250,224 results match your criteria Advances In Calculus Of Variations[Journal]


New Tools to Dissect the Cancer Genome.

Oral Dis 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Oral Biology & Diagnostic Sciences, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, United States.

Globally, it has been estimated that there were around 18.1 million new cases of cancer at all sites in 2018, with 9.6 million deaths from the disease (Bray et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13441DOI Listing

Auxiliary antitumor effects of fungal proteins from Hericium erinaceus by target on the gut microbiota.

J Food Sci 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Safety and Health, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510070, China.

Cancer represents a major disease burden worldwide. Despite continuous advances obtained in medical therapies recently, resistance to standard drugs and adverse effects still represent important causes of therapeutic failure. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota can affect the response to chemo- and immunotherapeutic drugs by modulating efficacy and/or toxicity, and diet is the most important factor affecting the gut microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15134DOI Listing

Clinical implications of serum neurofilament in newly diagnosed MS patients: A longitudinal multicentre cohort study.

EBioMedicine 2020 May 24;56:102807. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Neurology, Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN) and Immunotherapy (FZI), Rhine Main Neuroscience Network (rmn(2)), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, Mainz 55131, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: We aim to evaluate serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL), indicating neuroaxonal damage, as a biomarker at diagnosis in a large cohort of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.

Methods: In a multicentre prospective longitudinal observational cohort, patients with newly diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) were recruited between August 2010 and November 2015 in 22 centers. Clinical parameters, MRI, and sNfL levels (measured by single molecule array) were assessed at baseline and up to four-year follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102807DOI Listing

Recent advances in dissecting the demethylation reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2020 May 24;59:47-53. Epub 2020 May 24.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy/Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Pharmacodynamic Constituents of TCM and New Drugs Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Demethylation is a chemical process widely distributed in nature to remove a methyl group from an organic molecule, which is a key aspect of diverse biological processes including biosynthesis of natural products, degradation of plant biomass and epigenetic regulation. This process is facilitated by diverse demethylases via distinct mechanisms. Recent studies have disclosed some novel demethylation reactions as well as their underlying demethylases in the biosynthesis of bacterial sterols, fungal terpenoids, and plant alkaloids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.04.014DOI Listing

Recent advances in DNA gyrase-targeted antimicrobial agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Apr 28;199:112326. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Innovative Medicines Group, Institute of Health & Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Qld, 4059, Australia.

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest challenges facing the world today. In the United States alone, it is responsible for the death of more than 20,000 people each year. DNA gyrase, a well-validated drug target, is involved in bacterial DNA replication, repair and decatenation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112326DOI Listing

RAC1 as a Therapeutic Target in Malignant Melanoma.

Trends Cancer 2020 Jun 18;6(6):478-488. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. Electronic address:

Small GTPases of the RAS and RHO families are related signaling proteins that, when activated by growth factors or by mutation, drive oncogenic processes. While activating mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS genes have long been recognized and occur in many types of cancer, similar mutations in RHO family genes, such as RAC1 and RHOA, have only recently been detected as the result of extensive cancer genome-sequencing efforts and are linked to a restricted set of malignancies. In this review, we focus on the role of RAC1 signaling in malignant melanoma, emphasizing recent advances that describe how this oncoprotein alters melanocyte proliferation and motility and how these findings might lead to new therapeutics in RAC1-mutant tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2020.02.021DOI Listing

Towards the Microbial Production of Plant-Derived Anticancer Drugs.

Trends Cancer 2020 Jun 5;6(6):444-448. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Groupe d'Etude des Interactions Hôte-Pathogène, GEIHP, EA3142, Univ Angers, SFR 4208 ICAT, Angers, France.

Many of the plant-derived compounds used in chemotherapies are currently produced by semisynthesis, which results in limited supplies at exorbitant market prices. However, the synthetic biology era, which began ca 15 years ago, has progressively yielded encouraging advances by using engineered microbes for the practical production of cheaper plant anticancer drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2020.02.004DOI Listing

Post-translational Modifications of Opioid Receptors.

