887 results match your criteria Advances In Immunology[Journal]

Becoming aware of γδ T cells.

Adv Immunol 2022 28;153:91-117. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Department of Immunology and Genomic Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, United States; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, United States.

The discovery that B cells and αβ T cells exist was predictable: These cells gave themselves away through their products and biological effects. In contrast, there was no reason to anticipate the existence of γδ T cells. Even the accidental discovery of a novel TCR-like gene (later named γ) that did not encode TCR α or β proteins did not immediately change this. Read More

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The role of properdin and Factor H in disease.

Adv Immunol 2022 4;153:1-90. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States. Electronic address:

The complement system consists of three pathways (alternative, classical, and lectin) that play a fundamental role in immunity and homeostasis. The multifunctional role of the complement system includes direct lysis of pathogens, tagging pathogens for phagocytosis, promotion of inflammatory responses to control infection, regulation of adaptive cellular immune responses, and removal of apoptotic/dead cells and immune complexes from circulation. A tight regulation of the complement system is essential to avoid unwanted complement-mediated damage to the host. Read More

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Neuropsychiatric disorders: An immunological perspective.

Adv Immunol 2021 18;152:83-155. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Neuropsychiatric diseases have traditionally been studied from brain, and mind-centric perspectives. However, mounting epidemiological and clinical evidence shows a strong correlation of neuropsychiatric manifestations with immune system activation, suggesting a likely mechanistic interaction between the immune and nervous systems in mediating neuropsychiatric disease. Indeed, immune mediators such as cytokines, antibodies, and complement proteins have been shown to affect various cellular members of the central nervous system in multitudinous ways, such as by modulating neuronal firing rates, inducing cellular apoptosis, or triggering synaptic pruning. Read More

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January 2022

Complement as a powerful "influencer" in the brain during development, adulthood and neurological disorders.

Adv Immunol 2021 18;152:157-222. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, United States. Electronic address:

The complement system was long considered as only a powerful effector arm of the immune system that, while critically protective, could lead to inflammation and cell death if overactivated, even in the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the past decade it has been recognized as playing critical roles in key physiological processes in the CNS, including neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the developing and adult brain. Inherent in these processes are the interactions with cells in the brain, and the cascade of interactions and functional consequences that ensue. Read More

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January 2022

Renal diseases and the role of complement: Linking complement to immune effector pathways and therapeutics.

Adv Immunol 2021 19;152:1-81. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

The complement system is an ancient and phylogenetically conserved key danger sensing system that is critical for host defense against pathogens. Activation of the complement system is a vital component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of pathogens. It is also a central orchestrator of adaptive immune responses and a constituent of normal tissue homeostasis. Read More

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January 2022

Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development.

Adv Immunol 2021 14;151:99-133. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

In some cases, antibodies can enhance virus entry and replication in cells. This phenomenon is called antibody-dependent infection enhancement (ADE). ADE not only promotes the virus to be recognized by the target cell and enters the target cell, but also affects the signal transmission in the target cell. Read More

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October 2021

Immunology of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccines.

Adv Immunol 2021;151:49-97. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections trigger viral RNA sensors such as TLR7 and RIG-I, thereby leading to production of type I interferon (IFN) and other inflammatory mediators. Expression of viral proteins in the context of this inflammation leads to stereotypical antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses that clear the virus. Immunity is then maintained through long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and by memory B and T cells that can initiate anamnestic responses. Read More

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October 2021

The development and physiological and pathophysiological functions of resident macrophages and glial cells.

Adv Immunol 2021 4;151:1-47. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Developmental Biology of the Immune System, Life & Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

In the past, brain function and the onset and progression of neurological diseases have been studied in a neuron-centric manner. However, in recent years the focus of many neuroscientists has shifted to other cell types that promote neurodevelopment and contribute to the functionality of neuronal networks in health and disease. Particularly microglia and astrocytes have been implicated in actively contributing to and controlling neuronal development, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Read More

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November 2021

Follicular lymphoma dynamics.

