250,287 results match your criteria Advances In Mechanical Engineering[Journal]


Adolescent Personality Pathology and the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders: Self Development as Nexus.

Authors:
Carla Sharp

Psychopathology 2020 May 28:1-7. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA,

This paper reviews maladaptive trait development (DSM-5 Section III Criterion B), the development of DSM-5 Section II borderline personality disorder, and research on the development of identity, self-direction, empathy/mentalizing, and intimacy (DSM-5 Section III Criterion A). Combined, these previously disparate literatures begin to point to an integrated developmental theory of personality pathology, which suggests that Criterion A concepts (identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy) coalesce around the development of self, marking a discontinuous (qualitative) developmental shift. This developmental shift is a function of the demands placed on individuals to take on independent adult role function, combined with biologically-based maturational cognitive and emotional advances during adolescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507588DOI Listing

Advances in adjuvant therapy of biliary tract cancer: an overview of current clinical evidence based on phase II and III trials.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2020 Apr 27;151:102975. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Amsterdam UMC, Dept. of Medical Oncology, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC) have a high recurrence rate after complete surgical resection. To reduce the risk of recurrence and to improve survival, several chemotherapeutic agents that have shown to be active in locally advanced and metastatic BTC have been investigated in the adjuvant setting in prospective clinical trials. Based on the results of the BILCAP phase III trial, capecitabine was adapted as the standard of care by the ASCO clinical practice guideline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.102975DOI Listing

Recent advances on the plant manipulation by geminiviruses.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2020 May 25;56:56-64. Epub 2020 May 25.

Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201602, China. Electronic address:

As intracellular parasites, viruses co-opt the molecular machinery of the cells they infect in order to multiply and spread, and the extensiveness and effectiveness of this manipulation ultimately determine the outcome of the interaction between virus and host. Members of the Geminiviridae family, causal agents of devastating diseases in crops, encode only a handful of multifunctional, fast-evolving proteins, which efficiently target host proteins to re-wire plant development and physiology and enable replication and spread of the viral genome. In this review, we offer an overview of the different steps in the geminiviral invasion of the host plant, and explore the knowns and unknowns in geminivirus biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2020.03.009DOI Listing

Recent advances in production and extraction of bacterial lipids for biofuel production.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 19;734:139420. Epub 2020 May 19.

Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136, USA. Electronic address:

Lipid-based biofuel is a clean and renewable energy that has been recognized as a promising replacement for petroleum-based fuels. Lipid-based biofuel can be made from three different types of intracellular biolipids; triacylglycerols (TAGs), wax esters (WEs), and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Among many lipid-producing prokaryotes and eukaryotes, biolipids from prokaryotes have been recently highlighted due to simple cultivation of lipid-producing prokaryotes and their ability to accumulate high biolipid contents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139420DOI Listing

Humic extracts from hydrochar and Amazonian Anthrosol: Molecular features and metal binding properties using EEM-PARAFAC and 2D FTIR correlation analyses.

Chemosphere 2020 May 22;256:127110. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Biosciences, Humanities and Exact Sciences (IBILCE), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Organic matter plays many roles in the soil ecosystem. One property of the substance concerns the metal complexation and interaction with organic contaminants. In this sense, the humic substances (HS), a heterogeneous mixture of compounds, naturally derived from degradation of biomass, have been widely studied in environmental sciences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127110DOI Listing

A simple model for calculatingrelative biological effectiveness of x-rays and gamma radiation in cell survival.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20190949. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Objectives: TheRBE of x-rays and γ radiation increases substantially with decreasing beam energy. This trend affects the efficacy of medical applications of this type of radiation. This study was designed to develop a model based on a survey of experimental data that can reliably predict this trend. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190949DOI Listing

The Bacterial Connection between the Oral Cavity and the Gut Diseases.

J Dent Res 2020 May 28:22034520924633. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

More than 100 trillion symbiotic microorganisms constitutively colonize throughout the human body, including the oral cavity, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. The oral cavity harbors one of the most diverse and abundant microbial communities within the human body, second to the community that resides in the gastrointestinal tract, and is composed of >770 bacterial species. Advances in sequencing technologies help define the precise microbial landscape in our bodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034520924633DOI Listing

Safety and efficacy of endovascular implantation of a portal vein stent combined with iodine-125 seed-strips followed by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with Sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20190279. Epub 2020 May 28.

