737 results match your criteria Advances In Genetics[Journal]


Preface.

Authors:
Dhavendra Kumar

Adv Genet 2021 ;108:xi-xiv

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January 2022

Novel omics technology driving translational research in precision oncology.

Adv Genet 2021 7;108:81-145. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

In this review, we summarize the current challenges faced by cancer researchers and motivate the use of novel genomics solutions. We follow this up with a comprehensive overview of three recent genomics technologies: liquid biopsy, single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics. We discuss a few representative protocols/assays for each technology along with their strengths, weaknesses, optimal use-cases, and their current stage of clinical deployment by summarizing trial data. Read More

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January 2022

PARP inhibitors in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and other cancers: A review.

Adv Genet 2021 23;108:35-80. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Action Cancer Institute, New Delhi, India.

There has been a paradigm shift in the management of cancer, with the immense progress in cancer genomics. More and more targeted therapies are becoming available by the day and personalized medicine is becoming popular with specific drugs being designed for selected subgroups of patients. One such new class of targeted drugs in the armamentarium is Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi), which inhibit the enzyme PARP, thus interfering with DNA repair. Read More

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January 2022

Next-generation microbial drugs developed from microbiome's natural products.

Adv Genet 2021 8;108:341-382. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Institute of Biological Resources, Kathmandu, Nepal. Electronic address:

Scientists working in natural products chemistry have been enticed by the current advancements being made in the discovery of novel "magic bullets" from microbes homed to all conceivable environments. Even though researchers continue to face challenges funneling the novel bioactive compounds in the global therapeutic industries, it seems most likely that the discovery of some "hit molecules" with significant biomedical applications is not that far. We applaud novel natural products for their ability to combat the spread of superbugs and aid in the prevention of currently observed antibiotic resistance. Read More

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January 2022

Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics-A personalized approach to nutrition.

Adv Genet 2021 28;108:277-340. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been on an upward trajectory for some time and this puts an enormous burden on the healthcare expenditure. Lifestyle modifications including dietary interventions hold an immense promise to manage and prevent these diseases. Recent advances in genomic research provide evidence that focussing these efforts on individual variations in abilities to metabolize nutrients (nutrigenetics) and exploring the role of dietary compounds on gene expression (nutrigenomics and nutri-epigenomics) can lead to more meaningful personalized dietary strategies to promote optimal health. Read More

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January 2022

Recent advances in lung cancer genomics: Application in targeted therapy.

Adv Genet 2021 21;108:201-275. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dr. B.R.A.I.R.C.H., All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Genomic characterization of lung cancer has not only improved our understanding of disease biology and carcinogenesis but also revealed several therapeutic opportunities. Targeting tumor dependencies on specific genomic alterations (oncogene addiction) has accelerated the therapeutic developments and significantly improved the outcomes even in advanced stage of disease. Identification of genomic alterations predicting response to specific targeted treatment is the key to success for this "personalized treatment" approach. Read More

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January 2022

Genetics of prostate cancer and its utility in treatment and screening.

Adv Genet 2021 19;108:147-199. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

Prostate cancer heritability is attributed to a combination of rare, moderate to highly penetrant genetic variants as well as commonly occurring variants conferring modest risks [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. Some of the former type of variants (e.g. Read More

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January 2022

Preventive population genomics: The model of BRCA related cancers.

Adv Genet 2021 26;108:1-33. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, CRUK Barts Centre, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom; Department of Gynaecological Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Department of Health Services Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Preventive population genomics offers the prospect of population stratification for targeting screening and prevention and tailoring care to those at greatest risk. Within cancer, this approach is now within reach, given our expanding knowledge of its heritable components, improved ability to predict risk, and increasing availability of effective preventive strategies. Advances in technology and bioinformatics has made population-testing technically feasible. Read More

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January 2022

Preface.

Authors:
Dhavendra Kumar

Adv Genet 2021 ;107:xi-xii

The William Harvey Research Institute, Bart's and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, England, United Kingdom.

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Diverse role of phytic acid in plants and approaches to develop low-phytate grains to enhance bioavailability of micronutrients.

Adv Genet 2021 17;107:89-120. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the bioavailability of nutrients are called antinutrients. Phytic acid (PA) is one of the major antinutrients present in the grains and acts as a chelator of micronutrients. The presence of six reactive phosphate groups in PA hinders the absorption of micronutrients in the gut of non-ruminants. Read More

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Nutritional control of postembryonic development progression and arrest in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Adv Genet 2021 8;107:33-87. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Avd. Reina Mercedes, Sevilla, Spain. Electronic address:

Developmental programs are under strict genetic control that favors robustness of the process. In order to guarantee the same outcome in different environmental situations, development is modulated by input pathways, which inform about external conditions. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the process of postembryonic development involves a series of stereotypic cell divisions, the progression of which is controlled by the nutritional status of the animal. Read More

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Fungal natural products galaxy: Biochemistry and molecular genetics toward blockbuster drugs discovery.