Adv Immunol 2021 18;150:43-103. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, INSERM, CIML, Marseille, France.

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent yet challenging disease. Despite a generally favorable response to immunochemotherapy regimens, a fraction of patients does not respond or relapses early with unfavorable prognosis. For the vast majority of those who initially respond, relapses will repeatedly occur with increasing refractoriness to available treatments. Read More

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October 2021

The multi-faceted roles of TGF-β in regulation of immunity to infection.

Rick M Maizels

Adv Immunol 2021 4;150:1-42. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Transforming Growth Factor-β is a potent regulator of the immune system, acting at every stage from thymic differentiation, population of the periphery, control of responsiveness, tissue repair and generation of memory. It is therefore a central player in the immune response to infectious pathogens, but its contribution is often clouded by multiple roles acting on different cells in time and space. Hence, context is all-important in understanding when TGF-β is beneficial or detrimental to the outcome of infection. Read More

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October 2021

Panorama of stepwise involvement of the IgH 3' regulatory region in murine B cells.

Adv Immunol 2021 27;149:95-114. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

CNRS, Contrôle de la Réponse Immune B et des Lymphoproliférations, UMR 7276, Limoges, France; INSERM, Contrôle de la Réponse Immune B et des Lymphoproliférations, UMR 1262, Limoges, France; Université de Limoges, Contrôle de la Réponse Immune B et des Lymphoproliférations, UMR 7276, UMR 1262, Limoges, France. Electronic address:

Among the multiple events leading to immunoglobulin (Ig) expression in B cells, stepwise activation of the Ig heavy chain locus (IgH) is of critical importance. Transcription regulation of the complex IgH locus has always been an interesting viewpoint to unravel the multiple and complex events required for IgH expression. First, regulatory germline transcripts (GLT) assist DNA remodeling events such as VDJ recombination, class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Read More

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October 2021

The transcription factors GFI1 and GFI1B as modulators of the innate and acquired immune response.

Adv Immunol 2021 23;149:35-94. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal-IRCM, Montréal, QC, Canada; Département de microbiologie, infectiologie et immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

GFI1 and GFI1B are small nuclear proteins of 45 and 37kDa, respectively, that have a simple two-domain structure: The first consists of a group of six c-terminal CH zinc finger motifs that are almost identical in sequence and bind to very similar, specific DNA sites. The second is an N-terminal 20 amino acid SNAG domain that can bind to the pocket of the histone demethylase KDM1A (LSD1) near its active site. When bound to DNA, both proteins act as bridging factors that bring LSD1 and associated proteins into the vicinity of methylated substrates, in particular histone H3 or TP53. Read More

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October 2021

Modeling a complex disease: Multiple sclerosis-Update 2020.

Adv Immunol 2021 29;149:25-34. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with an unknown etiology. Thereby, MS is not a uniform disease but rather represents a spectrum of disorders, where each aspect needs to be modeled with specific requirements-for a systematic overview see our previous issue of this review (Kurschus, Wortge, & Waisman, 2011). However, there is broad consensus about the critical involvement of the immune system in the disease pathogenesis. Read More

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October 2021

Thymoproteasome optimizes positive selection of CD8 T cells without contribution of negative selection.

Adv Immunol 2021 1;149:1-23. Epub 2021 May 1.

Thymus Biology Section, Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Functionally competent and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is shaped through positive and negative selection in the cortical and medullary microenvironments of the thymus. The thymoproteasome specifically expressed in the cortical thymic epithelium is essential for the optimal generation of CD8 T cells. Although how the thymoproteasome governs the generation of CD8 T cells is not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that the thymoproteasome optimizes CD8 T cell production through the processing of self-peptides associated with MHC class I molecules expressed by cortical thymic epithelial cells. Read More

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October 2021

IgE and mast cells: The endogenous adjuvant.

Adv Immunol 2020 5;148:93-153. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Mast cells and IgE are most familiar as the effectors of type I hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. It is becoming clear however that this pair has important immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive cells of the immune system. In this purview, they act as endogenous adjuvants to ignite evolving immune responses, promote the transition of allergic disease into chronic illness and disrupt the development of active mechanisms of tolerance to ingested foods. Read More

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Unexplored horizons of cDC1 in immunity and tolerance.

