360 results match your criteria Advances In Microbial Physiology[Journal]


In situ absorbance measurements: a new means to study respiratory electron transfer in chemolithotrophic microorganisms.

Adv Microb Physiol 2020 5;76:81-127. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States; RAW Molecular Systems (RMS) LLC, Spokane, WA, United States; Australian Centre for Astrobiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Absorbance measurements on intact chemolithotrophic microorganisms that respire aerobically on soluble iron are described that used a novel integrating cavity absorption meter to eliminate the effects of light scattering on the experimental results. Steady state kinetic measurements on ferric iron production by intact cells revealed that the Michaelis Menten equation described the initial rates of product formation for at least 8 different chemolithotrophic microorganisms in 6 phyla distributed equally among the archaea and the Gram negative and Gram positive eubacteria. Cell-monitored turnover measurements during aerobic respiration on soluble iron by the same 12 intact microorganisms revealed six different patterns of iron-dependent absorbance changes, suggesting that there may be at least six different sets of prosthetic groups and biomolecules that can accomplish aerobic respiration on soluble iron. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2020.01.003DOI Listing
February 2020

Functional imaging of a model unicell: Spironucleus vortens as an anaerobic but aerotolerant flagellated protist.

Adv Microb Physiol 2020 17;76:41-79. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark.

Advances in optical microscopy are continually narrowing the chasm in our appreciation of biological organization between the molecular and cellular levels, but many practical problems are still limiting. Observation is always limited by the rapid dynamics of ultrastructural modifications of intracellular components, and often by cell motility: imaging of the unicellular protist parasite of ornamental fish, Spironucleus vortens, has proved challenging. Autofluorescence of nicotinamide nucleotides and flavins in the 400-580 nm region of the visible spectrum, is the most useful indicator of cellular redox state and hence vitality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2020.01.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Bacterial catabolism of s-triazine herbicides: biochemistry, evolution and application.

Adv Microb Physiol 2020 11;76:129-186. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Biocatalysis & Synthetic Biology Team, CSIRO Land & Water, Black Mountain Science and Innovation Park, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Synthetic Biology Future Science Platform, CSIRO Land & Water, Black Mountain Science and Innovation Park, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

The synthetic s-triazines are abundant, nitrogen-rich, heteroaromatic compounds used in a multitude of applications including, herbicides, plastics and polymers, and explosives. Their presence in the environment has led to the evolution of bacterial catabolic pathways in bacteria that allow use of these anthropogenic chemicals as a nitrogen source that supports growth. Herbicidal s-triazines have been used since the mid-twentieth century and are among the most heavily used herbicides in the world, despite being withdrawn from use in some areas due to concern about their safety and environmental impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2020.01.004DOI Listing
February 2020
3.250 Impact Factor

Making iron-sulfur cluster: structure, regulation and evolution of the bacterial ISC system.

Adv Microb Physiol 2020 16;76:1-39. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Stress Adaptation and Metabolism Unit, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; ERL CNRS 6002, CNRS, Paris, France.

Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters rank among the most ancient and conserved prosthetic groups. Fe-S clusters containing proteins are present in most, if not all, organisms. Fe-S clusters containing proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, from gene regulation to central metabolism, via gene expression, RNA modification or bioenergetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2020.01.001DOI Listing

A brief survey of the "cytochromome".

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 10;75:69-135. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.

Multihaem cytochromes c are widespread in nature where they perform numerous roles in diverse anaerobic metabolic pathways. This is achieved in two ways: multihaem cytochromes c display a remarkable diversity of ways to organize multiple hemes within the protein frame; and the hemes possess an intrinsic reactive versatility derived from diverse spin, redox and coordination states. Here we provide a brief survey of multihaem cytochromes c that have been characterized in the context of their metabolic role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.07.005DOI Listing

Escherichia coli DosC and DosP: a role of c-di-GMP in compartmentalized sensing by degradosomes.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 12;75:53-67. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, Center for Sciences, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil.