Trends Neurosci 2020 Jun 16;43(6):417-432. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key events in signal transduction since they affect protein function by regulating their abundance and/or activity. PTMs involve the covalent attachment of functional groups to specific amino acids. Since they tend to be generally reversible, PTMs serve as regulators of signal transduction pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Mitochondrial Light Switches: Optogenetic Approaches to Control Metabolism.

FEBS J 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 575 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY, 14642 Box 711/604, United States of America.

Developing new technologies to study metabolism is increasingly important as metabolic disease prevalence increases. Mitochondria control cellular metabolism and dynamic changes in mitochondrial function are associated with metabolic abnormalities in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and obesity. However, a lack of precise and reversible methods to control mitochondrial function has prevented moving from association to causation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15424DOI Listing

Advances and Latest Developments in Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.

Authors:
Jost B Jonas

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/APO.0000000000000298DOI Listing

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Glaucoma Evaluation.

J Glaucoma 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paulista School of Medicine, São Paulo Hospital, Federal University of São Paulo.

The damage of glaucoma has been extensively evaluated at the level of retina and optic nerve head. Many advances have been shown in this field in the last decades. Recent studies have also proved degenerative changes in the brain involving intracranial optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001558DOI Listing

Improvements in Patient Monitoring for the Intensive Care Unit: Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, (corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health), Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, DE.

Background: Due to demographic change and, more recently, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the importance of modern intensive care units (ICU) is becoming apparent. One of the key components of an ICU is the continuous monitoring of patients' vital parameters. However, existing advances in informatics, signal processing, or engineering that could alleviate the burden on ICUs have not yet been applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19091DOI Listing

Vascular Endothelial Cells and Innate Immunity.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 Jun 27;40(6):e138-e152. Epub 2020 May 27.

From the Centers of Inflammation, Translational, and Clinical Lung Research (Y. Shao, Y. Sun, Y.L., F.S., C.D., C.J., K.X., X.J., X.Y.), Temple University, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

In addition to the roles of endothelial cells (ECs) in physiological processes, ECs actively participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses. We previously reported that, in comparison to macrophages, a prototypic innate immune cell type, ECs have many innate immune functions that macrophages carry out, including cytokine secretion, phagocytic function, antigen presentation, pathogen-associated molecular patterns-, and danger-associated molecular patterns-sensing, proinflammatory, immune-enhancing, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppression, migration, heterogeneity, and plasticity. In this highlight, we introduce recent advances published in both and many other journals: (1) several significant characters classify ECs as novel immune cells not only in infections and allograft transplantation but also in metabolic diseases; (2) several new receptor systems including conditional danger-associated molecular pattern receptors, nonpattern receptors, and homeostasis associated molecular patterns receptors contribute to innate immune functions of ECs; (3) immunometabolism and innate immune memory determine the innate immune functions of ECs; (4) a great induction of the immune checkpoint receptors in ECs during inflammations suggests the immune tolerogenic functions of ECs; and (5) association of immune checkpoint inhibitors with cardiovascular adverse events and cardio-oncology indicates the potential contributions of ECs as innate immune cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314330DOI Listing

Measurable residual disease of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in allograft settings: how to evaluate and intervene.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2020 May 27:1-12. Epub 2020 May 27.

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Peking University People's Hospital & Peking University Institute of Hematology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Beijing, P.R.C.

Introduction: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains a curable strategy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially for adult cases. However, leukemia relapse after allograft restricts the improvement of transplant outcomes. Measurable residual disease (MRD) has been the strongest predictor for relapse after allo-HSCT, allowing MRD-directed preemptive therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2020.1766973DOI Listing

It is time to think inside the (collimation) box; a quality improvement project to reduce over-scanning in CT scanning of the kidneys, ureters and bladder.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 27:20200068. Epub 2020 May 27.

