252,800 results match your criteria Advances In Nonlinear Analysis[Journal]


microRNAs in gastric cancer: biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Gene 2020 Jul 5:144937. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Urogenital Stem Cell Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have critical roles in regulation of expression of genes. They can inhibit or decrease expression of target genes mostly via interaction with 3' untranslated region of their targets. Their crucial roles in the regulation of expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes have potentiated them as contributors in tumorigenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144937DOI Listing

Towards model-driven characterization and manipulation of plant lipid metabolism.

Prog Lipid Res 2020 Jul 5:101051. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Genetics of Metabolic Traits Group, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam 14476, Germany; Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 8410501 Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Plant lipids have versatile applications and provide essential fatty acids in human diet. Therefore, there has been a growing interest to better characterize the genetic basis, regulatory networks, and metabolic pathways that shape lipid quantity and composition. Addressing these issues is challenging due to context-specificity of lipid metabolism integrating environmental, developmental, and tissue-specific cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2020.101051DOI Listing

Proteostatic stress as a nodal hallmark of replicative aging.

Exp Cell Res 2020 Jul 5:112163. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB), CSIC, 08028, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address:

Aging is characterized by the progressive decline of physiology at the cell, tissue and organism level, leading to an increased risk of mortality. Proteotoxic stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and genomic instability are considered major universal drivers of cell aging, and accumulating evidence establishes clear biunivocal relationships among these key hallmarks. In this regard, the finite lifespan of the budding yeast, together with the extensive armamentarium of available analytical tools, has made this single cell eukaryote a key model to study aging at molecular and cellular levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112163DOI Listing

Illuminating RNA Biology: Tools for Imaging RNA in Live Mammalian Cells.

Cell Chem Biol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biochemistry, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Electronic address:

The central dogma teaches us that DNA makes RNA, which in turn makes proteins, the main building blocks of the cell. But this over simplified linear transmission of information overlooks the vast majority of the genome produces RNAs that do not encode proteins and the myriad ways that RNA regulates cellular functions. Historically, one of the challenges in illuminating RNA biology has been the lack of tools for visualizing RNA in live cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.06.010DOI Listing

Challenging a preconception: Optoacoustic spectrum differs from the absorption spectrum of proteins and dyes for molecular imaging.

Anal Chem 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has seen marked advances in detection and data analysis, but there is less progress in understanding the photophysics of common optoacoustic contrast agents. This gap blocks the development of novel agents and the accurate analysis and interpretation of multispectral optoacoustic images. To close it, we developed a multi-modal laser spectrometer (MLS) to enable the simultaneous measurement of optoacoustic, absorbance, and fluorescence spectra. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01902DOI Listing

B cell signaling pathways - new targets for precision medicine in CLL.

Scand J Immunol 2020 Jul 8:e12931. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Cancer Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

The B cell receptor (BCR) is a master regulator of B cells, controlling cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and survival. Cell signaling downstream of the BCR is aberrantly activated in the B-cell malignancy chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), supporting the pathophysiology of the disease. This insight has led to development and approval of small molecule inhibitors that target components of the BCR pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.12931DOI Listing

Metabolic optimization of adoptive T-cell transfer cancer immunotherapy: a historical overview.

Scand J Immunol 2020 Jul 8:e12929. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L3N6.

After prolonged extracorporeal multiplication in physiological culture media, there can be curative infusions of a cancer patient's own cytotoxic T-cells (adoptive T cell transfer; ACT), which must achieve efficient activation in potentially adverse tumor microenvironments. With spectacular, yet irregular, success, improvements are needed. Developing lymphoid cells are biologically selected, not only for "near-self" reactivity (positive selection), but also to avoid self-reactivity (negative selection). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.12929DOI Listing

An Improved Classification and Localization Approach to Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Using Convolutional Neural Network.

Dig Endosc 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Although great advances in artificial intelligence for interpreting small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) images have been made in recent years, its practical use is still limited. The aim of this study was to develop a more practical convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm for the automatic detection of various small bowel lesions.

