229,548 results match your criteria Advances In Geometry[Journal]


Behavioral and Biochemical Features of the Course and Surgical Treatment of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus in Young Rats.

Dev Neurosci 2019 Apr 18:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Introduction: Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial disease, affecting the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and leading to severe neurological impairment in children; in spite of the recent advances in hydrocephalus research, it has many physiopathological aspects that still remain poorly understood, especially after treatment.

Objectives: To analyze the clinical, radiological, histopathological, and biochemical aspects of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in an experimental model, both in the acute phase and after shunt treatment, by means of behavioral tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, histopathological studies, and level of inflammatory interleukins in the CSF.

Methods: Seven-day-old Wistar rats were used and subdivided into three subgroups: treated hydrocephalic (n = 24), untreated hydrocephalic (n = 17), and controls (n = 5). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497433DOI Listing

Machine learning and big data in psychiatry: toward clinical applications.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15;55:152-159. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Psychiatry is a medical field concerned with the treatment of mental illness. Psychiatric disorders broadly relate to higher functions of the brain, and as such are richly intertwined with social, cultural, and experiential factors. This makes them exquisitely complex phenomena that depend on and interact with a large number of variables. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sampling and multiplexing in lab-on-paper bioelectroanalytical devices for glucose determination.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Apr 5;135:64-70. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Departamento de Química Física y Analítica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006, Oviedo, Spain. Electronic address:

In this work, we present a multiplexed (eight simultaneous measurements) paper-based electrochemical device developed in a very simple way and using low-cost materials, such as paper, carbon ink and multifunctional connector headers. Meanwhile, we have also combined the paper-based electrochemical platform with a glass-fiber strip in order to integrate easily a sampling step. Both approaches, simultaneous measuring and sampling, have been applied to the determination of glucose using bienzymatic biosensors. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09565663193028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Current status of nanomaterial-based treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Apr 15;116:108852. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Departments of Biology, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Cancer continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a prominent form of liver cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, thanks to the lack of efficient diagnostic tools and consequently late diagnosis and to the scarce of available suitable treatments. Thus, novel approaches to treat HCC are in demand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108852DOI Listing

Towards more effective online environmental information provision through tailored Natural Language Generation: Profiles of Scottish river user groups and an evaluative online experiment.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 28;673:643-655. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

The University of Aberdeen, King's College, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, Scotland, United Kingdom.

As a result of societal transformations, political governance shifts, and advances in ICT, online information has become crucial in efforts by public authorities to make citizens better stewards of the environment. Yet, their environmental information provision may not always be attuned to end users' rationales, behaviours and appreciations. This study revolves around dynamic river level information provided by an environmental regulator - updated once a day or more, and collected by a sensor network of 333 gauging stations along 232 Scottish rivers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.440DOI Listing

De novo Domestication: An Alternative Route toward New Crops for the Future.

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Current global agricultural production must feed over 7 billion people. However, productivity varies greatly across the globe and is under threat from both increased competitions for land and climate change and associated environmental deterioration. Moreover, the increase in human population size and dietary changes are putting an ever-greater burden on agriculture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.03.016DOI Listing

Emerging Strategies in Cancer Therapy Combining Chemotherapy with Immunotherapy.

Cancer Lett 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155 Nanjing South Street, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110016, PR China; Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 155 Nanjing South Street, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110016, PR China.

Cancer immunotherapy holds great potential to battle cancer by exerting a durable immunity effect. However, this process might be limited by various constraints existing in the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as the lack of available neoantigen, insufficient T cells from the naive repertoire, or immunosuppressive networks in which immunogenic tissue is protected from immune attacks. Certain chemotherapeutic drugs could elicit immune-potentiating effects by either inducing immunogenicity or relieving tumor-induced immunosuppression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.04.017DOI Listing

Radiation-Induced Lung Injury: Assessment and Management.

Chest 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston TX, USA.