University of Bristol Medical School, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Objective: The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) recommend CT of the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CTKUB) as the first-line investigation for renal colic, stating that excess scan length above the upper pole of the highest kidney should not exceed 10% of the total scan length. The project aim was to determine what proportion of CTKUB scans performed at a district general hospital (DGH) were meeting this standard and explore improvement options as necessary.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 100 consecutive patients who attended a Radiology Department with renal colic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200068DOI Listing

Fascia lata attachment at the iliac crest: refining our diagnostic criteria of injury on magnetic resonance imaging.

Br J Radiol 2020 May 27:20200187. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and spectrum of pathology of the fascia lata attachment at the iliac crest (FLAIC) on MRI in asymptomatic patients in order to refine our diagnostic criteria for clinically relevant FLAIC injury.

Methods And Material: Two readers retrospectively evaluated the FLAIC on each side on coronal large field-of-view short tau inversion recovery images on 100 musculoskeletal pelvic MRI exams performed in patients without hip pain (total = 200). Pathology of the FLAIC was graded using a 3-point Likert scale and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200187DOI Listing

A brief history of organoids.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Stem Cell and Cancer Biology Lab, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK.

In vitro cell cultures are crucial research tools for modelling human development and diseases. While the conventional monolayer cell cultures have been widely used in the past, the lack of tissue architecture and complexity of such model fails to inform the true biological processes in vivo. Recent advances in the organoid technology have revolutionized the in vitro culture tools for biomedical research by creating powerful three-dimensional (3D) models to recapitulate the cellular heterogeneity, structure and functions of the primary tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00120.2020DOI Listing

Recent Advances and Challenges of Electrocatalytic N Reduction to Ammonia.

Chem Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University 578 S Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States.

Global ammonia production reached 175 million metric tons in 2016, 90% of which is produced from high purity N and H gases at high temperatures and pressures via the Haber-Bosch process. Reliance on natural gas for H production results in large energy consumption and CO emissions. Concerns of human-induced climate change are spurring an international scientific effort to explore new approaches to ammonia production and reduce its carbon footprint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00659DOI Listing

On stethoscopes, patient records, artificial intelligence and zettabytes: a glimpse into the future of digital medicine in Mexico.

Arch Cardiol Mex 2020 ;90(2):193-199

Inteligencia Artificial en Cardiología, Departamento de Cardiología, Universidad de Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Países Bajos, Finlandia.

Science and technology are modifying medicine at a dizzying pace. Although access in our country to the benefits of innovations in the area of devices, data storage and artificial intelligence is still very restricted, the advance of digital medicine offers the opportunity to solve some of the biggest problems faced by medical practice and public health in Mexico. The potential areas where digital medicine can be disruptive are: accessibility to quality medical care, centralization of specialties in large cities, dehumanization of medical treatment, lack of resources to access evidence-supported treatments, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/ACM.20000269DOI Listing
January 2020

Reliability, Feasibility, and Patient Acceptance of an Electronic Version of a Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire for Routine Rheumatology Care: Validation and Patient Preference Study.

JMIR Form Res 2020 May 27;4(5):e15815. Epub 2020 May 27.

ZiteLab ApS, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: A multidimensional health assessment questionnaire (MDHAQ) that was developed primarily for routine rheumatology care has advanced clinical research concerning disease burden, disability, and mortality in rheumatic diseases. Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3), an index within the MDHAQ, is the most widely used index to assess rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical care in the United States, and it recognizes clinical status changes in all studied rheumatic diseases. MDHAQ physical function scores are far more significant in the prognosis of premature RA mortality than laboratory or imaging data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/15815DOI Listing

Inflammatory Networks Linking Oral Microbiome with Systemic Health and Disease.

J Dent Res 2020 May 27:22034520926126. Epub 2020 May 27.