Methods: A total of 7,556 images were collected for the training dataset from 526 SBCE videos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13787DOI Listing

Broadening Eligibility Criteria for Oncology Clinical Trials: Current Advances and Future Directions.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

US Food and Drug Administration, White Oak, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1919DOI Listing

Measuring Effective Temperatures of Qubits Using Correlations.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Jun;124(24):240501

ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Initialization of a qubit in a pure state is a prerequisite for quantum computer operation. A plethora of ways to achieve this has been proposed in the last decade, from active reset protocols to advances in materials and shielding. An instrumental tool to evaluate those methods and develop new ones is the ability to measure the population of excited states with high precision and in a short period of time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.240501DOI Listing

Head Repositioning during Neurointerventional Procedures to Optimize Biplanar Imaging.

J Neuroimaging 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC.

Background And Purpose: Head positioning is an important aspect for surgical planning in any cranial procedure. However, in neurointerventional cases, this is an afterthought due to advances in biplane imaging. We aim to present that the concept of head positioning may be applied to neurointerventional procedures to obtain optimal working projections to aide in the treatment of neurovascular pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12750DOI Listing

The Matrix Revolutions: Towards the Decoding of the Plant Chromatin 3D Reality.

J Exp Bot 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Plant Sciences Paris of Saclay (IPS2), UMR 9213/UMR1403, CNRS, INRA, Université Paris-Sud, Université d'Evry, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Bâtiment, Orsay, France.

In the recent years, we have witnessed a significant increase in studies addressing the three-dimensional chromatin organization of the plant nucleus. Important advances in chromatin conformation capture (3C)-derived and related techniques have allowed the exploration of the nuclear topology of plants with large and complex genomes, including various crops. Besides, the increase in their resolution has permitted to depict chromatin compartmentalization and interactions at the gene scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa322DOI Listing

Downstream processing of lignin derived feedstock into end products.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Joint School of National University of Singapore and Tianjin University, International Campus of Tianjin University, Binhai New City, Fuzhou 350207, P. R. China. and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117585, Singapore.

Despite the enormous research efforts in recent years regarding lignin depolymerisation and functionalisation, few commercial products are available. This review provides a summary and viewpoint of extensive research in the lignin-to-product valorisation chain, with an emphasis on downstream processing of lignin derived feedstock into end products. It starts with an introduction of available platform chemicals and polymeric derivatives generated from lignin via existing depolymerisation and functionalisation technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00134aDOI Listing

Recent advances in diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Translational Research Centre for Gastrointestinal Disorders, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome, with a focus on dietary and microbiota aspects.

Recent Findings: From a pathophysiological point of view, IBS is a multifactorial condition with both peripheral (transit) as central (visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, depression) contribution in a cumulative fashion to the symptom pattern and severity. More recently, the focus has shifted to diet and microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000628DOI Listing

Improving the physical health of the mentally ill: recent advances.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Psychiatry, UWA Medical School, The University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, T Block, L7, 1 Alma Street, Fremantle, Western Austrlia, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: This review of the literature examines the most recent advances in the battle to improve the physical health of people with severe mental illness. Covering the 2018/2019 time period, the article offers a glance of future healthcare models and research directions.

Recent Findings: A systematic search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases, along with additional journal articles available online but not yet allocated to a journal edition, produced a total of 24 journal articles suitable for review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000627DOI Listing

Structural imaging of the retina in psychosis spectrum disorders: current status and perspectives.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute for Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia and Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Purpose Of Review: Structural changes of the retina in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders seem plausible as these conditions are accompanied by widespread morphological abnormalities of the brain. Advances in structural retinal imaging have led to the possibility of precise quantification of individual retinal layers, using optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanners.

Recent Findings: The aggregation of information related to OCT findings in schizophrenia has resulted in three metaanalyses, which are currently described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000624DOI Listing

Self-deicing Electrolyte Hydrogel Surfaces with Pa-level Ice Adhesion and Durable Anti-freezing/frost Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Despite the remarkable advances in mitigating ice formation and accretion, however, no engineered anti-icing surfaces today can durably prevent frost formation, droplet freezing and ice accretion in an economical and eco-friendly way. Herein, sustainable and low-cost electrolyte hydrogel (EH) surfaces are developed by infusing salted water into the hydrogel matrix for avoiding icing. The EH surfaces can both prevent ice/frost formation for an extremely long time and reduce ice adhesion strength to ultralow value (Pa-level) at a tunable temperature window down to -48. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06912DOI Listing

Recent Advances on Self-Supported Arrayed Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Flexible Solid-State Zn-Air Batteries.

