1,844 results match your criteria Advances In Space Research[Journal]

Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the fine particulate matter concentration levels: Results from Bengaluru megacity, India.

Adv Space Res 2021 Apr 20;67(7):2140-2150. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Center for Study of Science, Technology & Policy, Bengaluru 560094, India.

Leveraging the COVID-19 India-wide lockdown situation, the present study attempts to quantify the reduction in the ambient fine particulate matter concentrations during the lockdown (compared with that of the pre-lockdown period), owing to the highly reduced specific anthropogenic activities and thereby pollutant emissions. The study was conducted over Bengaluru (India), using PM (mass concentration of particulate matter having size less than or equal to 2.5 µm) and Black Carbon mass concentration (BC) data. Read More

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Variations in the ionosphere-thermosphere system from tides, ultra-fast Kelvin waves, and their interactions.

Adv Space Res 2019 Nov 23;64(10):1841-1853. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Large scale waves, such as the atmospheric tides and ultra-fast Kelvin waves (UFKW), have direct effects on the neutral wind and temperature fields of the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) system. In this study we examine the response of the I-T system to the atmospheric tides, one UFKW, and the secondary waves generated from their interactions using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM). We find that forcing an UFKW at the lower boundary of the TIEGCM is all that is required for it to setup in the model. Read More

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November 2019

Advanced Illumination Modeling for Data Analysis and Calibration. Application to the Moon.

Adv Space Res 2018 Dec 25;62(11):3214-3228. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Emergent Space Technologies, MD, USA.

We present a new illumination modeling tool, called IllumNG, developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). We describe its capabilities to enhance the analysis and calibration of science data collected by planetary missions. We highlight these with examples making use of lunar data, particularly the topographic and radiometric measurements collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument, with applications to radiometric measurements from other LRO instruments as well. Read More

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December 2018

FIRE - Flyby of Io with Repeat Encounter: A conceptual design for a New Frontiers mission to Io.

Adv Space Res 2017 Sep 6;60(5):1080-1100. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, United Statess.

A conceptual design is presented for a low complexity, heritage-based flyby mission to Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite and the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. The design addresses the 2011 Decadal Surveys recommendation for a New Frontiers class mission to Io and is based upon the result of the June 2012 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School. A science payload is proposed to investigate the link between the structure of Io's interior, it's volcanic activity, it's surface composition, and it's tectonics. Read More

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September 2017

Evaluation of the Fluids Mixing Enclosure System for Life Science Experiments During a Commercial Spaceflight Experiment.

Adv Space Res 2013 Jun;51(12):2241-2250

Henry E. Lackey High School, 3000 Chicamuxen Road, Indian Head, MD 20640, USA.

The Student Spaceflight Experiments Program (SSEP) is a United States national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics initiative that aims to increase student interest in science by offering opportunities to perform spaceflight experiments. The experiment detailed here was selected and flown aboard the third SSEP mission and the first SSEP mission to the International Space Station (ISS). is a small, transparent, self-fertilizing hermaphroditic roundworm that is commonly used in biological experiments both on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit. Read More

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No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblast after alpha particle irradiation.

Adv Space Res 2013 Feb;51(3):450-457

Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. of China.

A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. Read More

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February 2013

Evaluation of in vitro macrophage differentiation during space flight.

Adv Space Res 2012 May 27;49(10):1441-1455. Epub 2012 Feb 27.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. Read More

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Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells.

Adv Space Res 2012 Jan;49(2):237-248

University Laboratory Animal Resources, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. Read More

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January 2012

Kink-like mode of a double gradient instability in a compressible plasma current sheet.

Adv Space Res 2011 Nov;48(9):1531-1536

Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 Graz, Austria.

A linear MHD instability of the electric current sheet, characterized by a small normal magnetic field component, varying along the sheet, is investigated. The tangential magnetic field component is modeled by a hyperbolic function, describing Harris-like variations of the field across the sheet. For this problem, which is formulated in a 3D domain, the conventional compressible ideal MHD equations are applied. Read More

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November 2011


Adv Space Res 2010 Sep;46(6):681-686

Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY10032, USA.

Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. Read More

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September 2010

Early effects of low dos C ion or X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Adv Space Res 2010 Apr;45(7):832-838

College of Clinical Medicine of Lanzhou University. 222 Tianshui Nan Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study was to estimate the acute effects of low dose (12)C(6+) ions or X-ray radiation on human immune function. The human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) of seven healthy donors were exposed to 0.05Gy (12)C(6+) ions or X-ray radiation and cell responses were measured at 24 hours after exposure. Read More

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Review of the results from the International C. elegans first experiment (ICE-FIRST).