The Escherichia coli operon dosCP, also called yddV-yddU, co-expresses two heme proteins, DosC and DosP, both of which are direct oxygen sensors but paradoxically have opposite effects on the levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP. DosC is a diguanylate cyclase that synthesizes c-di-GMP from GTP, whereas DosP is a phosphodiesterase that linearizes c-di-GMP to pGpG. Both proteins are associated with the large degradosome enzyme complex that regulates many bacterial genes post-transcriptionally by processing or degrading the corresponding RNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.05.002DOI Listing

Oxygen regulatory mechanisms of nitrogen fixation in rhizobia.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 10;75:325-389. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Rhizobia are α- and β-proteobacteria that form a symbiotic partnership with legumes, fixing atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia and providing it to the plant. Oxygen regulation is key in this symbiosis. Fixation is performed by an oxygen-intolerant nitrogenase enzyme but requires respiration to meet its high energy demands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.08.001DOI Listing
July 2020
3.250 Impact Factor

Roles and regulation of Spx family transcription factors in Bacillus subtilis and related species.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 5;75:279-323. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.

Bacillus subtilis Spx is the prototype for a large family of redox-responsive transcription factors found in many bacteria, most notably those from the phylum Firmicutes. Unusually for a transcription factor, B. subtilis Spx protein modulates gene expression by binding as a monomer to the αCTD domain of RNA polymerase (RNAP), and only interacts with DNA during subsequent promoter engagement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055150PMC

The functional diversity of the prokaryotic sulfur carrier protein TusA.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 23;75:233-277. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Institut für Mikrobiologie & Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Persulfide groups participate in a wide array of biochemical pathways and are chemically very versatile. The TusA protein has been identified as a central element supplying and transferring sulfur as persulfide to a number of important biosynthetic pathways, like molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or thiomodifications in nucleosides of tRNAs. In recent years, it has furthermore become obvious that this protein is indispensable for the oxidation of sulfur compounds in the cytoplasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.07.004DOI Listing

Dissimilatory reduction of sulfate and zero-valent sulfur at low pH and its significance for bioremediation and metal recovery.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 10;75:205-231. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Redox transformations of sulfur, involving dissimilatory and assimilatory oxidation and reduction reactions, occurs in water bodies and terrestrial environments worldwide, leading to dynamic cycling of this element throughout the biosphere. In cases where zero-valent (elemental) sulfur, sulfate and other oxidized forms are used as electron acceptor in (primarily) anaerobic microbial metabolisms, the end product is hydrogen sulfide (HS or HS, dependent on pH). While neutrophilic and alkalophilic sulfidogenic prokaryotes have been known for many decades, acid-tolerant and acidophilic strains and species have been isolated and characterized only in the past twenty or so years, even though evidence for sulfide generation on these environments was previously well documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.07.002DOI Listing

Multiple degrees of separation in the central pathways of the catabolism of aromatic compounds in fungi belonging to the Dikarya sub-Kingdom.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 23;75:177-203. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (ITQB NOVA), Av. da República, Oeiras, Portugal.

The diversity and abundance of aromatic compounds in nature is crucial for proper metabolism in all biological systems, and also impacts greatly the development of many industrial processes. Naturally, understanding their catabolism becomes fundamental for many scientific fields of research, from clinical and environmental to technological. The genetic basis of the central pathways for the catabolism of aromatic compounds in fungi, particularly of benzene derivatives, remains however poorly understood largely overlooking their significance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.07.003DOI Listing

Bacterial nitrous oxide respiration: electron transport chains and copper transfer reactions.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 10;75:137-175. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Microbial Energy Conversion and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.