Small 2020 Jul 8:e2002902. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, P. R. China.

Flexible solid-state Zn-air batteries have been rapidly developed benefiting from the uprising demand for wearable electronic devices, wherein the air electrode integrated with efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts plays an important role to achieve high performance. Binder-free self-supported bifunctional catalysts can provide large active surface area, fast electron transport path, easy ion diffusion, and excellent structural stability and flexibility, thus acting as promising flexible air cathodes. In this review, recent advances on the application of nanoarrayed electrocatalysts as air cathodes in flexible Zn-air batteries are reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002902DOI Listing

Cancer Cell Metabolites: Updates on Current Tracing Methods.

Chembiochem 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Human Anatomy, MALAYSIA.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death and, 1 in 6 deaths globally is due to cancer. Cancer metabolism is a complex and one of the most actively researched area in cancer biology. Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells entails activities which involves several enzymes and metabolites to convert nutrient into building blocks that alter energy metabolism to fuel rapid cell division. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202000290DOI Listing

Update on multi-gene panel testing and communication of genetic test results.

Authors:
Sonya Reid Tuya Pal

Breast J 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

With technological advances, multi-gene panel testing has become increasingly used to identify patients at risk for hereditary breast cancer (HBC). There are currently evidence-based interventions and breast cancer screening strategies that exist for cancer prevention and early detection among patients with HBC. Moreover, in addition to the personal impact of identifying HBC, this information may be shared with at-risk family members to amplify the benefits of testing and subsequent care among those at high risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.13971DOI Listing

Postprandial zinc stable isotope response in human blood serum.

Metallomics 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Queen's University, 36 Union Street, Kingston, K7L 2N8, Canada.

In recent years, considerable advances have been made in the field of medical isotope metallomics, but numerous fundamental physiological processes remain to be investigated. Past studies report that blood serum Zn concentrations decrease by between about 10 and 25%, depending on the size of meal, approximately three hours postprandially (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0mt00122hDOI Listing

Recent advances in improving tumor-targeted delivery of imaging nanoprobes.

Biomater Sci 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine (ACN), University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Tumor-targeted delivery of imaging nanoprobes provides a promising approach for the precision imaging diagnosis of cancers. Nanoprobes with desired bio-nano interface properties can preferably enter tumor tissues through the vascular endothelium, penetrate into deep tissues, and detect target lesions. Surface engineering of nanoparticles offers a critical strategy to improve tumor-targeting capacities of nanoprobes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm00761gDOI Listing

Recent advances in higher order rotaxane architectures.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Despite dramatic advances in the template-directed synthesis of archetypal [2]rotaxanes, higher order rotaxanes with multiple molecular components (rings or dumbbells) are relatively daunting subjects owing to their synthetic challenges. With unique interlocked architectures, higher order rotaxanes have found applications in artificial molecular machines. In this feature article, we will focus on the recent advances in higher order rotaxanes with well-defined structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc03057kDOI Listing

Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Biomater Sci 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, USA.

With an aging population that has been increasing in recent years, the need for the development of therapeutic approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (ND) has increased. ND, which are characterized by the progressive loss of the structure or function of neurons, are often associated with neuronal death. In spite of screening numerous drugs, currently there is no specific treatment that can cure these diseases or slow down their progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm00809eDOI Listing

Recent advances in inhibitors of C-terminal SRC kinase.

Future Med Chem 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Small Molecule Drug Discovery, Route 206 & Province Line Road, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/fmc-2020-0125DOI Listing

Dark world rises: The emergence of cavefish as a model for the study of evolution, development, behavior, and disease.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

The Jupiter Life Science Initiative and Program in Neurogenetics, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, Florida.

A central question in biology is how naturally occurring genetic variation accounts for morphological and behavioral diversity within a species. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, has been studied for nearly a century as a model for investigating trait evolution. In March of 2019, researchers representing laboratories from around the world met at the Sixth Astyanax International Meeting in Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.22978DOI Listing

Endowing zeolite LTA superballs with multifold light manipulation ability.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Jilin University, Chemistry, Qianjin Street 2699, 130012, Changchun, CHINA.