Adv Space Res 2009 Jul;44(2):210-216

University of Nottingham, School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health, Derby, DE22 3DT, United Kingdom.

In an effort to speed the rate of discovery in space biology and medicine NASA introduced the now defunct model specimen program. Four nations applied this approach with C. elegans in the ICE-FIRST experiment. Read More

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γ-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and artificial skin.

Adv Space Res 2009 ;43(8):1171-1178

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, D.H.H.S., Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable in our modern society and can lead to a variety of deleterious effects including cancer and birth defects. A reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of exposure to IR and the individual response to that exposure would provide much needed information for the optimal treatment of each donor examined. We have developed a diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of the phosphorylated form of variant histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Read More

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January 2009

Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

Adv Space Res 2008 ;42(12):1889-1897

Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 501 Rhodes Engineering Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.

Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. Read More

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January 2008

Description of International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment first flight (ICE-FIRST).

Adv Space Res 2008 Sep;42(6):1072-1079

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Traveling, living and working in space is now a reality. The number of people and length of time in space is increasing. With new horizons for exploration it becomes more important to fully understand and provide countermeasures to the effects of the space environment on the human body. Read More

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September 2008

Potential Role of Oxidative Stress in Mediating the Effect of Altered Gravity on the Developing Rat Cerebellum.

Adv Space Res 2007 ;40(9):1414-1420

Department of Psychiatry, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

We have previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that exposure to hypergravity results in oxidative stress that may contribute to the decrease in Purkinje cell number and the impairment of motor coordination in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates. To test this hypothesis we compared cerebellar oxidative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT; an index of oxidative protein modification) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG; an index of oxidative DNA damage) between stationary control (SC) and rat neonates exposed to 1. Read More

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January 2007

Genomic response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to spaceflight.

Adv Space Res 2008 ;41(5):807-815

Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, M/S 239-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000, USA.

On Earth, it is common to employ laboratory animals such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to help understand human health concerns. Similar studies in Earth orbit should help understand and address the concerns associated with spaceflight. The "International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment FIRST" (ICE FIRST), was carried out onboard the Dutch Taxiflight in April of 2004 by an international collaboration of laboratories in France, Canada, Japan and the United States. Read More

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January 2008

Comparative analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression experiments in the European Soyuz flights to the International Space Station.

Adv Space Res 2007 Apr;40(4):506-512

Departamento de Bioquímica-I.I. Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" (UAM-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

The European Soyuz missions have been one of the main routes for conducting scientific experiments onboard the International Space Station, which is currently in the construction phase. A relatively large number of life and physical sciences experiments as well as technology demonstrations have been carried out during these missions. Included among these experiments are the Gene experiment during the Spanish "Cervantes" Soyuz mission and the ICE-1st experiment during the Dutch "Delta" mission. Read More

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Exposure to Altered Gravity During Specific Developmental Periods Differentially Affects Growth, Development, the Cerebellum and Motor Functions in Male and Female Rats.

Adv Space Res 2006 ;38(6):1138-1147

We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1. Read More

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January 2006

Duration and extent of the great auroral storm of 1859.

Adv Space Res 2006;38(2):130-135

L3 Communications, GSI, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.

The great geomagnetic storm of August 28 through September 3, 1859 is, arguably, the greatest and most famous space weather event in the last two hundred years. For the first time observations showed that the sun and aurora were connected and that auroras generated strong ionospheric currents. A significant portion of the world's 200,000 km of telegraph lines were adversely affected, many of which were unusable for 8 h or more which had a real economic impact. Read More

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January 2006

Effect of simulated microgravity on oxidation-sensitive gene expression in PC12 cells.

Adv Space Res 2006 ;38(6):1168-1176

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA.

Oxygen utilization by and oxygen dependence of cellular processes may be different in biological systems that are exposed to microgravity (micro-g). A baseline in which cellular changes in oxygen sensitive molecular processes occur during micro-g conditions would be important to pursue this question. The objective of this research is to analyze oxidation-sensitive gene expression in a model cell line [rat pheochromocytoma (PC12)] under simulated micro-g conditions. Read More

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January 2006

Magnetic levitation-based Martian and Lunar gravity simulator.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;36(1):114-8

Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

Missions to Mars will subject living specimens to a range of low gravity environments. Deleterious biological effects of prolonged exposure to Martian gravity (0.38 g), Lunar gravity (0. Read More

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November 2005

Applied superconductivity and superfluidity for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;36(1):99-106

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Low Temperature Science and Quantum Sensors Group, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099, USA.