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) encompasses any lung toxicity induced by radiation therapy (RT) and manifests acutely as radiation pneumonitis (RP) and chronically as radiation pulmonary fibrosis (RPF). Since most patients with thoracic and breast malignancies are expected to undergo RT in their lifetime, many with curative intent, the population at risk is significant. Further, indications for thoracic RT are expanding given the advent of stereotactic body radiation therapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SBRT/SABR) for early stage lung cancer in non-surgical candidates as well as oligometastatic pulmonary disease from any solid tumor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.03.033DOI Listing

Carer perspectives of people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder: A scoping review of emergency care responses.

Australas Emerg Care 2019 Mar 21;22(1):34-41. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Caring for a person with borderline personality disorder remains largely stigmatised and misunderstood. When a crisis arises, carers often seek help with the person they care for in emergency care settings such as the emergency department. The aim of this review was to explore, locate and compile the literature regarding the perspectives of family carers for a person with borderline personality disorder in an emergency care setting with a focus on nursing practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2018.12.001DOI Listing

A General Synthetic Approach for the Laurencia Family of Natural Products Empowered by a Potentially Biomimetic Ring Expansion.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The Laurencia family of C-acetogenins is Nature's largest collection of halogenated natural products, with many of its members possessing a brominated 8-membered cyclic ether among other distinct structural elements. Herein, we demonstrate that a bromonium-induced ring expansion, starting from a common tetrahydrofuran-containing bicyclic intermediate and using the highly reactive bromenium source BDSB (EtSBr•SbClBr), can lead to concise asymmetric total syntheses of microcladallenes A and B, desepilaurallene, laurallene, and prelaureatin. Key advances in this work include: 1) the first demonstration that the core bromonium-induced cyclization/ring-expansion can be initiated using an enyne with an internal ether oxygen nucleophile, 2) that reasonable levels of stereocontrol in such processes can be achieved both with and without appended ring systems and stereogenic centers, 3) that several other unique chemoselective transformations essential to building their polyfunctional cores can be achieved, and 4) that a single, common intermediate can lead to five different members of the class encompassing two distinct 8-membered cyclic ether ring collections. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.9b01088
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b01088DOI Listing
April 2019
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Characterizing Properties and Environmental Behaviors of Dissolved Organic Matter Using Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopic Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exists ubiquitously in environments and plays critical roles in pollutant mitigation, transformation and organic geochemical cycling. Understanding its properties and environmental behaviors is critically important to develop water treatment processes and environmental remediation strategies. Generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS), which has numerous advantages including enhancing spectral resolution and discerning specific order of structural change under an external perturbation, could be used as a powerful tool to interpret a wide range of spectroscopic signatures relating to DOM. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.9b01103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01103DOI Listing
April 2019
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Annual Award for an Essay by an Early-Career Scholar.

Hastings Cent Rep 2019 Mar;49(2)

As part of the celebrations of The Hastings Center's fiftieth anniversary, we are launching an annual prize, The David Roscoe Award for an Early-Career Scholar's Essay on Science, Ethics, and Society. The award is named in honor of David Roscoe, an accomplished essayist and recent past chair of the Hastings board. The award is intended to highlight the good scholarship that will take the field of bioethics forward into the next fifty years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hast.983DOI Listing

[Recent Advances in Immunotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia --Review].

Authors:
Bin Xu Yi Xiao

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;27(2):633-636

Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China E-mail:

Currently, the traditional chemotherapeutic drugs for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed significant curative efficacy, including the improving long-term prognosis and the life quality of the patients, however the traditional chemotherapeuatic drugs showed the some limitatious in the aspects of enhancing the complete remission rate of newly diagnosed AML patients, overcoming the relapse after remission,as well as the primary and secondary drug-resstance to chemotherapeutics. In order to improve the long-term prognisis of patients, the immuno therapy will the best choice for these patients. This review sammarizes the main current advance of immunotherapy of AML at home and abroad, such as antibody-drug conjugate(ADC), bispecific T cell engager (BiTE), chimeric type of antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, checkpoint inhibitors; dendritic cell vaccination and peptide vaccines; natural killer cell (NK) therapy and so on. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn1009-2137.2019.02.053DOI Listing
April 2019
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[Additive manufacturing in health care (part 2) : printing organs of vital importance].