Advances in zeolites research emerging from interdisciplinary efforts have opened new opportunities beyond conventional applications. Colloids drive much current research owing to their distinct collective behaviors , but so far, zeolite used as a colloidal building block to construct ordered superstructures remains unexplored. Here we show that self-assembly of colloidal zeolite LTA superball (ZAS) by tilted angle sedimentation forms macroscopic films with micro-mesoporosity and 3D long-range periodicity featuring a photonic bandgap (PBG) that is tunable by superball geometry and responds reversibly to chemical vapors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202007064DOI Listing

Electroactive Covalent Organic Frameworks: Design, Synthesis, and Applications.

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 8:e2002038. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Laoshan District, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266101, China.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of crystalline porous polymers with tailorable compositions, porosities, functionalities, and intrinsic chemical stability. The incorporation of electroactive moieties in the structure transforms COFs into electroactive materials with great potential for energy-related applications. Herein, the recent advances in the design and use of electroactive COFs as capacitors, batteries, conductors, fuel cells, water-splitting, and electrocatalysis are addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002038DOI Listing

Lanthanide-Doped Near-Infrared Nanoparticles for Biophotonics.

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 8:e2000678. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures, Ministry of Education and State Key Laboratory of Urban Water, Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, P. R. China.

Light in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region is increasingly utilized in bioapplications, providing deeper penetration in biological tissues owing to the lower absorption and scattering in comparison with light in the visible range. Lanthanide-doped luminescent nanoparticles with excitation and/or emission in the NIR range have recently attracted tremendous attention as one of the prime candidates for noninvasive biological applications due to their unique optical properties, such as large Stokes shift, spectrally sharp luminescence emissions, long luminescence lifetimes, and excellent photostability. Herein, recent advances of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with NIR upconversion or downshifting luminescence and their uses in cutting-edge biophotonic applications are presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000678DOI Listing

Challenges and emerging systems biology approaches to discover how the human gut microbiome impact host physiology.

Biophys Rev 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Research in the human gut microbiome has bloomed with advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and other high-throughput molecular profiling technologies. This has enabled the generation of multi-omics datasets which holds promises for big data-enabled knowledge acquisition in the form of understanding the normal physiological and pathological involvement of gut microbiomes. Ample evidence suggests that distinct microbial compositions in the human gut are associated with different diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12551-020-00724-2DOI Listing

Consensus recommendations of three-dimensional visualization for diagnosis and management of liver diseases.

Hepatol Int 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

CHESS Center, Institute of Portal Hypertension, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Three-dimensional (3D) visualization involves feature extraction and 3D reconstruction of CT images using a computer processing technology. It is a tool for displaying, describing, and interpreting 3D anatomy and morphological features of organs, thus providing intuitive, stereoscopic, and accurate methods for clinical decision-making. It has played an increasingly significant role in the diagnosis and management of liver diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-020-10052-yDOI Listing

Disease gene discovery in male infertility: past, present and future.

Hum Genet 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Biosciences Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

Identifying the genes causing male infertility is important to increase our biological understanding as well as the diagnostic yield and clinical relevance of genetic testing in this disorder. While significant progress has been made in some areas, mainly in our knowledge of the genes underlying rare qualitative sperm defects, the same cannot be said for the genetics of quantitative sperm defects. Technological advances and approaches in genomics are critical for the process of disease gene identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-020-02202-xDOI Listing

Advances in histone deacetylase inhibitors in targeting glioblastoma stem cells.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Habsiguda, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, Telangana, India.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal grade IV glioma (WHO classification) and widely prevalent primary brain tumor in adults. GBM tumors harbor cellular heterogeneity with the presence of a small subpopulation of tumor cells, described as GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) that pose resistance to standard anticancer regimens and eventually mediate aggressive relapse or intractable progressive GBM. Existing conventional anticancer therapies for GBM do not target GBM stem cells and are mostly palliative; therefore, exploration of new strategies to target stem cells of GBM has to be prioritized for the development of effective GBM therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04109-wDOI Listing

Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Magnets: Physics and Devices towards Spintronic Applications.

Research (Wash D C) 2020 19;2020:1768918. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (Nanjing Tech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, China.

