229,604 results match your criteria Advances In Condensed Matter Physics[Journal]


Physiological validation of the decomposition of surface EMG signals.

Authors:
Roger M Enoka

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2019 Mar 21;46:70-83. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Advances in technology have ushered in a new era in the measurement and interpretation of surface-recorded electromyographic (EMG) signals. These developments have included improvements in detection systems, the algorithms used to decompose the interference signals, and the strategies used to edit the identified waveforms. To evaluate the validity of the results obtained with this new technology, the purpose of this review was to compare the results achieved by decomposing surface-recorded EMG signals into the discharge times of single motor units with what is known about the rate coding characteristics of single motor units based on recordings obtained with intramuscular electrodes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10506411183038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
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Mapping water and sediment connectivity.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 6;673:763-767. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Environmental Management Laboratory, Mykolas Romeris University, Atieitis, 20, LT-08303, Lithuania.

Connectivity has become a key issue in the study of processes acting in hydro-geomorphic systems and has strong implications on the understanding of their behaviour. Given the high complexity of hydro-geomorphic systems and the large variety of the processes controlling the efficiency of water and sediment transfer through a catchment, mapping hydrological and sediment connectivity is fundamental to understand the linkages between different parts of the system and the role played by system configuration, natural landforms and man-made structures in favouring or obstacolating the continuity of runoff and sediment pathways. Furthermore, the analysis of changes on connectivity through time can help to investigate the effect of both natural and anthropic disturbance on water and sediment fluxes and associated processes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193159
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.071DOI Listing
April 2019
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Therapeutic advances in the treatment of SLE.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Apr 16;72:218-223. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, 139 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

In recent years, the research on the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been deepened, from the level of histopathology to the cellular and molecular biology, thus promoting the progress of SLE drug therapeutics. In March 2011, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the humanized monoclonal antibody, Belimumab for the treatment of SLE and put an end to the dilemma of no new drug available to SLE for more than half a century. On the other hand, the continuous evidence-based medical information has enabled rheumatologists to have a more comprehensive and depth understanding of the application of SLE traditional therapies, further improve the treatment strategy of SLE and put forward higher requirements for treatment goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Advances in Thoracic Oncology 2018.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute; Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital and Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences; Guangzhou; China.

In 2018 research in the field of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) led to an expanded reach and impact of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as part of frontline treatment strategy, regardless of histology subtype, while ICI use was extended to include stage III disease, shifting the prognosis of all these patients. This new standard first-line approach opens a gap in standard second-line treatment, and older combinations may again become standard care after progression on ICIs. The characterization of predictive biomarkers, patient selection, the definition of strategies with ICI combinations upon progression on ICIs, as well as prospective evaluation of the efficacy of ICIs in subpopulations (such as patients with poor performance status or brain metastases) represent upcoming challenges in advanced thoracic malignancies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15560864193028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.03.022DOI Listing
April 2019
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The complexity of a monogenic neurodegenerative disease: More than two decades of therapeutic driven research into Niemann-Pick type C disease.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, Barnard College-Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, United States of America. Electronic address:

Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease typified by aberrations in intracellular lipid transport. Cholesterol and other lipids accumulate in the late endosome/lysosome of all diseased cells thereby causing neuronal and visceral atrophy. A cure for NP-C remains elusive despite the extensive molecular advances emanating from the identification of the primary genetic defect in 1997. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Frailty biomarkers in humans and rodents: current approaches and future advances.

Mech Ageing Dev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Pharmacology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Even though they would have great benefit across research and clinical fields, currently there are no accepted biomarkers of frailty. Cross-sectional studies in humans have identified promising candidates including inflammatory markers such as IL-6, immune markers such as WBC count, clinical markers such as albumin, endocrine markers such as vitamin D, oxidative stress markers such as isoprostanes, proteins such as BDNF and epigenetic markers such as DNA methylation, but there are limitations to the current state of the research. Future approaches to the identification of frailty biomarkers should include longitudinal studies, studies using animal models of frailty, studies incorporating novel biomarkers combined into composite panels, and studies investigating sex differences and potential overlap between markers of biological age and frailty. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00476374193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Determinants of Infant Feeding Practices Among HIV-Infected Mothers in Urban Kano, Nigeria.

J Hum Lact 2019 Apr 19:890334419835171. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

5 Department of Health Policy and Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Despite advances in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, infants in Africa remain at risk of HIV acquisition from inappropriate feeding practices.