Interventional Department, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, LanzhouGansu, China.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of endovascular implantation of a portal vein stent combined with iodine- seed-strips followed by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with sorafenib (PVS-I-TACE-S) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT).

Methods: Between January 2015 and July 2017, 18 patients with PVTT caused by HCC that were treated with PVS-I-TACE-S were reviewed. The technical success, complications, changes in liver function from baseline values due to subsequent endovascular implantation of a portal vein stent combined with iodine- seed-strips (PVS-I), time-to-tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190279DOI Listing

What will radiation oncology look like in 2050? A look at a changing professional landscape in Europe and beyond.

Mol Oncol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

The number of newly diagnosed cancers per year is predicted to almost double in the next two decades worldwide, and it remains unclear if and when this alarming trend will level off or even reverse. As such, cancer is very likely to continue to pose a major threat to human health. Radiation oncology is an indispensable pillar of cancer treatment and a well-developed discipline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12731DOI Listing

Catalytic Enantioselective Radical Transformations Enabled by Visible-Light.

Authors:
Debajyoti Saha

Chem Asian J 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Krishnagar Government College, Chemistry, College Streert, Nagendranagar, Krishnagar, Nadia, 741101, Krishnagar, INDIA.

Visible light has been recognized as an economical and environmentally benign source of energy that enables chemoselective molecular activation of chemical reactions and hence reveal a new horizon for the design and discovery of novel chemical transformations. On the other hand, asymmetric catalysis represents an economic method to satisfy the increasing need for enantioenriched compounds in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, combining visible light photocatalysis with asymmetric catalysis creates a wider range of opportunities for the development of mechanistically unique reaction schemes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202000525DOI Listing

Roles of trained immunity in the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies: a novel therapeutic target.

Hepatology 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Immunity and Metabolism, Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Cholangiopathies are a group of diseases mainly including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), biliary atresia (BA), and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Very limited treatment options are available for these diseases. Following an injury and exposure to DAMPs (Damage associated molecular patterns) and/or PAMPs (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns), cholangiocytes produce a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines leading to the activation of other innate and also adaptive immune cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31395DOI Listing

Macroevolutionary patterns in seed component mass and different evolutionary trajectories across seed desiccation responses.

New Phytol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Millennium Seed Bank, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Wakehurst, West Sussex, RH17 6TN, UK.

Seed coat and seed reserve show substantial mass variation, play different roles in plant life strategies and are shaped by different selective forces. However, remarkably little is known about the macroevolution of the relative allocation in seed components and its influence on important ecophysiological processes. Using phylogenetic comparative methods and evolutionary modelling approaches, we modelled mass changes in seed components along individual lineages for 940 species and compared the patterns across seed desiccation responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16706DOI Listing

Genetics of HCC: Novel approaches to explore molecular diversity.

Hepatology 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, Université Paris 13, Functional Genomics of Solid Tumors laboratory, F-75006, Paris, France.

Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are highly heterogeneous malignancies with different risk factors, including alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection, fatty liver disease and other genetic disorders. Despite recent progress in HCC management, most are diagnosed at advanced stages, when therapeutic options are limited. Currently, multikinase inhibitors (sorafenib, lenvatinib, cabozantinib and regorafenib), human monoclonal antibodies (ramucirumab), and immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) are the only systemic therapies approved for the treatment of unresectable HCC (1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31394DOI Listing

Systemic anti-cancer therapy delivery in the home: a service model.

Br J Nurs 2020 May;29(10):S22-S29

Homecare Pharmacist, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester.

The Christie NHS Foundation Trust is a leader in adapting patient care in response to treatment advances and new patient-centred care/efficiency initiatives. Due to extended waiting times in cancer clinics, The Christie developed an at-home treatment service to help reduce the pressure on clinics and improve patient experience. This article provides a detailed examination of the requirements necessary to successfully develop a home service for the delivery of systemic anticancer treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.10.S22DOI Listing

Molecular Profiling in Drug Development: Paving a Way Forward.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2020 May;40:309-318

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN.

As researchers learn more about tumor biology and the molecular mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and tumor evolution, clinical trials are growing more complex and patient selection for clinical trials is becoming more specific. Rather than exploit certain phenotypic characteristics of tumor cells (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/EDBK_100024DOI Listing

Lead-seq: transcriptome-wide structure probing in vivo using lead(II) ions.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Microbial Biology, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany.