We discuss how superconductivity and superfluidity can be applied to solve the challenges in the exploration of the Moon and Mars. High sensitivity instruments using phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity can potentially make significant contributions to the fields of navigation, automation, habitation, and resource location. Using the quantum nature of superconductivity, lightweight and very sensitive diagnostic tools can be made to monitor the health of astronauts. Read More

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November 2005

Temporal regulation of global gene expression and cellular morphology in Xenopus kidney cells in response to clinorotation.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1654-61

Department of Life Sciences (Biology), Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Here, we report changes gene expression and morphology of the renal epithelial cell line, A6, which was derived from Xenopus laevis adult kidney that had been induced by long-term culturing with a three-dimensional clinostat. An oligo microarray analysis on the A6 cells showed that mRNA levels for 52 out of 8091 genes were significantly altered in response to clinorotation. On day 5, there was no dramatic change in expression level, but by day 8 and day 10, either upregulation or downregulation of gene expression became evident. Read More

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September 2005

Estimation and assessment of Mars contamination.

A Debus

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1648-53

Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France.

Since the beginning of the exploration of Mars, more than fourty years ago, thirty-six missions have been launched, including fifty-nine different space systems such as fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, cruise modules, landing or penetrating systems. Taking into account failures at launch, about three missions out of four have been successfully sent toward the Red Planet. The fact today is that Mars orbital environment includes orbiters and perhaps debris, and that its atmosphere and its surface include terrestrial compounds and dormant microorganisms. Read More

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September 2005

Pre-biotic stage of life origin under non-photosynthetic conditions.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1643-7

Laboratory of Theoretical Biophysics, Institute for Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Spontaneous assembling of a simplest bacterial cell even if all necessary molecules are present in a solution seems to be extremely rare event and from the scientific standpoint has to be considered as impossible. Therefore, a predecessor of a living cell has to be very simple for providing its self-assembling and at the same time it should be able of progressive increase in complexity. Now phase-separated particles, first of all micelles, are put forward as possible predecessors of living cell. Read More

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September 2005

Analysis of the archaeal sub-seafloor community at Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1634-42

Department of Molecular Biology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.

A sub-surface archaeal community at the Suiyo Seamount in the Western Pacific Ocean was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-cell in situ hybridization analyses. In this study, we drilled and cased holes at the hydrothermal area of the seamount to minimize contamination of the hydrothermal fluid in the sub-seafloor by penetrating seawater. PCR clone analysis of the hydrothermal fluid samples collected from a cased hole indicated the presence of chemolithoautotrophic primary biomass producers of Archaeoglobales and the Methanococcales-related archaeal HTE1 group, both of which can utilize hydrogen as an electron donor. Read More

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September 2005

Chemical evolution of RNA under hydrothermal conditions and the role of thermal copolymers of amino acids for the prebiotic degradation and formation of RNA.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1626-33

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan.

The roles of thermal copolymers of amino acids (TCAA) were studied for the prebiotic degradation of RNA. A weak catalytic ability of TCAA consisted of Glu, L-Ala, L-Val, L-Glu, L-Asp, and optionally L-His was detected for the cleavage of the ribose phosphodiester bond of a tetranucleotide (5'-dCrCdGdG) in aqueous solution at 80 degees C. The rate constants of the disappearance of 5'-dCrCdGdG were determined in aqueous solutions using different pH buffer and TCAA. Read More

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September 2005

Management and control of microbial populations' development in LSS of missions of different durations.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1621-5

Institute of Biophysics, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

The problem of interaction between man and microorganisms in closed habitats is an inextricable part of the whole problem of co-existence between macro- and microorganisms. Concerning the support of human life in closed habitat, we can, conventionally, divide microorganisms, acting in life support system (LSS) into three groups: useful, neutral and harmful. The tasks, for human beings for optimal coexistence with microhabitants seem to be trivial: (1) to increase the activity of useful forms, (2) decrease the activity harmful forms, (3) not allow the neutral forms to become the harmful ones and even to help them to gain useful activity. Read More

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September 2005

The conceptual design of a hybrid life support system based on the evaluation and comparison of terrestrial testbeds.

Adv Space Res 2005 ;35(9):1609-20

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Koeln, Germany.

This report summarizes a trade study of different options of a bioregenerative Life Support System (LSS) and a subsequent conceptual design of a hybrid LSS. The evaluation was based mainly on the terrestrial testbed projects MELISSA (ESA) and BIOS (Russia). In addition, some methods suggested by the Advanced Life Support Project (NASA) were considered. Read More

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September 2005