Research Aims: To assess maternal knowledge and predictors of appropriate infant feeding practices among HIV-infected mothers attending a tertiary facility in Kano, Nigeria.

Method: A cross section of 203 HIV-positive mothers were interviewed using structured, pretested survey questionnaires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334419835171DOI Listing
April 2019
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Inferring neural circuit structure from datasets of heterogeneous tuning curves.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Apr 19;15(4):e1006816. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

Tuning curves characterizing the response selectivities of biological neurons can exhibit large degrees of irregularity and diversity across neurons. Theoretical network models that feature heterogeneous cell populations or partially random connectivity also give rise to diverse tuning curves. Empirical tuning curve distributions can thus be utilized to make model-based inferences about the statistics of single-cell parameters and network connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006816DOI Listing

Heterogeneous Matrix Habitat Drives Species Occurrences in Complex, Fragmented Landscapes.

Am Nat 2019 May 12;193(5):748-754. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

A fundamental tenet of modern ecology and conservation science is the fact that species occurrence in habitat patches can be determined by patch area and isolation. But such island biogeographic models often poorly predict actual species occurrences in structurally complex landscapes that typify most ecosystems. Recent advances in circuit theory have enhanced estimates of species dispersal and can provide powerful ways to predict landscape-scale distribution of species assemblages through integration with island biogeography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/702589DOI Listing

Statistical uncertainty analysis for small-sample, high log-variance data: Cautions for bootstrapping and Bayesian bootstrapping.

J Chem Theory Comput 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Recent advances in molecular simulations allow the evaluation of previously unattainable observables, such as rate constants for protein folding. However, these calculations are usually computationally expensive and even significant computing resources may result in a small number of independent estimates spread over many orders of magnitude. Such small-sample, high "log-variance" data are not readily amenable to analysis using the standard uncertainty (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jctc.9b00015DOI Listing

CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT IN Beta-THALASSAEMIA: Current treatment strategies.

Postgrad Med 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

e Department of Medicine , Sultan Qaboos University Hospital , Muscat , Oman.

Despite the advances in the management of thalassaemia major, heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality in patients afflicted with this disorder. Cardiac involvement in thalassaemia encompasses a spectrum of disorders including myocardial dysfunction, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Although cardiac siderosis (accumulation of iron in cardiac myocytes) as a consequence of repeated blood transfusions is deemed to be the main aetiologic factor for myocardial dysfunction in transfusion dependent patients, the significance of other pathophysiologic mechanisms is being increasingly recognized especially in non-transfusion dependent patients. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00325481.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2019.1608071DOI Listing
April 2019
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Emergency treatment of iatrogenic coronary perforation by transcatheter embolization with gelatin sponge particles-Description of technique.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Coronary artery perforation (CAP) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) that requires prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Importantly, dynamic advances in interventional cardiology reflected by the increasing percentage of more challenging PCIs performed in more complex lesions have resulted in significant changes in CAPs pattern. Herein, we describe a technique and present a case report of CAP that occurred during percutaneous recanalization of the occluded restenotic right coronary artery (RCA) successfully treated with transcatheter embolization using gelatin sponge particles prepared on-site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28291DOI Listing

Correlation and agreement between 2D and 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography for left ventricular volumetric, strain, and rotational parameters in healthy volunteers and in patients with mild mitral stenosis.

Echocardiography 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiology, Dr. Siyami Ersek Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Recent advances had allowed measurement of myocardial deformation parameters using 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE). Agreement between these two modalities and interchangeability of findings remain as an issue since 2DSTE is more widely available than 3DSTE. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation and agreement between 2DSTE and 3DSTE in healthy volunteers and in patients with mild mitral stenosis (MS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14336DOI Listing

Epigenetic dynamics during flowering plant reproduction: evidence for reprogramming?

Authors:
Mary Gehring

New Phytol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Over the last ten years there have been major advances in documenting and understanding dynamic changes to DNA methylation, small RNAs, chromatin modifications, and chromatin structure that accompany reproductive development in flowering plants from germline specification to seed maturation. Here I highlight recent advances in the field, mostly made possible by microscopic analysis of epigenetic states or by the ability to isolate specific cell types or tissues and apply omics approaches. I consider in which contexts there is potentially reprogramming vs maintenance or reinforcement of epigenetic states. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.15856
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15856DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

HOXD-AS1: a novel oncogenic long intergenic non-coding RNA in humans.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Apr;23(7):2898-2907

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Haikou People's Hospital/Affiliated Haikou Hospital, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Haikou, Hainan, P.R. China.