The dynamic conformation of RNA molecules within living cells is key to their function. Recent advances in probing the RNA structurome in vivo, including the use of SHAPE (Selective 2'-Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension) or kethoxal reagents or DMS (dimethyl sulfate), provided unprecedented insights into the architecture of RNA molecules in the living cell. Here, we report the establishment of lead probing in a global RNA structuromics approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa404DOI Listing

Does Contrast-Enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) play a better role in diagnosis of Breast Lesions with Calcification? A comparison with MRI.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20200195. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound enabled reclassification of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS-BI-RADS) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of breast lesions with calcification.

Methods: A total of 52 breast lesions with calcification from 51 patients were detected by ultrasound (US) as hyperechoic foci and categorized as BI-RADS 3-5. The 51 patients further underwent CEUS scan and MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200195DOI Listing

Focal nodular marrow Hyperplasia: Imaging features of 53 cases.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20200206. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Medical Imaging, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill Stanmore, UK.

Objective: To describe the characteristic imaging features of focal nodular marrow hyperplasia (FNMH).

Methods And Materials: Retrospective review of all patients with a diagnosis of FNMH between January 2007 and September 2019.

Results: The study included 53 patients, 7 males and 46 females with a mean age of 58 years (range 12-95 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200206DOI Listing

Undergraduate medical education: a national survey of consultant radiologists.

Authors:
C Chew P J O'Dwyer

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20200380. Epub 2020 May 28.

Emeritus Professor Gastrointestinal Surgery, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.

Objective: Rising clinical demand and changes to Radiologists' job plans mean it is becoming ever more difficult for Radiologists to teach medical students.The aim of this study was to assess the current role of Radiologists in undergraduate medical education in Scotland.

Methods: Consultant Radiologists working across all 14 Scottish Health Boards were invited by email to participate in an anonymous short online survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200380DOI Listing

BioXmark® liquid fiducial markers for image guided radiotherapy in muscle invasive bladder cancer, a safety and performance trial.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20200241. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of radiation oncology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: This study evaluated the performance of the novel liquid fiducial marker (BioXmark®) in IGRT for bladder cancer.

Methods: Twenty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were entered in this prospective, single center, Phase I-II study. The novel BioXmark liquid markers were injected around the tumor using a flexible cystoscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200241DOI Listing

Quantum Mechanics-Based Structure Analysis of Cyclic Monoterpene Glycosides from .

J Nat Prod 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801, United States.

NMR- and MS-guided metabolomic mining for new phytoconstituents from a widely used dietary supplement, , yielded two new (+)-myrtenol glycosides, and , and two new cuminol glycosides, and , along with three known analogues, -. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic data analysis. Quantum mechanics-driven H iterative full spin analysis (QM-HiFSA) decoded the spatial arrangement of the methyl groups in and , as well as other features not recognizable by conventional methods, including higher order spin-coupling effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00212DOI Listing

A practical approach to the use of targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest.

Minerva Anestesiol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Intensive Care, Erasme University Hospital Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium -

Among comatose survivors after cardiac arrest, target temperature management (TTM) is considered the most effective treatment to reduce the consequences of post-anoxic brain injury. Several international guidelines have thus incorporated TTM in the management of the post- resuscitation phase. However, despite extremely promising results in animal models and in randomized trials including selected patient cohorts, TTM benefits on neurological outcome have been questioned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0375-9393.20.14399-2DOI Listing

The Banff 2019 Kidney Meeting Report (I): Updates on and clarification of criteria for T cell- and antibody-mediated rejection.

Am J Transplant 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

The XV. Banff conference for allograft pathology was held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics in Pittsburgh, PA (USA) and focused on refining recent updates to the classification, advances from the Banff working groups, and standardization of molecular diagnostics. This report on kidney transplant pathology details clarifications and refinements to the criteria for chronic active (CA) T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), borderline, and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15898DOI Listing

Regenerative medicine, organ bioengineering and transplantation.

Br J Surg 2020 Jun;107(7):793-800

Department of Surgery, Section of Transplantation, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Organ transplantation is predicted to increase as life expectancy and the incidence of chronic diseases rises. Regenerative medicine-inspired technologies challenge the efficacy of the current allograft transplantation model.

Methods: A literature review was conducted using the PubMed interface of MEDLINE from the National Library of Medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11686DOI Listing

Advances in liver surgery.

Authors:
S J Wigmore

Br J Surg 2020 Jun;107(7):788-789

Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11624DOI Listing

Circular RNAs: new genetic tools in melanoma.