Rev Med Liege 2019 Apr;74(4):218-225

Service de Cardiologie, CHU Liège, Belgique.

In a previous article, we highlighted the technical characteristics and economical advantages of additive manufacturing, especially for medical material as well as "hard" body structures without vital function (bone, cartilage and teeth). In the present paper we illustrate the technological advances in the field of printing vital organs. From a simple idea to a proof of concept, steps will be taken rapidly in order to introduce these techniques for functional replacement in the clinics in order to solve the ever-growing gap between supply and demand in the field of organ transplantation. Read More

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April 2019
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Electrophysiologic evaluation of facial nerve functions after oxaliplatin treatment.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Audiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: This study analyzes the effect of oxaliplatin treatment on the facial nerve. The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed cranial motor nerve because it advances through a long, curved bone canal. Electroneurography and blink reflex are the electrophysiological measurements used for evaluating facial nerve function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-019-03841-2DOI Listing

Causal Economics: A new pluralist framework for behavioral economics that advances theoretical and applied foundations.

Authors:
Andrew Horton

Heliyon 2019 Apr 4;5(4):e01342. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Independent researcher, 48 Thornhill Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M6S 4C5, Canada.

This paper introduces Causal Economics, a new pluralist framework for Behavioral Economics that allows for deep incorporation of psychological drivers at a level not possible in existing models. Its core theoretical breakthrough is the replacement of conventional single-value (net cost OR net benefit), single-period exogenous lottery outcomes as utilized within mainstream economics, with endogenous multi-period outcomes that always contain both personal total benefit (B) and personal total cost (C), including certain (deliberate) and uncertain components, with cause and effect running in at least one direction. Agents optimize an overall cumulative rank dependent weighted outcome value function against internal personal psychological trade-off constraints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451177PMC

Recent technical advances in proteomics.

Authors:
John R Yates

F1000Res 2019 29;8. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Molecular Medicine and Neurobiology, Scripps Research, 0550 North Torrey Pines Road, SR302, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

Mass spectrometry is one of the key technologies of proteomics, and over the last decade important technical advances in mass spectrometry have driven an increased capability for proteomic discovery. In addition, new methods to capture important biological information have been developed to take advantage of improving proteomic tools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16987.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441878PMC

Activatable near-infrared emission-guided on-demand administration of photodynamic anticancer therapy with a theranostic nanoprobe.

Chem Sci 2019 Mar 9;10(9):2785-2790. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals , School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering , East China University of Science & Technology , Shanghai 200237 , P. R. China . Email:

Development of theranostic probes that can be used to identify tumors and direct the on-demand drug administration to cancers is ongoing but remains challenging. Herein, we report a theranostic platform composed of a HS-activated imaging probe and a light-sensitive drug. The designed probe affords advantages of HS-activated NIR emission light-up and efficient O generation, enabling the selective visualization of HS-rich cancers and the subsequent imaging-directed on-demand light exposure to the detected cancers while leaving normal tissues untouched. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc04854aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419941PMC

Outcome of total hip and knee arthroplasty in HIV-infected patients: A systematic review.

Orthop Rev (Pavia) 2019 Feb 22;11(1):8020. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Significant advances in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have occurred in recent times, with life expectancy now approaching the normal population. Therefore, patients with HIV will increasingly be undergoing joint replacement in the future, however concerns remain regarding the complications and outcome in this patient cohort. The aim was to assess the outcome of total hip and knee arthroplasty in HIV-infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/or.2019.8020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452098PMC
February 2019

Budget Impact of Omadacycline for the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia in the United States from the Hospital Perspective.

Am Health Drug Benefits 2019 Feb;12(1-Supplement 1):S1-S12

Professor, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, NY.