J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The dance between microbes and the immune system takes place in all biological systems, including the human body, but this interaction is especially complex in the primary gateway to the body: the oral cavity. Recent advances in technology have enabled deep sequencing and analysis of members and signals of these communities. In a healthy state, the oral microbiome is composed of commensals, and their genes and phenotypes may be selected by the immune system to survive in symbiosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034520926126DOI Listing

Biocatalytic Alkylation Cascades: Recent Advances and Future Opportunities for Late-Stage Functionalization.

Chembiochem 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G1 1XL, United Kingdom.

This Concept article describes the latest developments in the emerging area of late-stage biocatalytic alkylation. Central to these developments is the ability to efficiently prepare S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) cofactor analogues and couple this with enzymatic alkyl transfer. Recent developments in the enzymatic synthesis of SAM cofactor analogues are summarized first, followed by their application as alkyl transfer agents catalyzed by methyltransferases (MTases). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202000187DOI Listing

Enantioselective synthesis enabled by visible light photocatalysis.

Authors:
Bor-Cherng Hong

Org Biomol Chem 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 621, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Enantioselective photoreaction has been a synthetic challenge for decades. With the continuous development of modern visible light photocatalysis and asymmetric catalysis, remarkable advances have been achieved through the synergistic action of these catalytic reactions, allowing the construction of various enantiomerically enriched molecules that were once inaccessible using photocatalytic reactions. This review presents some of the contemporary developments in enantioselective visible-light photocatalysis reactions, covering the period from 2008 to March 2020, with the contents classified by catalysis type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob00759eDOI Listing

Emerging trends in porous materials for CO capture and conversion.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Global Innovative Centre for Advanced Nanomaterials, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, 2308, Australia.

The presence of an excessive concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere needs to be curbed with suitable measures including the reduction of CO2 emissions at stationary point sources such as power plants through carbon capture technologies and subsequent conversion of the captured CO2 into non-polluting clean fuels/chemicals using photo and/or electrocatalytic pathways. Porous materials have attracted much attention for carbon capture and in the recent past; they have witnessed significant advancements in their design and implementation for CO2 capture and conversion. In this context, the emerging trends in major porous adsorbents such as MOFs, zeolites, POPs, porous carbons, and mesoporous materials for CO2 capture and conversion are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00075bDOI Listing

Heteroatom-participated lignin cleavage to functionalized aromatics.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis (SKLC), Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL), Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Dalian 116023, China.

Lignin, the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature, enables sustainable supply of miscellaneous aromatics as green fuels and chemicals. Obtaining the value-added aromatics from lignin, though subjected to enormous research efforts, mainly relies on depolymerization induced by activated hydrogen species or oxygen species, delivering hydrocarbons and oxygenates. The future bio-refinery demands a broad spectrum of fine chemicals, especially those containing elements other than C, H and O. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00078gDOI Listing

Conformationally adaptive macrocycles with flipping aromatic sidewalls.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Shenzhen Grubbs Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Catalysis, and Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Conformationally adaptive macrocycles possess multiple well-defined conformations through quickly flipping their aromatic sidewalls. The macrocycles combine the binding power of all the conformations. Upon binding a guest, one or a combination of conformations are selected to achieve the maximized binding affinity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00341gDOI Listing

Transition-metal mediated carbon-sulfur bond activation and transformations: an update.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, P. R. China. and State Key Laboratory of Organometallic Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, P. R. China.

Carbon-sulfur bond cross-coupling has become more and more attractive as an alternative protocol to establish carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Diverse transformations through transition-metal-catalyzed C-S bond activation and cleavage have recently been developed. This review summarizes the advances in transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling via carbon-sulfur bond activation and cleavage since late 2012 as an update of the critical review on the same topic published in early 2013 (Chem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00837cDOI Listing

Recent advances in solid-contact ion-selective electrodes: functional materials, transduction mechanisms, and development trends.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Laboratory of Agricultural Information Intelligent Sensing, School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

From environmental monitoring to point-of-care biofluid analysis, rapid ion determination requires robust analytical tools. In recent years, driven by the development of materials science and processing technology, solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) with high-performance functional materials and creative structures have shown great potential for routine and portable ion detection. In particular, the introduction of nanomaterials as ion-to-electron transducers and the adoption of different performance enhancement strategies have significantly promoted the development of SC-ISEs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00587kDOI Listing