Biologically catalyzed nitrous oxide (NO, laughing gas) reduction to dinitrogen gas (N) is a desirable process in the light of ever-increasing atmospheric concentrations of this important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. A diverse range of bacterial species produce the copper cluster-containing enzyme NO reductase (NosZ), which is the only known enzyme that converts NO to N. Based on phylogenetic analyses, NosZ enzymes have been classified into clade I or clade II and it has turned out that this differentiation is also applicable to nos gene clusters (NGCs) and some physiological traits of the corresponding microbial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.07.001DOI Listing

New insights into the molecular physiology of sulfoxide reduction in bacteria.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 5;75:1-51. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Sulfoxides occur in biology as products of the S-oxygenation of small molecules as well as in peptides and proteins and their formation is often associated with oxidative stress and can affect biological function. In bacteria, sulfoxide damage can be reversed by different types of enzymes. Thioredoxin-dependent peptide methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSR proteins) repair oxidized methionine residues and are found in all Domains of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.05.001DOI Listing

Stress-induced adaptive morphogenesis in bacteria.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 4;74:97-141. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Molecular Biotechnology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, the Netherlands; Centre for Microbial Cell Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Bacteria thrive in virtually all environments. Like all other living organisms, bacteria may encounter various types of stresses, to which cells need to adapt. In this chapter, we describe how cells cope with stressful conditions and how this may lead to dramatic morphological changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

Bioenergetic aspects of archaeal and bacterial hydrogen metabolism.

Authors:
Constanze Pinske

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 28;74:487-514. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Institute of Biology/Microbiology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 3, 06120 Halle/Saale, Germany.

Hydrogenases are metal-containing biocatalysts that reversibly convert protons and electrons to hydrogen gas. This reaction can contribute in different ways to the generation of the proton motive force (PMF) of a cell. One means of PMF generation involves reduction of protons on the inside of the cytoplasmic membrane, releasing H gas, which being without charge is freely diffusible across the cytoplasmic membrane, where it can be re-oxidized to release protons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

Formate hydrogenlyase: A group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase in tandem with a formate dehydrogenase.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 28;74:465-486. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Devonshire Centre for Biosystems Science & Engineering, School of Natural & Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne NE1 7RU, England, United Kingdom.

Hydrogenase enzymes are currently under the international research spotlight due to emphasis on biologically produced hydrogen as one potential energy carrier to relinquish the requirement for 'fossil fuel' derived energy. Three major classes of hydrogenase exist in microbes all able to catalyze the reversible oxidation of dihydrogen to protons and electrons. These classes are defined by their active site metal content: [NiFe]-; [FeFe]- and [Fe]-hydrogenases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

Reduction of hydrogen peroxide in gram-negative bacteria - bacterial peroxidases.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 8;74:415-464. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Microbial Stress Lab, UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

Bacteria display an array of enzymes to detoxify reactive oxygen species that cause damage to DNA and to other biomolecules leading to cell death. Hydrogen peroxide is one of these species, with endogenous and exogenous sources, such as lactic acid bacteria, oxidative burst of the immune system or chemical reactions at oxic-anoxic interfaces. The enzymes that detoxify hydrogen peroxide will be the focus of this review, with special emphasis on bacterial peroxidases that reduce hydrogen peroxide to water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2020
6 Reads

The plethora of membrane respiratory chains in the phyla of life.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 22;74:331-414. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica - António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República EAN, 2780-157, Oeiras, Portugal; University of Lisboa, Faculty of Sciences, BIOISI- Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Lisboa, Portugal.

The diversity of microbial cells is reflected in differences in cell size and shape, motility, mechanisms of cell division, pathogenicity or adaptation to different environmental niches. All these variations are achieved by the distinct metabolic strategies adopted by the organisms. The respiratory chains are integral parts of those strategies especially because they perform the most or, at least, most efficient energy conservation in the cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.03.002DOI Listing
February 2020
27 Reads

The function, biogenesis and regulation of the electron transport chains in Campylobacter jejuni: New insights into the bioenergetics of a major food-borne pathogen.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 8;74:239-329. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic Epsilonproteobacterium that grows in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and mammals, and is the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. As an oxygen-sensitive microaerophile, C. jejuni has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the host intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2020
8 Reads

Regulation of organohalide respiration.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 4;74:191-238. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, Station 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Organohalide respiration (OHR) is an anaerobic metabolism by which bacteria conserve energy with the use of halogenated compounds as terminal electron acceptors. Genes involved in OHR are organized in reductive dehalogenase (rdh) gene clusters and can be found in relatively high copy numbers in the genomes of organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB). The minimal rdh gene set is composed by rdhA and rdhB, encoding the catalytic enzyme involved in reductive dehalogenation and its putative membrane anchor, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

Hydrogenases and H metabolism in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfovibrio genus.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 22;74:143-189. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, BIP, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille, France.