Background: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) is an acute, lower respiratory bacterial infection. Despite advances in medical care, CABP remains associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs; early empiric treatment is recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and by the American Thoracic Society. Omadacycline is an oral and intravenous (IV) once-daily aminomethylcycline antibiotic that is approved in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with CABP. Read More

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February 2019
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Secondary Correction of the Midline Defect of Upper Lip: A Report of Five Cases.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2019 Jun 27;18(2):288-292. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Mamata Dental College, Khammam, Telangana India.

Introduction: Primary surgery of cleft lip and palate has dramatically improved with technical and material advances. Some adults who previously underwent surgery still have upper lip deformities or extensive scar, and they are occasionally seen for secondary treatment.

Cases: In our study, a total of five patients with secondary deformity of the upper lip with the scarred tissue with paucity of the muscle in the midline were operated using the modified Abbe flap. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-018-1134-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441439PMC

[Advances in epigenetic markers of dermatomyositis/polymyositis].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):374-377

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is a rare group of autoimmune diseases, characterized by chronic muscle weakness, muscle fatigue and infiltration of single nuclear cells in skeletal muscle. Its subtypes include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and immune-mediated necrotizing myositis (IMNM), and the most common subtypes are DM and PM. PM is an autoimmune disease mainly manifested by muscle damage. Read More

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April 2019
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Fatty acid transport protein 2 reprograms neutrophils in cancer.

Nature 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Immunology, Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) are pathologically activated neutrophils that are crucial for the regulation of immune responses in cancer. These cells contribute to the failure of cancer therapies and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Despite recent advances in the understanding of PMN-MDSC biology, the mechanisms responsible for the pathological activation of neutrophils are not well defined, and this limits the selective targeting of these cells. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1118-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1118-2DOI Listing
April 2019
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Astrophysical detection of the helium hydride ion HeH.

Nature 2019 Apr 17;568(7752):357-359. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Cologne, Germany.

During the dawn of chemistry, when the temperature of the young Universe had fallen below some 4,000 kelvin, the ions of the light elements produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis recombined in reverse order of their ionization potential. With their higher ionization potentials, the helium ions He and He were the first to combine with free electrons, forming the first neutral atoms; the recombination of hydrogen followed. In this metal-free and low-density environment, neutral helium atoms formed the Universe's first molecular bond in the helium hydride ion HeH through radiative association with protons. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1090-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1090-xDOI Listing
April 2019
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Dating glacier ice of the last millennium by quantum technology.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Radiometric dating with Ar covers a unique time span and offers key advances in interpreting environmental archives of the last millennium. Although this tracer has been acknowledged for decades, studies so far have been limited by the low abundance and radioactivity, thus requiring huge sample sizes. Atom trap trace analysis, an application of techniques from quantum physics such as laser cooling and trapping, allows us to reduce the sample volume by several orders of magnitude compared with conventional techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816468116DOI Listing
April 2019
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Life projects: the transformative potential of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C among people who inject drugs.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Oregon State University, 2520 SW Campus Way, 118C Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, United States.

Background And Objectives: People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately affected by chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in high-income countries. The advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) makes treatment of this underserved population more possible than ever. The dearth of programs adapted to the needs of PWID and stigma associated with drug use and chronic HCV pose significant barriers to the effective uptake of treatment among this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.015DOI Listing

Pathway to the Papanicolaou smear: The development of cervical cytology in twentieth-century America and implications in the present day.

Gynecol Oncol 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, United States of America.

George Papanicolaou, a Greek immigrant and cytopathologist, was responsible for what is now colloquially known as the "Pap smear"-undoubtedly one of the greatest advances in medicine and public health of the last century. However, his landmark research on the development of cervical cytology for the detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix ("New Cancer Diagnosis," 1928) made a rather inauspicious debut in an unlikely venue: John Harvey Kellogg's Third Race Betterment Conference-a meeting devoted to the furtherance of the concept and implementation of eugenics. Herein, we discuss the stark juxtaposition of Papanicolaou's landmark discovery amid the pseudoscience of the third Race Betterment Conference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Therapeutic novelties in migraine: new drugs, new hope?