Imaging and targeting coronary artery inflammation.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

University of Oxford, 6396, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;

Significance Coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world despite significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. Recent Advances The focus of the cardiovascular community has shifted towards seeking a better understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms driving residual CAD risk not modulated by current therapies. Significant progress has been achieved in revealing both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and how shift of the balance in favour of the former, can drive the development of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2020.8128DOI Listing

analysis of redox status in organs - from bench to bedside.

Free Radic Res 2020 May 27:1-27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Global Center of Excellence, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the maintenance of life. However, production of excessive ROS and/or deficiency of the antioxidant system lead to oxidative stress and cause a variety of diseases. In the present study, we used electron spin resonance (ESR) to detect ROS to clarify its roles in redox dynamics and organ damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2020.1772470DOI Listing

Neratinib for the treatment of early-stage, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-overexpressed breast cancer.

Future Oncol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Medical Oncology Service, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), Departamento de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, CiberOnc, Madrid, Spain.

HER2-positive breast cancer accounts for 18-20% of all breast cancers. Despite significant advances and the currently available adjuvant treatments for management of the disease, approximately 25% of HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer patients show relapse and die. Neratinib is an irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0046DOI Listing

Redox regulation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis and therapy of autoimmunity.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute for Biological Research , Immunology, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, Belgrade, Serbia, 11060;

Significance: Autoimmune diseases are progressively affecting westernized societies, as the proportion of individuals suffering from autoimmunity is steadily increasing over the past decades. Understanding the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulation of the immune response in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders is of outmost importance. The focus of this review is the regulation of ROS production within tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T (Treg) cells that have the essential role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases and significant potency in their therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2019.7999DOI Listing

Metal-Catalyzed P-C Bond Formation via P-H Oxidative Addition: Fundamentals and Recent Advances.

Authors:
David S Glueck

J Org Chem 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Metal-catalyzed addition of P-H bonds to alkenes, alkynes, and other unsaturated substrates in hydrophosphination and related reactions is an atom-economical approach to valuable organophosphorus compounds. Understanding the mechanisms of these processes may enable synthetic improvements and development of new reactions. The first step in several catalytic cycles is P-H oxidative addition, to yield intermediate metal hydride complexes bearing M-P bonds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c00667DOI Listing

Sensitivity of Total Knee Replacement Wear to Variability in Motion and Load Input: A Parametric Finite Element Analysis Study.

J Orthop Res 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Il, USA.

Polyethylene wear remains a contributor to long term failure in total knee replacements (TKRs). Advances in materials have improved polyethylene wear rates, therefore further wear reductions require a better understanding of patient specific factors that lead to wear. Variability of gait within patients is considerable and could lead to significant variability in wear rates that cannot be predicted by standard testing methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24755DOI Listing

Digital spatial profiling application in breast cancer: a user's perspective.

Virchows Arch 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia.

The disciplines of oncology and pathology are at present experiencing a wave of changes as precision medicine becomes embedded as standard-of-care. Consequently, the need to assess increasing numbers of biomarkers simultaneously has become more urgent and recognising the vast intra-tumoural heterogeneity, including within the microenvironment, requires a complex dimensional understanding of the localisation of the biomarker expression. Digital spatial profiling (DSP; nanoString™) technology spatially resolves and digitally quantifies proteins in a highly multiplexed assay, underpinned by the nCounter® barcoding platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02821-9DOI Listing

Sequencing-Based Measurable Residual Disease Testing in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 8;8:249. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have allowed for unprecedented genomic characterization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over the last several years. Further advances in NGS-based methods including error correction using unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) have more recently enabled the use of NGS-based measurable residual disease (MRD) detection. This review focuses on the use of NGS-based MRD detection in AML, including basic methodologies and clinical applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225302PMC

Non-invasive Respiratory Support of the Premature Neonate: From Physics to Bench to Practice.