Adv Genet 2021 2;107:193-284. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Secondary metabolites synthesized by fungi have become a precious source of inspiration for the design of novel drugs. Indeed, fungi are prolific producers of fascinating, diverse, structurally complex, and low-molecular-mass natural products with high therapeutic leads, such as novel antimicrobial compounds, anticancer compounds, immunosuppressive agents, among others. Given that these microorganisms possess the extraordinary capacity to secrete diverse chemical scaffolds, they have been highly exploited by the giant pharma companies to generate small molecules. Read More

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Genomic perspectives on the circadian clock hypothesis of psychiatric disorders.

Adv Genet 2021 7;107:153-191. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Circadian Biology Group, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Munich, Germany.

Circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently described in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Growing evidence suggests a biological connection between mental health and circadian rhythmicity, including the circadian influence on brain function and mood and the requirement for circadian entrainment by external factors, which is often impaired in mental illness. Mental (as well as physical) health is also adversely affected by circadian misalignment. Read More

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Founder variants and population genomes-Toward precision medicine.

Adv Genet 2021 18;107:121-152. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Human migration and community specific cultural practices have contributed to founder events and enrichment of the variants associated with genetic diseases. While many founder events in isolated populations have remained uncharacterized, the application of genomics in clinical settings as well as for population scale studies in the recent years have provided an unprecedented push towards identification of founder variants associated with human health and disease. The discovery and characterization of founder variants could have far reaching implications not only in understanding the history or genealogy of the disease, but also in implementing evidence based policies and genetic testing frameworks. Read More

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Advances in asthma genetics.

Adv Genet 2021 2;107:1-32. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, India. Electronic address:

While asthma has a strong genetic component, our current ability to systematically understand and predict asthma risk remains low, despite over a hundred genetic associations. The reasons for this unfilled gap range from technical limitations of current approaches to fundamental deficiencies in the way we understand asthma. These are discussed in the context of genomic advances. Read More

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Foreword: Some things are simply given.

Authors:
Brig Klyce

Adv Genet 2020 ;106:xi-xiii

Astrobiology Research Trust, Memphis, TN, United States.

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Origin of new emergent Coronavirus and Candida fungal diseases-Terrestrial or cosmic?

Adv Genet 2020 14;106:75-100. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; Institute for the Study of Panspermia and Astroeconomics, Gifu, Japan; University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom; National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

The origins and global spread of two recent, yet quite different, pandemic diseases is discussed and reviewed in depth: Candida auris, a eukaryotic fungal disease, and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), a positive strand RNA viral respiratory disease. Both these diseases display highly distinctive patterns of sudden emergence and global spread, which are not easy to understand by conventional epidemiological analysis based on simple infection-driven human- to-human spread of an infectious disease (assumed to jump suddenly and thus genetically, from an animal reservoir). Both these enigmatic diseases make sense however under a Panspermia in-fall model and the evidence consistent with such a model is critically reviewed. Read More

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October 2020

The mutagenic source and power of our own evolution.

Authors:
Robyn A Lindley

Adv Genet 2020 14;106:61-73. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

GMDx Group Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

This chapter addresses the molecular mechanism and source of the numerous mutagenic changes that genomes, particularly mammalian genomes, can undergo during normal development and in diseased states. The central role of pathogen and other disease-inducing innate immunity via the action of the cytosine (AID/APOBEC) and adenosine (ADAR) deaminases is reviewed in some depth. The general and universal nature of deaminase-mediated mutagenesis is an important key to understanding cosmic genetic evolutionary processes. Read More

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Cometary panspermia and origin of life?

Adv Genet 2020 7;106:5-20. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; C.Y.O'Connor ERADE Village Foundation, Piara Waters, Perth, WA, Australia; Melville Analytics Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

A range of astronomical observations are shown to be in accord with the theory of cometary panspermia. This theory posits that comets harbor a viable biological component in the form of bacteria and viruses that led to origin and evolution of life on Earth. The data includes (1) infrared, visual and ultraviolet spectra of interstellar dust, (2) infrared spectra of the dust released from comet Halley in 1986, (3) infrared spectra of comet Hale-Bopp in 1997, (4) near and mid-infrared spectra of comet Tempel I in 2005, (5) the discovery of an amino acid and degradation products attributable to biology in the material recovered from the Stardust Mission in 2009, (6) jets from comet Lovejoy showing both a sugar and Ethyl alcohol and finally, (7) a diverse set of data that has emerged from the Rosetta mission. Read More

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The sociology of science and generality of the DNA/RNA/protein paradigm throughout the cosmos.