J Headache Pain 2019 Apr 17;20(1):37. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Danish Headache Center and Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: In the past decade, migraine research has identified novel drug targets. In this review, we discuss recent data on emerging anti-migraine therapies.

Main Body: The development of ditans, gepants and anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of migraine is one of the greatest advances in the migraine field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-019-0974-3DOI Listing

Background and Recent Advances in the Locata Terrestrial Positioning and Timing Technology.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

College of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the most widely used Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) technology in the world today, but it suffers some major constraints. Locata is a terrestrial PNT technology that can be considered as a type of localised "constellation", which is able to provide high-accuracy PNT coverage where GNSS cannot be used. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of the Locata technology and its applications. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/19/8/1821
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081821DOI Listing
April 2019
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Everything You Always Wanted to Know about β-AR * (* But Were Afraid to Ask).

Cells 2019 Apr 16;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β-AR) is by far the least studied isotype of the beta-adrenergic sub-family. Despite its study being long hampered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models and inter-species differences, a substantial body of literature on the subject has built up in the last three decades and the physiology of β-AR is unraveling quickly. As will become evident in this work, β-AR is emerging as an appealing target for novel pharmacological approaches in several clinical areas involving metabolic, cardiovascular, urinary, and ocular disease. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/4/357
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8040357DOI Listing
April 2019
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Flavonoids: New Frontier for Immuno-Regulation and Breast Cancer Control.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Breast cancer (BC) remains the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US, despite advances in detection and treatment. In addition, breast cancer survivors often struggle with long-term treatment related comorbidities. Identifying novel therapies that are effective while minimizing toxicity is critical in curtailing this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040103DOI Listing

Recent Progress of Carbon Dot Precursors and Photocatalysis Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.

Carbon dots (CDs), a class of carbon-based sub-ten-nanometer nanoparticles, have attracted great attention since their discovery fifteen years ago. Because of the outstanding photoluminescence properties, photostability, low toxicity, and low cost, CDs have potential to replace traditional semiconductor quantum dots which have serious drawbacks of toxicity and high cost. This review covers the common top-down and bottom-up methods for the synthesis of CDs, different categories of CD precursors (small molecules, natural polymers, and synthetic polymers), one-pot and multi-step methods to produce CDs/photocatalyst composites, and recent advances of CDs on photocatalysis applications mostly in pollutant degradation and energy areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11040689DOI Listing

Nonhuman Primates and Humanized Mice for Studies of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: A Review.

Pathog Immun 2016 31;1(1):41-67. Epub 2016 May 31.

McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Since the discovery of the first inhibitors of HIV replication, drug resistance has been a major problem in HIV therapy due in part to the high mutation rate of HIV. Therefore, the development of a predictive animal model is important to identify impending resistance mutations and to possibly inform treatment decisions. Significant advances have been made possible through use of nonhuman primates infected by SIV, SHIV, and simian-tropic HIV-1 (stHIV-1), and use of humanized mouse models of HIV-1 infections. Read More

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https://paijournal.com/index.php/paijournal/article/view/104
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20411/pai.v1i1.104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423640PMC
May 2016
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Shear-induced alignment of collagen fibrils using 3D cell printing for corneal stroma tissue engineering.

Biofabrication 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, KOREA, Pohang, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF.