Objective: Long non-coding RNAs are an emerging special class of regulatory RNAs with more than 200 nucleotides that play vital roles in gene regulation, metabolism, drug resistance, cell differentiation, and other processes. These RNAs were also reported to be dysregulated in human disease, especially malignant tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_201904_17568DOI Listing
April 2019
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[Advances in isopeptide bond-mediated molecular superglue].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2019 Apr;35(4):607-615

College of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100, Zhejiang, China.

Isopeptide bond-mediated molecular superglue is the irreversible covalent bond spontaneously formed by the side chains of lysine (Lys) and asparagine/aspartic acid (Asn/Asp) residues. The peptide-peptide interaction is specific, stable, and can be achieved quickly without any particular physicochemical factor. In the light of recent progress by domestic and foreign researchers, here we summarize the origin, assembly system and mechanism of isopeptide bond reaction, as well as the molecular cyclization and protein topological structure mediated by it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.180303DOI Listing

[Advances in microbial enzymatic elimination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2019 Apr;35(4):567-576

The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu, China.

Ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogenic and teratogenic chemical that is widely distributed in various alcoholic beverages, has attracted much attention. Microbial enzymatic degradation of EC in rice wine is always efficient and attractive. In this review, we summarize the research progress and problems of microbial enzymatic elimination of EC in rice wine from three aspects: the mechanisms of EC formation in rice wine, the research progress of acid urease, and the research progress of urethanase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.180386DOI Listing
April 2019
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Patient-Centeredness during In-Depth Consultation in the Outpatient Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Korea: Paradigm Shift from Disease to Patient.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Apr 22;34(15):e119. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Patient-centered care (PCC) and integrative care approach are widely advocated. However, their implementation usually requires an extended consultation time. Despite significant advances in medical diagnosis and treatment, no studies have examined consultation time and patient centeredness in Korea. Read More

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https://jkms.org/DOIx.php?id=10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e119
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e119DOI Listing
April 2019
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CO -fixing liquid droplets: towards a dissection of the microalgal pyrenoid.

Traffic 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

CO enters the biosphere via the slow, oxygen-sensitive carboxylase, Rubisco. To compensate, most microalgae saturate Rubisco with its substrate gas through a carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism. This strategy frequently involves compartmentalization of the enzyme in the pyrenoid, a non-membrane enclosed compartment of the chloroplast stroma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tra.12650DOI Listing

Innate immune cells orchestrate the repair of sterile injury in the liver and beyond.

Eur J Immunol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.

There is a close association between inflammation and sterile injury, however not all sterile injuries are the same. While a regulated inflammatory response is crucial for proper healing, a dysregulated or non-terminating response leads to disrepair. While immune cells are thought to contribute to the disrepair, they may also be critical for proper healing and as such their actions may dictate the end result. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eji.20184748
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201847485DOI Listing
April 2019
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Inconvenient Truths About Human Longevity.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Oklahoma.

The rise in human longevity is one of humanity's crowning achievements. While advances in public health beginning in the 19th century initiated the rise in life expectancy, recent gains have been achieved by reducing death rates at middle and older ages. A debate about the future course of life expectancy has been ongoing for the last quarter century. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz098DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Overview of Some Recent Advances in Improving Water and Energy Efficiencies in Food Processing Factories.

Front Nutr 2019 2;6:20. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing factories, two key operations can play critical roles: non-thermal processing (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454086PMC

Assessing Cyberbiosecurity Vulnerabilities and Infrastructure Resilience.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2019 29;7:61. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Argonne National Laboratory (DOE), Strategic Security Sciences Division, Lemont, IL, United States.

The convergence of advances in biotechnology with laboratory automation, access to data, and computational biology has democratized biotechnology and accelerated the development of new therapeutics. However, increased access to biotechnology in the digital age has also introduced additional security concerns and ultimately, spawned the new discipline of cyberbiosecurity, which encompasses cybersecurity, cyber-physical security, and biosecurity considerations. With the emergence of this new discipline comes the need for a logical, repeatable, and shared approach for evaluating facility and system vulnerabilities to cyberbiosecurity threats. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00061
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455068PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Epigenomics and Transcriptomics in the Prediction and Diagnosis of Childhood Asthma: Are We There Yet?

