spatially separated compartments has confirmed the contribution of paramecia to nitrogen cycling. Read More

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September 2005
2 Reads

Kinetic characteristics of the theoretical ecosystems with different extent of openness.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1516-20

Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

In this paper, the influence of the extent of openness of ecosystem that is defined by the dilution rate, which characterizes the extent of flowage of the pond, on the intensity of the biotic circulation in ecosystems with different regulation types, number of trophic links and extent of closing has been investigated. We considered open systems, we took into account the return of the limiting substances, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, into the cycle by degradation of detritus and products of vital functions of consumers. It was shown by the numerical calculations that the increase of the dilution rate in without recycle ecosystems leads to increase of the net primary production up to the maximum value corresponding to the two-link trophic chain (biogenic substance and producer) and then, to gradually decrease. Read More

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September 2005
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Principles of biological adaptation of organisms in artificial ecosystems to changes of environmental factors.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1512-5

Institute of Biophysics, SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Studying material transformations and biotic cycling in artificial ecosystems (AES), we need to know the principles of biological adaptation of active organisms to change in the environment. Microorganisms in AES for water purification are the most active transforming organisms and consumers of the organic substances contained in wastes. Utilization of organic substances is directly connected with the energy fluxes used by AES. Read More

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September 2005

Quantitative criteria for estimation of natural and artificial ecosystems functioning.

Authors:
N S Pechurkin

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1507-11

Institute of Biophysics, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Using biotic turnover of substances in trophic chains, natural and artificial ecosystems are similar in functioning, but different in structure. It is necessary to have quantitative criteria to evaluate the efficiency of artificial ecosystems (AES). These criteria are dependent on the specific objectives for which the AES are designed. Read More

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September 2005
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Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

Authors:

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1503-663

This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems. Read More

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September 2005
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Changes in spectral reflectance of wheat leaves in response to specific macronutrient deficiency.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):305-17

USDA-ARS Horticulture Research Station, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, FL 33158, USA.

In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants, deficiency of an essential element may drastically affect growth, appearance, and most importantly yield. Wheat, the focus of this study, is one of the crops studied in the CELSS program. Read More

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June 2005
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Analysis of secondary electron emission spectra of equal-LET protons and alpha particles for purposes of radiation quality and spaceflight hazard assessment.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):300-4

Institute of Cancer Research, University of London, London, UK.

Amongst the great variety of heavy particles present in the galactic and solar cosmic ray spectra, hydrogen and helium nuclei are significantly more abundant than all other heavier ions and, as such, represent a major radiation hazard to humans in space. Experimental data have suggested that differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) exist between the two species at the same value of linear energy transfer (LET). This has consequences for heavily ionising radiation protection procedures, which currently still assume a simple dependence of radiation quality on LET. Read More

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Graviperception in ciliates: steps in the transduction chain.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):296-9

Institute of Aerospace Medicine, DLR, Cologne, Germany.

Ciliates represent suitable model systems to study the mechanisms of graviperception and signal transduction as they show clear gravity-induced behavioural responses (gravitaxis and gravikinesis). The cytoplasm seems to act as a "statolith" stimulating mechanosensitive ion channels in the cell membrane. In order to test this hypothesis, electrophysiological studies with Stylonychia mytilus were performed, revealing the proposed changes (de- or hyperpolarization) depending on the cell's spatial orientation. Read More

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Organization of cytoskeleton during differentiation of gravisensitive root sites under clinorotation.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):289-95

Institute of Botany, Cell Biology Department, Kiev, Ukraine.

Key role in cell gravisensing is attributed to the actin cytoskeleton which acts as a mediator in signaling reactions, including graviperception. Despite of increased attention to the actin cytoskeleton, major gaps in our understanding of its functioning in plant gravisensing still remain. To fill these gaps, we propose a novel approach focused on the investigation of actin involvement in the development of columella cells and cells in the transition zone of roots submitted to clinorotation. Read More

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June 2005
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Early and delayed reproductive death in human cells exposed to high energy iron ion beams.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):280-5

Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Sezione di Milano, Milano, Italy.

The aim of this research was to determine the biological effectiveness for early and delayed effects of high energy, high linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles. Survival and delayed reproductive death were measured in AG1522 human fibroblast cells exposed to Fe-ion beams of energies between 0.2 and 1 GeV/n, 0. Read More

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June 2005
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Chromosomal intrachanges induced by swift iron ions.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):276-9

Department of Genetics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

We measured the induction of structural aberrations in human chromosome 5 induced by iron ions using the novel technique of multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND). Human lymphocytes isolated from whole blood were exposed in vitro to 500 MeV/n (LET=200 keV/micrometers, doses 1 or 4 Gy) Fe nuclei at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba (Japan). Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by calyculin A after 48 h in culture and slides were painted by mBAND. Read More

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June 2005
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Chromosome aberration yields and apoptosis in human lymphocytes irradiated with Fe-ions of differing LET.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(2):268-75

Biophysik, Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany.

In the present paper the relationship between cell cycle delays induced by Fe-ions of differing LET and the aberration yield observable in human lymphocytes at mitosis was examined. Cells of the same donor were irradiated with 990 MeV/n Fe-ions (LET=155 keV/micrometers), 200 MeV/n Fe-ions (LET=440 keV/micrometers) and X-rays and aberrations were measured in first cycle mitoses harvested at different times after 48-84 h in culture and in prematurely condensed G2-cells (PCCs) collected at 48 h using calyculin A. Analysis of the time-course of chromosomal damage in first cycle metaphases revealed that the aberration frequency was similar after X-ray irradiation, but increased two and seven fold after exposure to 990 and 200 MeV/n Fe-ions, respectively. Read More

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June 2005
4 Reads