Biomark Med 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Research Center for Biochemistry & Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. New technologies have resulted in major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma and other cancer types. Recently, some studies have investigated the role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in different cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2019-0567DOI Listing

Radiobiologically-derived bi-phasic fractionation schemes to overcome the effects of tumour hypoxia.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20190250. Epub 2020 May 28.

Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.

Objectives: As a fractionated course of radiotherapy proceeds tumour shrinkage leads to resolution of hypoxia and the initiation of accelerated proliferation of radioresistant cancer cells with better repair capacity. We hypothesise that, in tumours with significant hypoxia, improved tumour control could be achieved with bi-phasic fractionation schedules that either use acceleration after 3-4 weeks of conventional radiotherapy or deliver a higher proportional dose towards the end of a course of treatment. We conducted a modelling study based on the concept of biological effective dose (BED) comparing such novel regimens with conventional fractionation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190250DOI Listing

High prevalence of peribronchial focal lesions of airway invasive aspergillosis in haematological cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20190693. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Radiology, Department of interventional and diagnostic radiology, University Hospital of Lausanne, CHUV, Switzerland.

Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize chest CT findings of neutropenic patients with proven/probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA).

Methods: Haematological cancer patients admitted to our institution (2007-2017) were retrospectively enrolled if the diagnostic criteria of proven/probable IPA during the neutropenia were met (EORTC/MSG). Galactomannan (GM) was routinely measured in serum and chest CT-scan was routinely performed in case of recurrent/persistent fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190693DOI Listing

A comparison of manually populated radiology information systemdigital radiographic datawith electronic dose management systems.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20200055. Epub 2020 May 28.

Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, NG5PB, United Kingdom.

Objective: To assess the accuracy and agreement of radiology information system(RIS) kermaarea product (KAP)data with respect to automatically populated dose management system (DMS) data for digital radiography (DR).

Methods: All adult radiographic examinations over 12 months were exported from the RIS and DMS at three centres. Examinations were matched by unique identifier fields, and grouped by examination type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200055DOI Listing

Application of monoexponential, Biexponential, and Stretched-exponential Models of Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Metastases and Myeloma in the Spine.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 28:20190891. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, PR China.

Objective: To explore the value of related parameters in monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched-exponential models of diffusion weight imaging (DWI)in differentiating metastases and myeloma in the spine.

Methods: 53 metastases and 16 myeloma patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 10 b-values (0-1500 s/mm). Parameters of Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), the distribution diffusion coefficient (DDC), and intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity (α)from DWI were calculated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190891DOI Listing

Emerging Pharmacotherapy and Health Care Needs of Patients in the Age of Artificial Intelligence and Digitalization.

Ann Pharmacother 2020 May 28:1060028020919383. Epub 2020 May 28.

University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Advances in the application of artificial intelligence, digitization, technology, iCloud computing, and wearable devices in health care predict an exciting future for health care professionals and our patients. Projections suggest an older, generally healthier, better-informed but financially less secure patient population of wider cultural and ethnic diversity that live throughout the United States. A pragmatic yet structured approach is recommended to prepare health care professionals and patients for emerging pharmacotherapy needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028020919383DOI Listing

Epidemiology and cost of Lyme disease-related hospitalizations among patients with employer-sponsored health insurance-United States, 2005-2014.

Zoonoses Public Health 2020 Jun;67(4):407-415

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

An estimated 300,000 cases of Lyme disease occur in the United States annually. Disseminated Lyme disease may result in carditis, arthritis, facial palsy or meningitis, sometimes requiring hospitalization. We describe the epidemiology and cost of Lyme disease-related hospitalizations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12699DOI Listing

Ontogenetic changes of diploic channels in modern humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 28:e24085. Epub 2020 May 28.

Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, Burgos, Spain.

Objectives: The diploic channels are bony passages of veins, running within frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. In this study, we investigate ontogenetic changes of these channels in a sample of nonadult and adult modern humans.

Materials And Methods: Using computed tomography scans of dried crania, we provide quantitative comparisons of lumen size, branch length, volume, and vascular asymmetries, and correlations with age, cranial size, and bone thickness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24085DOI Listing

Update on immune-mediated therapies for myasthenia gravis.

Muscle Nerve 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, California.