The microenvironments of tissues or organs are complex architectures comprised of structural proteins including collagen. Particularly, the cornea is organized in a lattice pattern of collagen fibrils which play a significant role in its transparency. This paper introduces a transparent bioengineered corneal structure for transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/ab1a8bDOI Listing

Atomic-scale insights into zeolite-based catalysis in NO decomposition.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 1;673:266-271. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Nitrous oxide (NO) has been the most serious ozone-depleting species throughout the 21st century. Zeolite-based catalysis is a highly promising method for NO removal in large-scale industrial applications. However, the exchanged transition metal species in zeolites greatly influence the performance of catalysts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.481DOI Listing
April 2019
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Synthetic approaches and pharmaceutical applications of chloro-containing molecules for drug discovery: A critical review.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Apr 10;173:117-153. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 205 Luoshi Road, Wuhan, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

At present more than 250 FDA approved chlorine containing drugs were available in the market and many pharmaceutically important drug candidates in pre-clinical trials. Thus, it is quite obvious to expect that in coming decades there will be an even greater number of new chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals in market. Chlorinated compounds represent the family of compounds promising for use in medicinal chemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.03.063DOI Listing
April 2019
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Physiological roles of antisense RNAs in prokaryotes.

Biochimie 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

CNRS UMR8261, IBPC, 13 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Prokaryotes encounter constant and often brutal modifications to their environment. In order to survive, they need to maintain fitness, which includes adapting their protein expression patterns. Many factors control gene expression but this review focuses on just one, namely antisense RNAs (asRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) characterized by their location in cis and their perfect complementarity with their targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2019.04.015DOI Listing

Immune Signaling in Neurodegeneration.

Immunity 2019 Apr;50(4):955-974

Boston Children's Hospital, F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system progressively rob patients of their memory, motor function, and ability to perform daily tasks. Advances in genetics and animal models are beginning to unearth an unexpected role of the immune system in disease onset and pathogenesis; however, the role of cytokines, growth factors, and other immune signaling pathways in disease pathogenesis is still being examined. Here we review recent genetic risk and genome-wide association studies and emerging mechanisms for three key immune pathways implicated in disease, the growth factor TGF-β, the complement cascade, and the extracellular receptor TREM2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.016DOI Listing

Interleukin-1 and Related Cytokines in the Regulation of Inflammation and Immunity.

Immunity 2019 Apr;50(4):778-795

IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano Milan, Italy; Humanitas University, via Rita Levi Montalcini, 20090 Pieve Emanuele Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Forty years after its naming, interleukin-1 (IL-1) is experiencing a renaissance brought on by the growing understanding of its context-dependent roles and advances in the clinic. Recent studies have identified important roles for members of the IL-1 family-IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38-in inflammation and immunity. Here, we review the complex functions of IL-1 family members in the orchestration of innate and adaptive immune responses and their diversity and plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Evolutionary Trajectories for the Functional Diversification of Anthracycline Methyltransferases.

ACS Chem Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Microbial natural products are an important source of chemical entities for drug discovery. Recent advances in understanding the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites has revealed how this rich chemical diversity is generated through functional differentiation of biosynthetic enzymes. For instance, investigations into anthracycline anti-cancer agents have uncovered distinct S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) - dependent proteins: DnrK is a 4-O-methyltransferase involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis, whereas RdmB (52% sequence identity) from the rhodomycin pathway catalyzes 10-hydroxylation. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschembio.9b00238
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00238DOI Listing
April 2019
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Viable and necrotic tumor assessment from whole slide images of osteosarcoma using machine-learning and deep-learning models.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0210706. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States of America.

Pathological estimation of tumor necrosis after chemotherapy is essential for patients with osteosarcoma. This study reports the first fully automated tool to assess viable and necrotic tumor in osteosarcoma, employing advances in histopathology digitization and automated learning. We selected 40 digitized whole slide images representing the heterogeneity of osteosarcoma and chemotherapy response. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210706PLOS

The Concept of Chronic Edema-A Neglected Public Health Issue and an International Response: The LIMPRINT Study.

Lymphat Res Biol 2019 Apr;17(2):121-126

2 Montpellier Medecine Vasculaire, EA2992, Universite Montpellier I, CHU Saint Eloi, Montpellier, France.

Lymphedema has always been a neglected global health care problem. A central requirement for the development of any chronic disease is the clear use of public health definitions that can be used internationally to define populations. The term "lymphedema" has historically been defined as either primary, resulting from failure of lymphatic development, or secondary, following damage to the lymphatics (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2018.0085DOI Listing

Quantitative MRI Musculoskeletal Techniques: An Update.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA.