Adv Immunol 2020 1;148:49-91. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

The Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, United States; Extramural member Parker Institute of Cancer Immunotherapy, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Dendritic cells are a specialized subset of hematopoietic cells essential for mounting immunity against tumors and infectious disease as well as inducing tolerance for maintenance of homeostasis. DCs are equipped with number of immunoregulatory or stimulatory molecules that interact with other leukocytes to modulate their functions. Recent advances in DC biology identified a specific role for the conventional dendritic cell type 1 (cDC1) in eliciting cytotoxic CD8+ T cells essential for clearance of tumors and infected cells. Read More

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Preserving immune homeostasis with A20.

Adv Immunol 2020 27;148:1-48. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address:

A20/TNFAIP3 is a TNF induced gene that plays a profound role in preserving cellular and organismal homeostasis (Lee, et al., 2000; Opipari etal., 1990). Read More

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Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination by IgH transcriptional control elements.

Adv Immunol 2020 25;147:89-137. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, IPBS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France; Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Class switch recombination (CSR) plays an important role in humoral immunity by generating antibodies with different effector functions. CSR to a particular antibody isotype is induced by external stimuli, and occurs between highly repetitive switch (S) sequences. CSR requires transcription across S regions, which generates long non-coding RNAs and secondary structures that promote accessibility of S sequences to activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Read More

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The role of NK cell as central communicators in cancer immunity.

Adv Immunol 2020 24;147:61-88. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Institute of Molecular Immunology and Experimental Oncology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells critically involved in the control of cancer. Their important role in cancer immunity reflects the ability of NK cells to recognize malignant cells through an array of germline-encoded receptors expressed on their surface, enabling NK cells to detect and rapidly kill tumor cells through targeted cytotoxicity. In addition to their cytotoxic activity, NK cells fulfill a fundamental and often underappreciated role in the local orchestration of cancer immunity through their ability to communicate with innate and adaptive immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is achieved through the secretion of multiple chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. Read More

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Histone deacetylases as targets in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases.

Adv Immunol 2020 15;147:1-59. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Division of Immunobiology, Institute of Immunology, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Reversible lysine acetylation of histones is a key epigenetic regulatory process controlling gene expression. Reversible histone acetylation is mediated by two opposing enzyme families: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Moreover, many non-histone targets of HATs and HDACs are known, suggesting a crucial role for lysine acetylation as a posttranslational modification on the cellular proteome and protein function far beyond chromatin-mediated gene regulation. Read More

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Unraveling the mysteries of plasma cells.

Adv Immunol 2020 27;146:57-107. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Division of Molecular Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Nikolaus-Fiebiger Center, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Antibody-secreting plasma cells are the central pillars of humoral immunity. They are generated in a fundamental cellular restructuring process from naive B cells upon contact with antigen. This outstanding process is guided and controlled by a complex transcriptional network accompanied by a fascinating morphological metamorphosis, governed by the combined action of Blimp-1, Xbp-1 and IRF-4. Read More

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Friend or foe? Lactobacillus in the context of autoimmune disease.

Adv Immunol 2020 19;146:29-56. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Over the last decade, the interplay between the gut microbiota, the consortium of intestinal microbes that colonizes intestinal mucosal barriers, and its host immune system has been increasingly better understood. Disruption of the delicate balance between beneficial and pathogenic commensals, known as dysbiosis, contributes to a variety of chronic immunologic and metabolic diseases. Complicating this paradigm are bacterial strains that can operate paradoxically both as instigators and attenuators of inflammatory responses, depending on host background. Read More

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Homeostatic and pathogenic roles of PI3Kδ in the human immune system.