With the exception of thymectomy, immune modulatory treatment strategies and clinical trials in myasthenia gravis over the past 50 y were mainly borrowed from experience in other nonneurologic autoimmune disorders. The current experimental therapy paradigm has significantly changed such that treatments directed against the pathological mechanisms specific to myasthenia gravis are being tested, in some cases as the initial disease indication. Key advances have been made in three areas: (i) the expanded role and long-term benefits of thymectomy, (ii) complement inhibition to prevent antibody-mediated postsynaptic membrane damage, and (iii) neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) inhibition as in vivo apheresis, removing pathogenic antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26919DOI Listing

Features of Enteric Disease from Human Coronaviruses: Implications for COVID-19.

Authors:
Nevio Cimolai

J Med Virol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia and Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, B.C., V6H3V4.

Coronaviruses have long been studied in both human and veterinary fields. Whereas the initial detection of endemic human respiratory coronaviruses was problematic, detection of these and newly discovered human coronaviruses has been greatly facilitated with major advances in the laboratory. Nevertheless, technological factors can affect the accuracy and timeliness of virus detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26066DOI Listing

What Is New in (Plant) Proteomics Methods and Protocols: The 2015-2019 Quinquennium.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2139:1-10

Agroforestry and Plant Biochemistry, Proteomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Cordoba, UCO-CeiA3, Cordoba, Spain.

The third edition of "Plant Proteomics Methods and Protocols," with the title "Advances in Proteomics Techniques, Data Validation, and Integration with Other Classic and -Omics Approaches in the Systems Biology Direction," was conceived as being based on the success of the previous editions, and the continuous advances and improvements in proteomic techniques, equipment, and bioinformatics tools, and their uses in basic and translational plant biology research that has occurred in the past 5 years (in round figures, of around 22,000 publications referenced in WoS, 2000 were devoted to plants).The monograph contains 29 chapters with detailed proteomics protocols commonly employed in plant biology research. They present recent advances at all workflow stages, starting from the laboratory (tissue and cell fractionation, protein extraction, depletion, purification, separation, MS analysis, quantification) and ending on the computer (algorithms for protein identification and quantification, bioinformatics tools for data analysis, databases and repositories). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0528-8_1DOI Listing
January 2020

From the Knife to the Endoscope-a History of Bariatric Surgery.

Curr Obes Rep 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Bariatric Unit, Department of General Surgery, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, UK.

Purpose Of Review: This review was conducted to gain insight into the history, present and future of bariatric and/or metabolic surgery and endoscopic treatments of obesity. The challenges that have been overcome, the challenges we still face and our recommendations for the future are discussed.

Recent Findings: Over the last few decades, a number of treatment strategies have emerged for the treatment of obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13679-020-00382-1DOI Listing

Anti-MRSA agent discovery using Caenorhabditis elegans-based high-throughput screening.

J Microbiol 2020 Jun 27;58(6):431-444. Epub 2020 May 27.

College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea.

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. Despite current advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy, the infections caused by S. aureus remain challenging due to their ability to readily develop resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-020-0163-8DOI Listing

Fever and Fever of Unknown Origin: Review, Recent Advances, and Lingering Dogma.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 May 2;7(5):ofaa132. Epub 2020 May 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Fever has preoccupied physicians since the earliest days of clinical medicine. It has been the subject of scrutiny in recent decades. Historical convention has mostly determined that 37. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237822PMC

Convergence Science to Transform Biomedicine: A Narrative Review.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Feb;49(2):221-229

Department of Basic Sciences, Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Recently convergence science was proposed and promoted in a large report from US National Science Foundation and Department of Commerce (NSF/DOC). The report was entitled "converging technologies for improving human performance. ". Read More

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February 2020

Salvage surgery for local recurrence after carbon ion radiotherapy for lung cancer: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2020 16;30:101091. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Osaka City University Hospital, Japan.

Background: The good local control rate of radiation therapy has been reported due to recent advances in irradiation technology. Carbon ion radiation therapy (CIRT) has been shown to be effective for early lung cancer. We report a case of performing salvage surgery on the local recurrence of lung cancer after CIRT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2020.101091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240179PMC

Hexagonal boron nitride: a review of the emerging material platform for single-photon sources and the spin-photon interface.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2020 8;11:740-769. Epub 2020 May 8.

Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Khobar 31952, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Single-photon sources and their optical spin readout are at the core of applications in quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum sensing. Their integration in photonic structures such as photonic crystals, microdisks, microring resonators, and nanopillars is essential for their deployment in quantum technologies. While there are currently only two material platforms (diamond and silicon carbide) with proven single-photon emission from the visible to infrared, a quantum spin-photon interface, and ancilla qubits, it is expected that other material platforms could emerge with similar characteristics in the near future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.11.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214868PMC

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Advances in Vaccine Development.