Hydrogen metabolism plays a central role in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfovibrio genus and is based on hydrogenases that catalyze the reversible conversion of protons into dihydrogen. These metabolically versatile microorganisms possess a complex hydrogenase system composed of several enzymes of both [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-type that can vary considerably from one Desulfovibrio species to another. This review covers the molecular and physiological aspects of hydrogenases and H metabolism in Desulfovibrio but focuses particularly on our model bacterium Desulfovibrio fructosovorans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.03.001DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

The electrifying physiology of Geobacter bacteria, 30 years on.

Adv Microb Physiol 2019 15;74:1-96. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States.

The family Geobacteraceae, with its only valid genus Geobacter, comprises deltaproteobacteria ubiquitous in soil, sediments, and subsurface environments where metal reduction is an active process. Research for almost three decades has provided novel insights into environmental processes and biogeochemical reactions not previously known to be carried out by microorganisms. At the heart of the environmental roles played by Geobacter bacteria is their ability to integrate redox pathways and regulatory checkpoints that maximize growth efficiency with electron donors derived from the decomposition of organic matter while respiring metal oxides, particularly the often abundant oxides of ferric iron. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2020
21 Reads

Antibiotic Lethality and Membrane Bioenergetics.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 20;73:77-122. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Pulmonary Section, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, United States; Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.

A growing body of research suggests bacterial metabolism and membrane bioenergetics affect the lethality of a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Electrochemical gradients spanning energy-transducing membranes are the foundation of the chemiosmotic hypothesis and are essential for life; accordingly, their dysfunction appears to be a critical factor in bacterial death. Proton flux across energy-transducing membranes is central for cellular homeostasis as vectorial proton translocation generates a proton motive force used for ATP synthesis, pH homeostasis, and maintenance of solute gradients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.06.002DOI Listing
August 2019
3 Reads

Nitric Oxide Stress as a Metabolic Flux.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 13;73:63-76. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United States. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is an antimicrobial metabolite produced by immune cells to prohibit infection. Due to its reactivity, NO has numerous reaction routes available to it in biological systems with some leading to cellular damage and others producing innocuous compounds. Pathogens have evolved resistance mechanisms toward NO, and many of these take the form of enzymes that chemically passivate the molecule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.06.003DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Biotechnological Applications of Bioactive Peptides From Marine Sources.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 20;73:171-220. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Institute of Biosciences and BioResources (IBBR), CNR, Napoli, Italy; Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy; Dipartimento di Biologia, Università Roma 3, Roma, Italy. Electronic address:

This review is an overview on marine bioactive peptides with promising activities for the development of alternative drugs to fight human pathologies. In particular, we focus on potentially prolific producers of peptides in microorganisms, including sponge-associated bacteria and marine photoautotrophs such as microalgae and cyanobacteria. Microorganisms are still poorly explored for drug discovery, even if they are highly metabolically plastic and potentially amenable to culturing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.05.002DOI Listing
August 2019
41 Reads

Novel Antibacterials: Alternatives to Traditional Antibiotics.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 6;73:123-169. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Pathology and Infectious Disease, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

With the advent of the global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis, our arsenal of effective antibiotics is diminishing. The widespread use and misuse of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, compounded by the lack of novel classes of antibiotic in the pharmaceutical pipeline, has left a hole in our antibiotic armamentarium. Thus, alternatives to traditional antibiotics are being investigated, including two major groups of antibacterial agents, which have been extensively studied, phytochemicals and metals. Read More

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August 2019
4 Reads

Host-Derived Nitric Oxide and Its Antibacterial Effects in the Urinary Tract.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 20;73:1-62. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

School of Medical Sciences, Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. Electronic address:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, and the majority are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The rising antibiotic resistance among UPEC and the frequent failure of antibiotics to effectively treat recurrent UTI and catheter-associated UTI motivate research on alternative ways of managing UTI. Abundant evidence indicates that the toxic radical nitric oxide (NO), formed by activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, plays an important role in host defence to bacterial infections, including UTI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.05.001DOI Listing
August 2019
12 Reads

Preface.