The emergence of low-dimensional nanomaterials has brought revolutionized development of magnetism, as the size effect can significantly influence the spin arrangement. Since the first demonstration of truly two-dimensional magnetic materials (2DMMs) in 2017, a wide variety of magnetic phases and associated properties have been exhibited in these 2DMMs, which offer a new opportunity to manipulate the spin-based devices efficiently in the future. Herein, we focus on the recent progress of 2DMMs and heterostructures in the aspects of their structural characteristics, physical properties, and spintronic applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2020/1768918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321532PMC

Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Chronic Stress, and Hippocampal Subfield Development in Children.

Neurosci Insights 2020 26;15:2633105520931098. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Recent findings indicate that hair cortisol concentrations significantly mediate associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and reduced hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus volumes in children. In this commentary, we discuss these results and highlight important future research directions, including focusing on hippocampal subfield structural development in relation to episodic memory and mental health; the mechanistic role of excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate; and how chronic stress and cognitive stimulation may make unique proximal contributions to socioeconomic differences in hippocampal subfield volume. Building on the findings in these ways will contribute to advances in strategies aimed at reducing socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement and mental health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2633105520931098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323261PMC

Harnessing sub-organelle metabolism for biosynthesis of isoprenoids in yeast.

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2020 Sep 1;5(3):179-186. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023, PR China.

Current yeast metabolic engineering in isoprenoids production mainly focuses on rewiring of cytosolic metabolic pathway. However, the precursors, cofactors and the enzymes are distributed in various sub-cellular compartments, which may hamper isoprenoid biosynthesis. On the other side, pathway compartmentalization provides several advantages for improving metabolic flux toward target products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synbio.2020.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332497PMC
September 2020

From nature to nurture: Essence and methods to isolate robust methanotrophic bacteria.

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2020 Sep 26;5(3):173-178. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Methanotrophic bacteria are entities with innate biocatalytic potential to biofilter and oxidize methane into simpler compounds concomitantly conserving energy, which can contribute to copious industrial applications. The future and efficacy of such industrial applications relies upon acquiring and/or securing robust methanotrophs with taxonomic and phenotypic diversity. Despite several dramatic advances, isolation of robust methanotrophs is still a long-way challenging task with several lacunae to be filled in sequentially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synbio.2020.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327766PMC
September 2020

Challenges and advances in genome mining of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs).

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2020 Sep 24;5(3):155-172. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a class of cyclic or linear peptidic natural products with remarkable structural and functional diversity. Recent advances in genomics and synthetic biology, are facilitating us to discover a large number of new ribosomal natural products, including lanthipeptides, lasso peptides, sactipeptides, thiopeptides, microviridins, cyanobactins, linear thiazole/oxazole-containing peptides and so on. In this review, we summarize bioinformatic strategies that have been developed to identify and prioritize biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding RiPPs, and the genome mining-guided discovery of novel RiPPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synbio.2020.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327761PMC
September 2020

Current State of Transgender Medical Education in the United States and Canada: Update to a Scoping Review.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2020 Jan-Dec;7:2382120520934813. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: The published literature on education about transgender health within health professions curricula was previously found to be sporadic and fragmented. Recently, more inclusive and holistic approaches have been adopted. We summarize advances in transgender health education. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2382120520934813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315660PMC

Chromosome Abnormalities: New Insights into Their Clinical Significance in Cancer.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 26;17:562-570. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Chromosomal abnormalities, consisting of numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, are a common characteristic of cancer. Numerical chromosome abnormalities, mainly including aneuploidy and chromosome instability, are caused by chromosome segregation errors in mitosis, whereas structural chromosome abnormalities are a consequence of DNA damage and comprise focal/arm-level chromosome gain or loss. Recent advances have started to unveil the mechanisms by which chromosomal abnormalities can facilitate tumorigenesis and change the cellular fitness and the expression or function of RNAs and proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321812PMC

Subcorneal pustular dermatosis: Comprehensive review and report of a case presenting during pregnancytherapy.

Int J Womens Dermatol 2020 Jun 20;6(3):131-136. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Dermatology, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, India.

Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare, relapsing, sterile pustular eruption of unknown etiology that develops most commonly in middle-aged or mature women. This article reviews the presentation, associations, and management of the condition and highlights advances in pathophysiology. Onset of SPD during pregnancy has not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330443PMC

Sperm DNA Integrity and Male Fertility in Farm Animals: A Review.

Front Vet Sci 2020 19;7:321. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

The accurate prediction of male fertility is of major economic importance in the animal breeding industry. However, the results of conventional semen analysis do not always correlate with field fertility outcomes. There is evidence to indicate that mammalian fertilization and subsequent embryo development depend, in part, on the inherent integrity of the sperm DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317013PMC

Organic Electroactive Molecule-Based Electrolytes for Redox Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges of Molecular Design.

Front Chem 2020 19;8:451. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha, China.

This is a critical review of the advances in the molecular design of organic electroactive molecules, which are the key components for redox flow batteries (RFBs). As a large-scale energy storage system with great potential, the redox flow battery has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The redox molecules, which bridge the interconversion between chemical energy and electric energy for RFBs, have generated wide interest in many fields such as energy storage, functional materials, and synthetic chemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317337PMC

Genomics of Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma and Its Implications for Personalized Medicine.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:898. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, United States.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a rare, heterogenous group of mature T-cell neoplasms that comprise 10-15% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases in the United States. All subtypes of PTCL, except for ALK anaplastic T-cell lymphoma, are associated with poor prognosis, with median overall survival (OS) rates of 1-3 years. The diagnosis of PTCL is mainly based on clinical presentation, morphologic features, and immunophenotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317006PMC

Mini review: Genome mining approaches for the identification of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in .

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 21;18:1548-1556. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

are a large and valuable resource of bioactive and complex secondary metabolites, many of which have important clinical applications. With the advances in high throughput genome sequencing methods, various genome mining strategies have been developed and applied to the mapping of the genome. These studies have revealed that possess an even more significant number of uncharacterized silent secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs) than previously estimated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.06.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327026PMC

Deep learning models in genomics; are we there yet?

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 17;18:1466-1473. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Computer Science, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

With the evolution of biotechnology and the introduction of the high throughput sequencing, researchers have the ability to produce and analyze vast amounts of genomics data. Since genomics produce big data, most of the bioinformatics algorithms are based on machine learning methodologies, and lately deep learning, to identify patterns, make predictions and model the progression or treatment of a disease. Advances in deep learning created an unprecedented momentum in biomedical informatics and have given rise to new bioinformatics and computational biology research areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327302PMC

Constructing knowledge graphs and their biomedical applications.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 2;18:1414-1428. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Childhood Cancer Data Lab, Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation, United States.

Knowledge graphs can support many biomedical applications. These graphs represent biomedical concepts and relationships in the form of nodes and edges. In this review, we discuss how these graphs are constructed and applied with a particular focus on how machine learning approaches are changing these processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.05.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327409PMC

Computational prediction of protein aggregation: Advances in proteomics, conformation-specific algorithms and biotechnological applications.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 10;18:1403-1413. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Protein aggregation is a widespread phenomenon that stems from the establishment of non-native intermolecular contacts resulting in protein precipitation. Despite its deleterious impact on fitness, protein aggregation is a generic property of polypeptide chains, indissociable from protein structure and function. Protein aggregation is behind the onset of neurodegenerative disorders and one of the serious obstacles in the production of protein-based therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.05.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322485PMC

An update on serum biomarkers to assess axial spondyloarthritis and to guide treatment decision.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2020 24;12:1759720X20934277. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine -DIMED, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, Padova, 35128, Italy.

Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a group of debilitating, chronic, rheumatic conditions characterized by inflammation and new bone formation, mainly involving the spine and the sacroiliac joints. The lack of biomarkers in axSpA is well known. Despite significant treatment advances in recent years thanks to the introduction of drugs with a new mode of action, such as new biologic and targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, no relevant improvement in the identification of disease biomarkers has been achieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1759720X20934277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315656PMC

Surgical and local treatment of hepatic metastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: recent advances and future prospects.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 23;12:1758835920933034. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110004, China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with increasing incidence and mortality. More than half of PDAC patients develop metastases, with the liver being the most common site. Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with liver metastases (PCLM) have a very limited scope for surgery due to aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920933034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313332PMC