Front Pediatr 2020 8;8:214. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neonatology, Lerner College of Medicine, Pediatric Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Premature births continue to rise globally with a corresponding increase in various morbidities among this population. Rates of respiratory distress syndrome and the consequent development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) are highest among the extremely preterm infants. The majority of extremely low birth weight premature neonates need some form of respiratory support during their early days of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227410PMC

Mechanism of Cobalt-Catalyzed Heterodimerization of Acrylates and 1,3-Dienes. A Potential Role of Cationic Cobalt(I) Intermediates.

ACS Catal 2020 Apr 3;10(7):4337-4348. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

151 W. Woodruff, Columbus, OH 43210 and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 100 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Coupling reactions of feedstock alkenes are promising, but few of these reactions are practiced industrially. Even though recent advances in the synthetic methodology have led to excellent regio- and enantioselectivies in the dimerization reactions between 1,3-dienes and acrylates, the efficiency as measured by the turnover numbers (TON) in the catalyst has remained modest. Through a combination of reaction progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) of a prototypical dimerization reaction, characterization of isolated low-valent cobalt catalyst precursors involved, several important details of the mechanism of this reaction have emerged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.9b05455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250405PMC

Root Growth Adaptation to Climate Change in Crops.

Front Plant Sci 2020 8;11:544. Epub 2020 May 8.

Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid - Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain.

Climate change is threatening crop productivity worldwide and new solutions to adapt crops to these environmental changes are urgently needed. Elevated temperatures driven by climate change affect developmental and physiological plant processes that, ultimately, impact on crop yield and quality. Plant roots are responsible for water and nutrients uptake, but changes in soil temperatures alters this process limiting crop growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227386PMC

Genomic Selection Using Pedigree and Marker-by-Environment Interaction for Barley Seed Quality Traits From Two Commercial Breeding Programs.

Front Plant Sci 2020 8;11:539. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

With the current advances in the development of low-cost high-density array-based DNA marker technologies, cereal breeding programs are increasingly relying on genomic selection as a tool to accelerate the rate of genetic gain in seed quality traits. Different sources of genetic information are being explored, with the most prevalent being combined additive information from marker and pedigree-based data, and their interaction with the environment. In this, there has been mixed evidence on the performance of use of these data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227446PMC

Bispecific, T-Cell-Recruiting Antibodies in B-Cell Malignancies.

Front Immunol 2020 7;11:762. Epub 2020 May 7.

Laboratory of Hematology, GIGA I3, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are designed to recognize and bind to two different antigens or epitopes. In the last few decades, BsAbs have been developed within the context of cancer therapies and in particular for the treatment of hematologic B-cell malignancies. To date, more than one hundred different BsAb formats exist, including bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), and new constructs are constantly emerging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221185PMC

Advances in Neurobiology and Pharmacology of GPR12.

Front Pharmacol 2020 8;11:628. Epub 2020 May 8.

Departamento de Fisiología y Farmacología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Ciudad Universitaria, Aguascalientes, Mexico.

GPR12 is a G protein-coupled orphan receptor genetically related to type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB and CB) which are ancient proteins expressed all over the body. Both cannabinoid receptors, but especially CB, are involved in neurodevelopment and cognitive processes such as learning, memory, brain reward, coordination, etc. GPR12 shares with CB that both are mainly expressed into the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226366PMC

Mechanisms, regulation and functions of the unfolded protein response.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Degenerative Diseases Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Cellular stress induced by the abnormal accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a possible driver of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. ER proteostasis surveillance is mediated by the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signal transduction pathway that senses the fidelity of protein folding in the ER lumen. The UPR transmits information about protein folding status to the nucleus and cytosol to adjust the protein folding capacity of the cell or, in the event of chronic damage, induce apoptotic cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41580-020-0250-zDOI Listing

Recent advances of sterile inflammation and inter-organ cross-talk in alcoholic liver disease.