Authors:
Robert K Poole

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 ;72:xi

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2911(18)30014-6DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

The Inflammasome: Regulation of Nitric Oxide and Antimicrobial Host Defence.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 28;72:65-115. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.004DOI Listing
August 2019
3 Reads

Nitric Oxide Signalling in Yeast.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 2;72:29-63. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a cellular signalling molecule widely conserved among organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and higher eukaryotes such as plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by the activities of NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR). There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.003DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Anaerobic Bacterial Response to Nitrosative Stress.

Authors:
Jeffrey A Cole

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 15;72:193-237. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

School of Biosciences and Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge of how anaerobic bacteria protect themselves against nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary source of this stress. Aerobically its removal is an oxidative process, whereas reduction is required anaerobically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.001DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

Emerging Roles of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Bacterial Physiology.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 26;72:147-191. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent inhibitor of diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Therefore, it was surprising to discover that several bacterial species, primarily Gram-positive organisms, harboured a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent attempts to characterize bacterial NOS (bNOS) have resulted in the discovery of structural features that may allow it to function as a NO dioxygenase and produce nitrate in addition to NO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.006DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Nitric Oxide, an Old Molecule With Noble Functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biology.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 19;72:117-145. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is characterized by its versatility that enables persistent survival under adverse conditions. It can grow on diverse energy sources and readily acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it also causes chronic infections inside the anaerobic mucus airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.005DOI Listing
August 2019
7 Reads

Reactive Cysteine Persulphides: Occurrence, Biosynthesis, Antioxidant Activity, Methodologies, and Bacterial Persulphide Signalling.

Adv Microb Physiol 2018 26;72:1-28. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Cysteine hydropersulphide (CysSSH) is a cysteine derivative having one additional sulphur atom bound to a cysteinyl thiol group. Recent advances in the development of analytical methods for detection and quantification of persulphides and polysulphides have revealed the biological presence, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of hydropersulphides in diverse forms such as CysSSH, homocysteine hydropersulphide, glutathione hydropersulphide, bacillithiol hydropersulphide, coenzyme A hydropersulphide, and protein hydropersulphides. Owing to the chemical reactivity of the persulphide moiety, biological systems utilize persulphides as important intermediates in the synthesis of various sulphur-containing biomolecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2018.01.002DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

The Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Metal Phytoremediation.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 25;71:97-132. Epub 2017 May 25.

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.04.001DOI Listing
February 2018
19 Reads

Haem-Based Sensors of O: Lessons and Perspectives.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 6;71:235-257. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Haem-based sensors have emerged during the last 15 years as being a large family of proteins that occur in all kingdoms of life. These sensors are responsible mainly for detecting binding of O, CO and NO and reporting the ligation status to an output domain with an enzymatic or macromolecule-binding property. A myriad of biological functions have been associated with these sensors, which are involved in vasodilation, bacterial symbiosis, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, among others. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00652911173002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.05.001DOI Listing
February 2018
50 Reads

Cytochrome bd and Gaseous Ligands in Bacterial Physiology.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 10;71:171-234. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

CNR Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Cytochrome bd is a unique prokaryotic respiratory terminal oxidase that does not belong to the extensively investigated family of haem-copper oxidases (HCOs). The enzyme catalyses the four-electron reduction of O to 2HO, using quinols as physiological reducing substrates. The reaction is electrogenic and cytochrome bd therefore sustains bacterial energy metabolism by contributing to maintain the transmembrane proton motive force required for ATP synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.05.002DOI Listing
February 2018
3 Reads

Mechanism and Role of Globin-Coupled Sensor Signalling.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 6;71:133-169. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