Adv Immunol 2020 19;146:109-137. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical University, Hannover, Germany.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) mediates signaling transduction downstream of diverse immune receptors, including the T cell receptor (TCR), the B cell receptor (BCR), costimulatory molecules and cytokine receptors. Our understanding of the role of PI3Kδ in the immune system comes primarily from mice, and especially from the consequences of pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kδ in mouse models of human disease as well as the consequences of genetic manipulation, resulting in hyperactivation or loss of PI3Kδ function. In case of humans, in vitro studies with PI3Kδ-specific inhibitors, the consequences of treatment of hematologic malignancies with the PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor idelalisib and primary immunodeficiency disorders due to germline variants hyper- or underactivating PI3Kδ provide most of our knowledge on the role of PI3Kδ in immunity and immune regulation. Read More

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Transcriptional regulation of natural killer cell development and maturation.

Adv Immunol 2020 26;146:1-28. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Pathology and Committee on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Natural killer cells are lymphocytes that respond rapidly to intracellular pathogens or cancer/stressed cells by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines and by killing target cells through direct cytolysis. NK cells are distinct from B and T lymphocytes in that they become activated through a series of broadly expressed germ line encoded activating and inhibitory receptors or through the actions of inflammatory cytokines. They are the founding member of the innate lymphoid cell family, which mirror the functions of T lymphocytes, with NK cells being the innate counterpart to CD8 T lymphocytes. Read More

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Fine-tuning of antiviral innate immunity by ubiquitination.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:95-128. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province & Department of Immunology, the School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

The innate immune system represents the first defense line of the host following viral infection. The infection triggers the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from the viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the host cell. The interaction between viral PAMPs and PRRs evokes a sophisticated signal transduction system and eventually promotes the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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The strategies of targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome to treat inflammatory diseases.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:55-93. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Division of Life Science and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China; CAS Centre for Excellence in Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex, the assembly of which can be initiated in response to various exogenous or endogenous danger signals. Excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human inflammatory diseases, suggesting that the NLRP3 inflammasome is a potential target for the treatment of these diseases. However, clinical drugs targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome are still not available. Read More

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Tissue-resident NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:37-53. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, The CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Institute of Immunology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate effectors for their defense against pathogens and tumors without the need of prior sensitization. Along with the growing understanding of basic NK cell biology, it has been widely accepted that NK cells are a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family. Apart from the conventional NK cell (cNK) subset that circulates throughout the body, some non-lymphoid tissues contain tissue-resident NK (trNK) cell subsets, and the composition of NK cell subsets varies greatly with different locations. Read More

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Metalloimmunology: The metal ion-controlled immunity.

Adv Immunol 2020 9;145:187-241. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Metals are essential components in all forms of life required for the function of nearly half of all enzymes and are critically involved in virtually all fundamental biological processes. Especially, the transition metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) are crucial micronutrients known to play vital roles in metabolism as well due to their unique redox properties. Metals carry out three major functions within metalloproteins: to provide structural support, to serve as enzymatic cofactors, and to mediate electron transportation. Read More

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Regulation of MHC class I-independent NK cell education by SLAM family receptors.

Adv Immunol 2020 13;145:159-185. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

School of Medicine and Institute for Immunology, Beijing Key Lab for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Seven members of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors (SFRs) are ubiquitously expressed on hematopoietic cells and they play critical roles in immune cell differentiation and activation. The engagement of these receptors transmits intracellular signaling mainly by recruiting SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and its related adaptors, EWS-FLI1-activated transcript-2 (EAT-2) and EAT-2-related transducer (ERT). The critical roles of SFRs and SAP-family adaptors are highlighted by the discovery that SAP is mutated in human X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP1) disease in which the contact between T and B cells in germinal center and cytotoxic lymphocytes (NK cells and CD8 T cells) function are severely compromised. Read More

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Metabolic regulation of innate immunity.

Adv Immunol 2020 5;145:129-157. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Institute for Immunology and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Immunological Research on Chronic Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Immune responses are often accompanied by radical changes of cellular metabolism of immune cells. On the other hand, an ever increasing number of metabolic pathways and products have been found to possess immune regulatory functions. The field of immunometabolism that investigates the interplay between metabolism and immunity has developed rapidly during the past decade. Read More

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