Biores Open Access 2020 12;9(1):137-150. Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe human disease with mortality rates of up to 30%. The disease is widespread in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The last few years have seen disease emergence in Spain for the first time and disease re-emergence in other regions of the world after periods of inactivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/biores.2019.0057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247048PMC

Rhizosphere microbiome: Engineering bacterial competitiveness for enhancing crop production.

J Adv Res 2020 Jul 29;24:337-352. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Metagenomics and Secretomics Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour University (A Central University), Sagar 470003, M.P., India.

Plants in nature are constantly exposed to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses which limits their growth and production. Enhancing crop yield and production to feed exponentially growing global population in a sustainable manner by reduced chemical fertilization and agrochemicals will be a big challenge. Recently, the targeted application of beneficial plant microbiome and their cocktails to counteract abiotic and biotic stress is gaining momentum and becomes an exciting frontier of research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240055PMC

Materials for flexible bioelectronic systems as chronic neural interfaces.

Nat Mater 2020 Jun 27;19(6):590-603. Epub 2020 May 27.

Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Engineered systems that can serve as chronically stable, high-performance electronic recording and stimulation interfaces to the brain and other parts of the nervous system, with cellular-level resolution across macroscopic areas, are of broad interest to the neuroscience and biomedical communities. Challenges remain in the development of biocompatible materials and the design of flexible implants for these purposes, where ulimate goals are for performance attributes approaching those of conventional wafer-based technologies and for operational timescales reaching the human lifespan. This Review summarizes recent advances in this field, with emphasis on active and passive constituent materials, design architectures and integration methods that support necessary levels of biocompatibility, electronic functionality, long-term stable operation in biofluids and reliability for use in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0679-7DOI Listing

Primary therapy and relative survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a nationwide population-based study in the Netherlands, 1989-2017.

Leukemia 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Hematology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, LYMMCARE (Lymphoma and Myeloma Center Amsterdam), Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Population-based studies of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) in contemporary clinical practice are scarce. The aim of this nationwide population-based study is to assess trends in primary therapy and relative survival (RS) during 1989-2017. We included 9,985 patients with cHL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0875-0DOI Listing

A novel real-world ecotoxicological dataset of pelagic microbial community responses to wastewater.

Sci Data 2020 May 27;7(1):158. Epub 2020 May 27.

Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Real-world observational datasets that record and quantify pressure-stressor-response linkages between effluent discharges and natural aquatic systems are rare. With global wastewater volumes increasing at unprecedented rates, it is urgent that the present dataset is available to provide the necessary information about microbial community structure and functioning. Field studies were performed at two time-points in the Austral summer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0496-5DOI Listing

Relevance of oxidative stress and inflammation in frailty based on human studies and mouse models.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 May 27;12. Epub 2020 May 27.

Group of Cellular Oncology, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain.

Frailty represents a state of vulnerability and increases the risk of negative health outcomes, which is becoming an important public health problem. Over recent years, multiple independent studies have attempted to identify biomarkers that can predict, diagnose, and monitor frailty at the biological level. Among them, several promising candidates have been associated with frailty status including antioxidants and free radicals, and also inflammatory response biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103295DOI Listing

Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Its Impact in Neurological Disease.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2020 Jun 27;33(3). Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

SUMMARY neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic in most of the world and contributes significantly to the burden of epilepsy and other neurological morbidity. Also present in developed countries because of immigration and travel, NCC is one of few diseases targeted for eradication. This paper reviews all aspects of its life cycle (taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis), with a focus on recent advances in its diagnosis, management, and control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00085-19DOI Listing

Recent advances in long-acting nanoformulations for delivery of antiretroviral drugs.

J Control Release 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, PilaniCampus, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan 333031, India. Electronic address:

In spite of introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; inaccessibility and poor adherence to oral cART costs 10 in 100,000 death worldwide. Failure in adherence leads to viral rebound, emergence of drug resistance and anticipated HIV infection in high risk individual. Various Long-acting antiretroviral (LA ARV) nanoformulations including nano-prodrug, solid drug nanoparticles (SDN), nanocrystals, aspherical nanoparticles, polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles have shown plasma/tissue drug concentration in the therapeutic range for several weeks during pre-clinical evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.05.022DOI Listing