The discovery of the globin-coupled sensor (GCS) family of haem proteins has provided new insights into signalling proteins and pathways by which organisms sense and respond to changing oxygen levels. GCS proteins consist of a sensor globin domain linked to a variety of output domains, suggesting roles in controlling numerous cellular pathways, and behaviours in response to changing oxygen concentration. Members of this family of proteins have been identified in the genomes of numerous organisms and characterization of GCS with output domains, including methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, kinases, and diguanylate cyclases, have yielded an understanding of the mechanism by which oxygen controls activity of GCS protein output domains, as well as downstream proteins and pathways regulated by GCS signalling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464121PMC
February 2018
6 Reads

The Microbiology of Ruthenium Complexes.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 29;71:1-96. Epub 2017 May 29.

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Ruthenium is seldom mentioned in microbiology texts, due to the fact that this metal has no known, essential roles in biological systems, nor is it generally considered toxic. Since the fortuitous discovery of cisplatin, first as an antimicrobial agent and then later employed widely as an anticancer agent, complexes of other platinum group metals, such as ruthenium, have attracted interest for their medicinal properties. Here, we review at length how ruthenium complexes have been investigated as potential antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to their long and well-established roles as biological stains and inhibitors of calcium channels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.03.001DOI Listing
February 2018
53 Reads

Preface.

Authors:
Robert K Poole

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 ;70:xi-xii

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2911(17)30018-8DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Nutritional Immunity and Fungal Pathogenesis: The Struggle for Micronutrients at the Host-Pathogen Interface.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 16;70:85-103. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Aberdeen Fungal Group, MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.006DOI Listing
November 2018
55 Reads

Manganese in Marine Microbiology.

Authors:
Colleen M Hansel

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 14;70:37-83. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States. Electronic address:

The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn), a potent oxidant (Mn) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.005DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

The Role of Intermetal Competition and Mis-Metalation in Metal Toxicity.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 13;70:315-379. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Institute for Cell & Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.003DOI Listing
November 2018
50 Reads

Metal Resistance and Its Association With Antibiotic Resistance.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 3;70:261-313. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

School of Biosciences, the University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.02.001DOI Listing
November 2018
54 Reads
2 Citations
3.250 Impact Factor

Copper and Antibiotics: Discovery, Modes of Action, and Opportunities for Medicinal Applications.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 18;70:193-260. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States. Electronic address:

Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.007DOI Listing
November 2018
70 Reads

Transition Metal Homeostasis in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 20;70:123-191. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.002DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Metal-Based Combinations That Target Protein Synthesis by Fungi.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 11;70:105-121. Epub 2017 Feb 11.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

A wide range of fungicides (or antifungals) are used in agriculture and medicine, with activities against a spectrum of fungal pathogens. Unfortunately, the evolution of fungicide resistance has become a major issue. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antifungal treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.001DOI Listing
November 2018
45 Reads

Bacterial Haemoprotein Sensors of NO: H-NOX and NosP.

Adv Microb Physiol 2017 18;70:1-36. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) modulate varied behaviours in bacteria including biofilm dispersal and quorum sensing-dependent light production. H-NOX (haem-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) is a haem-bound protein domain that has been shown to be involved in mediating these bacterial responses to NO in several organisms. However, many bacteria that respond to nanomolar concentrations of NO do not contain an annotated H-NOX domain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659832PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

The Making and Taking of Lipids: The Role of Bacterial Lipid Synthesis and the Harnessing of Host Lipids in Bacterial Pathogenesis.

Authors:
E M Fozo E A Rucks

Adv Microb Physiol 2016 1;69:51-155. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, United States. Electronic address:

In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.07.001DOI Listing
March 2017
2 Reads

Polar Marine Microorganisms and Climate Change.

Adv Microb Physiol 2016 29;69:187-215. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Bristol Glaciology Center, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature. The indigenous populations of Antarctic and Arctic microorganisms are endowed with genetic and physiological traits that allow them to live and effectively compete at the temperatures prevailing in polar regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.07.002DOI Listing
March 2017
2 Reads