Adv Genet 2020 7;106:45-60. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

The theory of cometary panspermia argues that life cannot have originated on Earth in the time available. It must have an ultimate, but still undiscovered cosmological source. The origin of life remains an open question. Read More

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The efficient Lamarckian spread of life in the cosmos.

Adv Genet 2020 7;106:21-43. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; Institute for the Study of Panspermia and Astroeconomics, Gifu, Japan; University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom; National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

In this Chapter we discuss the various mechanisms that are available for the possible transfer of cosmic microbial living systems from one cosmic habitat to another. With the 100 or so habitable planets that are now known to exist in our galaxy alone transfers of cometary dust carrying life including fragments of icy planetoids/asteroids would be expected to occur on a routine basis. It is thus easy to view the galaxy as a single connected "biosphere" of which our planet Earth is a minor component. Read More

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Experiments to prove continuing microbial ingress from Space to Earth.

Adv Genet 2020 7;106:133-143. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

A wide range of evidence for pointing to our cosmic origins is close to the point of being overwhelming. Yet the long-entrenched paradigm of Earth-centered biology appears to prevail in scientific culture. A matter of crucial importance is to carry out a decisive experiment that is long overdue-establishing empirically beyond any doubt that extraterrestrial microbiota reaches the surface of the Earth at the present day. Read More

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Microbial transfers from Venus to Earth.

Adv Genet 2020 6;106:123-132. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Brunel University, London, United Kingdom.

The possibility that the clouds of Venus are habitats for microorganisms has been discussed for several decades. Over the past two decades evidence to support this point of view has grown with new data from space probes and space exploration. In this article we argue that microorganisms are likely to be widely present in the clouds of Venus, and may under certain conditions have a ready route to Earth. Read More

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Is the 2019 novel coronavirus related to a spike of cosmic rays?

Adv Genet 2020 1;106:119-122. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom; Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka; National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

WHO's pronouncement of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak as a pandemic disease came months after we published a warning that the present deepest minimum of the sunspot cycle would be likely to facilitate the onset of a viral pandemic. During a deep sunspot minimum (deepest in 100 years) such as we are now witnessing, two space related phenomena could have an effect on the disposition of viral disease and potential pandemics. With the weakening of the magnetic field in the Earth's vicinity, there would be a high flux of mutagenic cosmic rays. Read More

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October 2020

An internet of microbes straddling the cosmos.

Adv Genet 2020 3;106:109-117. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom; Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

Exchanges of information analogous to a global internet have been known to take place between biological systems on the Earth ranging from bacteria and viruses to plants and animals. We argue that this process can be extended to include a cosmic biosphere within which evolution would seem to be intimately interlinked across astronomical, perhaps cosmological distance scales. Comets and interstellar dust, argued to have a bacterial/viral component, could be involved in establishing these links. Read More

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A cosmic virosphere.

Adv Genet 2020 3;106:101-107. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom; Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

The concept of a cosmic virosphere that serves as the repository of information for all life on Earth and throughout the Universe is discussed. Recent studies in geology, astronomy and biology point to an intimate connection between the evolution of life and a cosmic virosphere/biosphere. Read More

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Introduction-Panspermia, 2020.

Authors:
Edward J Steele

Adv Genet 2020 7;106:1-4. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

C.Y.O'Connor ERADE Village Foundation, Piara Waters, Perth, WA, Australia; Centre for Astrobiology, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka; Melville Analytics Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

This current volume is, in many ways, a 2020 update to the important 1999-2000 compendium by Sir Fred Hoyle and Professor N. Chandra Wickramasinghe's "Astronomical Origins of life: Steps towards Panspermia." The emerging new paradigm of biology that connects life on Earth with the wider cosmos is covered in considerable depth showing that terrestrial biological evolution is best understood as a cosmically derived habitat and an interconnected genetic system. Read More

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October 2020

Preface.

Authors:
Dhavendra Kumar

Adv Genet 2020 ;105:xi-xii

William Harvey Research Institute, Bart's and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

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January 2021

FMRP ribonucleoprotein complexes and RNA homeostasis.

Adv Genet 2020 6;105:95-136. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center, Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The Fragile Mental Retardation 1 gene (FMR1), at Xq27.3, encodes the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP), and displays in its 5'-untranslated region a series of polymorphic CGG triplet repeats that may undergo dynamic mutation. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability among men, and is most frequently due to FMR1 full mutation and consequent transcription repression. Read More

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January 2021