Exp Mol Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Laboratory of Liver Research, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the fastest-growing concerns worldwide. In addition to bacterial endotoxins in the portal circulation, recent lines of evidence have suggested that sterile inflammation caused by a wide range of stimuli induces alcoholic liver injury, in which damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play critical roles in inducing de novo lipogenesis and inflammation through the activation of cellular pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors in non-parenchymal cells. Interestingly, alcohol-mediated metabolic, neurological, and immune stresses stimulate the generation of DAMPs that are released not only in the liver, but also in other organs, such as adipose tissue, intestine, and bone marrow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0438-5DOI Listing

Evidence of Biorealistic Synaptic Behavior in Diffusive Li-based Two-terminal Resistive Switching Devices.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8711. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Avenue, P.O. Box 20537, 1678, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Following the recent advances in artificial synaptic devices and the renewed interest regarding artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing, a new two-terminal resistive switching device, based on mobile Li ions is hereby explored. Emulation of neural functionalities in a biorealistic manner has been recently implemented through the use of synaptic devices with diffusive dynamics. Mimicking of the spontaneous synaptic weight relaxation of neuron cells, which is regulated by the concentration kinetics of positively charged ions like Ca, is facilitated through the conductance relaxation of such diffusive devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65237-0DOI Listing

Monitoring Gas Exchange.

Respir Care 2020 Jun;65(6):729-738

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care, and Occupational Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Critical illness can threaten the adequacy of O delivery or CO excretion. Monitoring seeks to identify the adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation and to detect deterioration early. Advances in oximetry, capnography, and transcutaneous CO monitoring offer new opportunities for more accurate estimation of gas exchange, noninvasive monitoring of parameters previously not amenable (eg, total hemoglobin measurement), detection of disease, and prediction of fluid responsiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07408DOI Listing

Cholinergic modulation of binocular vision.

J Neurosci 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de la Cognition Visuelle, École d'Optométrie, Université de Montréal, QC, Canada, H3T 1P1

The endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is known to affect the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance of primate visual cortex, enhancing feedforward thalamocortical gain while suppressing cortico-cortical synapses. Recent advances in the study of the human visual system suggest that ACh is a likely component underlying interocular interactions. However, our understanding of its precise role in binocular processes is currently lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2484-19.2020DOI Listing

Conclusions: Do we eat them or watch them, or both? Challenges for conservation of sharks in Mexico and the NEP.

Adv Mar Biol 2020 4;85(1):93-102. Epub 2020 May 4.

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Marine Fish Science Unit, Olympia, WA, United States.

Mexico is a country that makes heavy use of the shark populations that inhabit the southern portion of the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP). Shark meat has become an essential food source in this country, while shark fins are used to supply traditional Asian markets. In addition to consumptive utilization, charismatic shark species support an ecotourism industry that has gained significance in several tourist resorts across the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.amb.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Preference of blood pressure measurement methods by primary care doctors in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey.

BMC Fam Pract 2020 May 26;21(1):95. Epub 2020 May 26.

Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Hypertension is the most common chronic disease and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Its screening, diagnosis, and management depend heavily on accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement. It is recommended that the diagnosis of hypertension should be confirmed or corroborated by out-of-office BP values, measured using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and home BP monitoring (HBPM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-020-01153-6DOI Listing

Emerging Drugs for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Focus on Recent Phase 2 Trials.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2020 May 27:1-20. Epub 2020 May 27.

NEuroMuscular Omnicentre, Fondazione Serena Onlus , Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper and lower motor neurons and resulting in increasing disability and death 3-5 years after onset of symptoms. Over 40 large clinical trials for ALS have been negative, except for Riluzole that offers a modest survival benefit, and Edaravone that modestly reduces disease progression in patients with specific characteristics. Thus, the discovery of efficient disease modifying therapy is an urgent need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728214.2020.1769067DOI Listing