Front Pediatr 2019 2;7:115. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Asthma is the most common non-communicable chronic disease of childhood. Despite its high prevalence, to date we lack methods that are both efficient and accurate in diagnosing asthma. Most traditional approaches have been based on garnering clinical evidence, such as risk factors and exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454089PMC

Recent Advances in Anti-virulence Therapeutic Strategies With a Focus on Dismantling Bacterial Membrane Microdomains, Toxin Neutralization, Quorum-Sensing Interference and Biofilm Inhibition.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 2;9:74. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Antimicrobial resistance constitutes one of the major challenges facing humanity in the Twenty-First century. The spread of resistant pathogens has been such that the possibility of returning to a pre-antibiotic era is real. In this scenario, innovative therapeutic strategies must be employed to restrict resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454102PMC

Presentation Patterns, Diagnostic Markers, Management Strategies, and Outcomes of IgD Multiple Myeloma: A Systematic Review of Literature.

Cureus 2019 Feb 4;11(2):e4011. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Internal Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

Immunoglobulin (Ig) D multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare subtype of MM comprising 2% of all the cases. Malignant plasma cell invasion leads to signs and symptoms similar to other subtypes of MM. The synthesis rate of IgD is lower in IgD MM patients, making it very difficult to diagnose compared to other subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450588PMC
February 2019

Recent advances in managing/understanding the metabolic syndrome.

F1000Res 2019 3;8. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Metabólicas, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, 14008, Mexico.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) concept gathers in a single entity a set of metabolic abnormalities that have in common a close relationship with ectopic deposit of lipids, insulin resistance, and chronic low-grade inflammation. It is a valuable teaching tool to help health professionals to understand and integrate the consequences of lipotoxicity and the adverse metabolic consequences of insulin resistance. Also, it is useful to identify subjects with a high risk for having incident type 2 diabetes. Read More

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https://f1000research.com/articles/8-370/v1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.17122.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449786PMC
April 2019
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Tuning phonon transport spectrum for better thermoelectric materials.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2019 21;20(1):10-25. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The figure of merit of thermoelectric materials can be increased by suppressing the lattice thermal conductivity without degrading electrical properties. Phonons are the carriers for lattice thermal conduction, and their transport can be impeded by nanostructuring, owing to the recent progress in nanotechnology. The key question for further improvement of thermoelectric materials is how to realize ultimate structure with minimum lattice thermal conductivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2018.1548884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454406PMC
December 2018

Strongly correlated oxides for energy harvesting.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2018 26;19(1):899-908. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

We review recent advances in strongly correlated oxides as thermoelectric materials in pursuit of energy harvesting. We discuss two topics: one is the enhancement of the ordinary thermoelectric properties by controlling orbital degrees of freedom and orbital fluctuation not only in bulk but also at the interface of correlated oxides. The other topic is the use of new phenomena driven by spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of materials. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14686996.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2018.1529524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454405PMC
November 2018
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Thermoelectric materials and applications for energy harvesting power generation.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2018 14;19(1):836-862. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Center for Functional Sensor & Actuator (CFSN) and International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan.

Thermoelectrics, in particular solid-state conversion of heat to electricity, is expected to be a key energy harvesting technology to power ubiquitous sensors and wearable devices in the future. A comprehensive review is given on the principles and advances in the development of thermoelectric materials suitable for energy harvesting power generation, ranging from organic and hybrid organic-inorganic to inorganic materials. Examples of design and applications are also presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2018.1530938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454408PMC
November 2018

Multilocus Sequence Typing and Population Genetic Analysis of : Host Specificity and Its Impacts on Public Health.

Authors:
Wei Li Lihua Xiao

Front Genet 2019 2;10:307. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Microsporidia comprise a large class of unicellular eukaryotic pathogens that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. There have been nearly 1,500 microsporidian species described thus far, which are variable in biology, genetics, genomics, and host specificity. Among those, is the well-known species responsible for the most recorded cases of human microsporidian affections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454070PMC

Advanced Genetic Approaches in Discovery and Characterization of Genes Involved With Osteoporosis in Mouse and Human.