For many years, MRI of the musculoskeletal system has relied mostly on conventional sequences with qualitative analysis. More recently, using quantitative MRI applications to complement qualitative imaging has gained increasing interest in the MRI community, providing more detailed physiologic or anatomic information. In this article, we review the current state of quantitative MRI, technical and software advances, and the most relevant clinical and research musculoskeletal applications of quantitative MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21143DOI Listing

Use of pharmaceutical nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Apr 11;52:e20180246. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia Industrial, Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE, Brasil.

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a global public health concern. Currently available treatments are associated with considerable side effects. The use of nanotechnology has shown promise for improving efficacy and bioavailability and minimizing side effects. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0246-2018DOI Listing
April 2019
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The theorical-methodological construction of theses and dissertations and their epistemological problems.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20171020. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia/PPGEO-CFCH-UFPE, Departamento de Ciências Geográficas, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CFCH 5o e 6o andar, Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 7803, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil.

This essay discusses the problem of the lack of dialogue between theory/empirical reality in the construction of the theoretical structure of dissertations and doctorates in Human Sciences in Brazil; taking Geography as an example, Santos (2000) observed this problem, which persists at the national level. The proposal is to present the question and to suggest the relationship between theory/empirical reality coming of the dialogue with specific research questions. It is these research questions that will define the limitations, factors, agents, processes and structures that will be studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920171020DOI Listing

Scientific collaboration in Zika: identification of the leading research groups and researchers via social network analysis.

Cad Saude Publica 2019 Apr 8;35(3):e00220217. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The association between Zika and microcephaly drew international attention to Brazil. The emergency situation demanded speed and collective effort by researchers worldwide, and Science was quick to investigate the disease and publish the results. Scientific knowledge was created and disseminated through collaboration in this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00220217DOI Listing

An overview of the recent advances in inorganic nanotubes.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute, Herzl Street 234, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

Advanced nanomaterials play a prominent role in nanoscience and nanotechnology developments, opening new frontiers in these areas. Among these nanomaterials, due to their unique characteristics and enhanced chemical and physical properties, inorganic nanotubes have been considered one of the most interesting nanostructures. In recent years, important progress has been achieved in the production and study of these nanomaterials, including boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenide nanotubular structures, misfit-based nanotubes and other hybrid/doped nanotubular objects. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9NR01880H
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr01880hDOI Listing
April 2019
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Polygenic risk scores in coronary artery disease.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants accounting for a substantial portion of the heritable risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). These studies have not only catalyzed drug discovery but also have opened the possibility of improved risk prediction and stratification. Here we review the current state-of-the art in polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and look to the future, as these scores move towards clinical application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000629DOI Listing
April 2019
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Presentation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers on diverse nanoparticle platforms.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: We will discuss recent advances in the development of nanoparticle vaccines presenting HIV-1 envelope trimer vaccines and the immunological mechanisms by which they act.

Recent Findings: The multivalent presentation of Env trimers on nanoparticles is a promising strategy to increase Env immunogenicity. Recent studies have shed light on how Env nanoparticles increase lymph node trafficking and germinal center formation by using the lectin-mediated complement pathway and enhancing the interaction with naïve B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000549DOI Listing
April 2019
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Health, ecology and the microbiome.

Authors:
S Andrew Inkpen

Elife 2019 Apr 17;8. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Philosophy, Brandon University, Brandon, Canada.

Advances in microbiomics have changed the way in which many researchers think about health and disease. These changes have also raised a number of philosophical questions around these topics, such as the types of living systems to which these concepts can be applied. Here, I discuss the human microbiome from two perspectives: the first treats the microbiome as part of a larger system that includes the human; the second treats the microbiome as an independent ecosystem that provides services to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47626DOI Listing