Front Genet 2019 2;10:288. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Osteoporosis is a complex condition with contributions from, and interactions between, multiple genetic loci and environmental factors. This review summarizes key advances in the application of genetic approaches for the identification of osteoporosis susceptibility genes. Genome-wide linkage analysis (GWLA) is the classical approach for identification of genes that cause monogenic diseases; however, it has shown limited success for complex diseases like osteoporosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455049PMC

UltraStrain: An NGS-Based Ultra Sensitive Strain Typing Method for .

Front Genet 2019 3;10:276. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Aginome-XMU Joint Lab, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

In the last few years, advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for whole genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne pathogens have provided drastic improvements in food pathogen outbreak surveillance. WGS of foodborne pathogen enables identification of pathogens from food or environmental samples, including difficult-to-detect pathogens in culture-negative infections. Compared to traditional low-resolution methods such as the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), WGS provides advantages to differentiate even closely related strains of the same species, thus enables rapid identification of food-source associated with pathogen outbreak events for a fast mitigation plan. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fgene.2019.00276
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456706PMC
April 2019
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Complement in Metastasis: A Comp in the Camp.

Front Immunol 2019 3;10:669. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Program in Solid Tumors, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

The complement system represents a pillar of the innate immune response. This system, critical for host defense against pathogens, encompasses more than 50 soluble, and membrane-bound proteins. Emerging evidence underscores its clinical relevance in tumor progression and its role in metastasis, one of the hallmarks of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457318PMC

Roles of CircRNAs in Autoimmune Diseases.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:639. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently linked single-stranded RNAs, compared to linear counterparts that are relatively abundant, conserved, stable, and specific. Previously, most studies have revealed that circRNAs function in gene expression processes and participate in the pathogenesis of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. With advances in biotechnology, more biological functions of circRNAs have been found in several signaling pathways that are related to tumorigenesis, immunity, and metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454857PMC

Transport, Metabolism, and Function of Thyroid Hormones in the Developing Mammalian Brain.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 3;10:209. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

Ever since the discovery of thyroid hormone deficiency as the primary cause of cretinism in the second half of the 19th century, the crucial role of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in embryonic brain development has been established. However, the biological understanding of TH function in brain formation is far from complete, despite advances in treating thyroid function deficiency disorders. The pleiotropic nature of TH action makes it difficult to identify and study discrete roles of TH in various aspect of embryogenesis, including neurogenesis and brain maturation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456649PMC

The Roles of Cholesterol and Its Metabolites in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis.

Authors:
Hideyuki Oguro

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 2;10:204. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Cellular Engineering, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States.

Hematopoiesis is sustained throughout life by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). There is accumulating evidence that cholesterol homeostasis is an important factor in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Increased cholesterol levels are known to promote proliferation and mobilization of HSCs, while hypercholesterolemia is associated with expansion of myeloid cells in the peripheral blood and links hematopoiesis with cardiovascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454151PMC

Neuroplasticity of Language Networks in Aphasia: Advances, Updates, and Future Challenges.

Front Neurol 2019 2;10:295. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States.

Researchers have sought to understand how language is processed in the brain, how brain damage affects language abilities, and what can be expected during the recovery period since the early 19th century. In this review, we first discuss mechanisms of damage and plasticity in the post-stroke brain, both in the acute and the chronic phase of recovery. We then review factors that are associated with recovery. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2019.00295
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454116PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Editorial: Recent Advances in Psychiatry From Psycho-Neuro-Immunology Research: Autoimmune Encephalitis, Autoimmune Encephalopathy, and Mild Encephalitis.

Front Psychiatry 2019 29;10:169. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455066PMC

Meningeal Mast Cells as Key Effectors of Stroke Pathology.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 3;13:126. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. Because post-stroke inflammation is a critical determinant of damage and recovery after stroke, understanding the interplay between the immune system and the brain after stroke holds much promise for therapeutic intervention. An understudied, but important aspect of this interplay is the role of meninges that surround the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457367PMC

Interneuron Diversity: Toward a Better Understanding of Interneuron Development In the Olfactory System.

J Exp Neurosci 2019 7;13:1179069519826056. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

The olfactory system is an attractive model for exploring the wiring logic of complex neural circuits. Remarkably, olfactory local interneurons exhibit high diversity and variability in their morphologies and intrinsic properties. Although olfactory sensory and projection neurons have been extensively studied of development and wiring; the development, mechanisms for establishing diversity, and integration of olfactory local interneurons into the developing circuit remain largely undescribed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179069519826056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454656PMC

Gene-Environment-Time Interactions in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hypotheses and Research Approaches.

Ann Neurosci 2018 Dec 4;25(4):261-267. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases are age-related neurodegenerative diseases. ALS is not a single entity but a syndrome with many different causes. In all 3 diseases, gene mutations account for only 10-15% of cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470336PMC
December 2018

Roles of axon guidance molecules in neuronal wiring in the developing spinal cord.

Authors:
Alain Chédotal

Nat Rev Neurosci 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France.

The spinal cord receives, relays and processes sensory information from the periphery and integrates this information with descending inputs from supraspinal centres to elicit precise and appropriate behavioural responses and orchestrate body movements. Understanding how the spinal cord circuits that achieve this integration are wired during development is the focus of much research interest. Several families of proteins have well-established roles in guiding developing spinal cord axons, and recent findings have identified new axon guidance molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41583-019-0168-7DOI Listing

Insights into rheumatic diseases from next-generation sequencing.

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Rheumatic diseases have complex aetiologies that are not fully understood, which makes the study of pathogenic mechanisms in these diseases a challenge for researchers. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and related omics technologies, such as transcriptomics, epigenomics and genomics, provide an unprecedented genome-wide view of gene expression, environmentally responsive epigenetic changes and genetic variation. The integrated application of NGS technologies to samples from carefully phenotyped clinical cohorts of patients has the potential to solve remaining mysteries in the pathogenesis of several rheumatic diseases, to identify new therapeutic targets and to underpin a precision medicine approach to the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41584-019-0217-7DOI Listing

Integrating temporal and spatial control of electronic transitions for bright multiphoton upconversion.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 18;10(1):1811. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

The applications of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials are limited by unsatisfactory brightness currently. Herein, a general strategy is proposed for boosting the upconversion efficiency in Er ions, based on combined use of a core-shell nanostructured host and an integrated optical waveguide circuit excitation platform. A NaErF@NaYF core-shell nanoparticle is constructed to host the upconversion process for minimizing non-radiative dissipation of excitation energy by surface quenchers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09850-2DOI Listing

Moving Target - Shifting the Focus to Pulmonary Sarcoidosis as an Autoimmune Spectrum Disorder.

Eur Respir J 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.

Despite over a century of research, the causative agent(s) in sarcoidosis, a heterogeneous granulomatous disorder mainly affecting the lungs, remain elusive. Following identification of genetic factors underlying different clinical phenotypes, increased understanding of CD4 T-cell immunology, which is believed to be central to sarcoid pathogenesis, as well as the role of B-cells and other cells bridging innate and adaptive immunity, is now contributing to novel insights into the mechanistic pathways influencing disease resolution or chronicity. Hopefully, new perspectives and state-of-the-art technology may help to shed light on the still-elusive enigma of sarcoid aetiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.021532018DOI Listing

Advances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genetics: building the picture one piece at a time.

Lancet Respir Med 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, 35127 Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30082-7DOI Listing

PillCam SB3 vs. PillCam SB2: Can technologic advances in capsule endoscopy improve diagnostic yield in patients with small bowel bleeding?

Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Servicio de Endoscopia, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México.

Introduction And Objective: The SB3 capsule endoscopy system has better image resolution and the capacity to increase the number of images from 2 to 6 frames per second. Small bowel bleeding is the most common indication. The aim To determine if the advances in capsule endoscopy technology increase diagnostic yield in cases of small bowel bleeding, according to the Saurin classification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgmx.2018.11.008DOI Listing

APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: Coupling Cellular Differentiation to G1/G0 Phase in Multicellular Systems.

Authors:
Yuu Kimata

Trends Cell Biol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression through spatiotemporally regulated proteolysis. Although recent studies revealed its postmitotic function, our knowledge of the role of APC/C beyond cell cycle regulation in the biology of multicellular organisms is far from complete. Here, I review recent advances in the function of APC/C in animal development, specifically focusing on its emerging role in regulating cell differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2019.03.001DOI Listing
April 2019
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Genetic basis of hereditary thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

J Cardiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have identified several causative genes for hereditary thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs), including Marfan syndrome (MFS), Loeys-Dietz syndrome, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and familial non-syndromic TAADs. Syndromic TAADs are typically caused by pathogenic variants in the transforming growth factor-β signal and extracellular matrix-related genes (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2019.03.014DOI Listing