712 results match your criteria Advances In Applied Microbiology[Journal]

Microbial community signatures for estimation of postmortem time intervals.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2022 14;118:91-113. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

The human body provides a complex ecosystem for symbiotic habitation of a huge number of microorganisms. These commensal microorganisms provide a huge benefit to the living host by acting against many deadly infections. Once the host dies, many changes in the complex ecosystem of the human body take place. Read More

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Microbial mercury transformations: Molecules, functions and organisms.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2022 13;118:31-90. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

Mercury (Hg) methylation, methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation, and inorganic redox transformations of Hg are microbe-mediating processes that determine the fate and cycling of Hg and MeHg in many environments, and by doing so influence the health of humans and wild life. The discovery of the Hg methylation genes, hgcAB, in the last decade together with advances in high throughput and genome sequencing methods, have resulted in an expanded appreciation of the diversity of Hg methylating microbes. This review aims to describe experimentally confirmed and recently discovered hgcAB gene-carrying Hg methylating microbes; phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses are presented. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas genome editing systems in thermophiles: Current status, associated challenges, and future perspectives.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2022 25;118:1-30. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Biofuels institute, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Thermophiles, offering an attractive and unique platform for a broad range of applications in biofuels and environment protections, have received a significant attention and growing interest from academy and industry. However, the exploration and exploitation of thermophilic organisms have been hampered by the lack of a powerful genome manipulation tool to improve production efficiency. At current, the clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) system has been successfully exploited as a competent, simplistic, and powerful tool for genome engineering both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Read More

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February 2022

Dermocosmetic applications of microalgal pigments.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 19;117:63-93. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Among photosynthetic microorganisms, Cyanobacteria and Microalgae species have been highly studied thank to their high value-added compounds for several industrial applications. Thus, their production is increasing in the last decade to produce raw material for cosmetics. In fact, the daily routine includes the use of cosmetics and sunscreens to protect against the environmental changes, mainly the increment of ultraviolet (UV) radiation rate with a consequent skin damage and premature aging due to this overexposure. Read More

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January 2022

The role of zinc in the pathogenicity of human fungal pathogens.

Duncan Wilson

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 22;117:35-61. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Fungal pathogens now account for an unprecedented burden on human health. Like all microorganisms, these fungi must successfully forage for essential micronutrients such as zinc in order to proliferate. However, pathogenic microbes face an additional hurdle in securing zinc from their environment: the action of host nutritional immunity which strictly manipulates microbial access to this essential, but also potentially toxic trace metal. Read More

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January 2022

Biofuel and chemical production from carbon one industry flux gas by acetogenic bacteria.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 7;117:1-34. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China; Shandong Energy Institute, Qingdao, China; Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Carbon one industry flux gas generated from fossil fuels, various industrial and domestic waste, as well as lignocellulosic biomass provides an innovative raw material to lead the sustainable development. Through the chemical and biological processing, the gas mixture composed of CO, CO, and H, also termed as syngas, is converted to biofuels and high-value chemicals. Here, the syngas fermentation process is elaborated to provide an overview. Read More

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January 2022

Sulfate reducing microorganisms in high temperature oil reservoirs.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 20;116:99-131. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Section for Microbiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

High temperature reservoirs offer a window into the microbial life of the deep biosphere. Sulfate reducing microorganisms have been recovered from high temperature oil reservoirs around the globe and characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The activities of sulfate reducers contribute to reservoir souring and hydrocarbon degradation among other attracting considerable interest from the oil industry for the last 100 years. Read More

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October 2021

Uninvited Guests: a Chronology of Petri Dish Contaminations.

Gilbert Shama

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 27;116:169-200. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Petri dish contaminations are commonplace and personally witnessed by every microbiologist. The vast majority of such contaminations result in nothing more than annoyance following which the Petri dishes are discarded. However, a handful of incidents of contaminations have led to momentous outcomes, the most renowned of which being that perceived by Alexander Fleming on the basis of the immense number of lives saved by penicillin. Read More

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October 2021

Biological treatments of mercury and nitrogen oxides in flue gas: biochemical foundations, technological potentials, and recent advances.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 19;116:133-168. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Nitrogen oxides (NO) and mercury (Hg) are commonly found coexistent pollutants in combustion flue gas. Ever-increasing emission of atmospheric Hg and NO has caused considerable environmental risks. Traditional flue gas demercuration and denitration techniques have many socioeconomic, technological and environmental drawbacks. Read More

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October 2021

Lipid production by oleaginous yeasts.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 7;116:1-98. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India. Electronic address:

Microbial lipid production has been studied extensively for years; however, lipid metabolic engineering in many of the extraordinarily high lipid-accumulating yeasts was impeded by inadequate understanding of the metabolic pathways including regulatory mechanisms defining their oleaginicity and the limited genetic tools available. The aim of this review is to highlight the prominent oleaginous yeast genera, emphasizing their oleaginous characteristics, in conjunction with diverse other features such as cheap carbon source utilization, withstanding the effect of inhibitory compounds, commercially favorable fatty acid composition-all supporting their future development as economically viable lipid feedstock. The unique aspects of metabolism attributing to their oleaginicity are accentuated in the pretext of outlining the various strategies successfully implemented to improve the production of lipid and lipid-derived metabolites. Read More

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October 2021

Rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions under water stress.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 16;115:65-113. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Biological, Environmental, and Earth Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States. Electronic address:

Climate change, with its extreme temperature, weather and precipitation patterns, is a major global concern of dryland farmers, who currently meet the challenges of climate change agronomically and with growth of drought-tolerant crops. Plants themselves compensate for water stress by modifying aerial surfaces to control transpiration and altering root hydraulic conductance to increase water uptake. These responses are complemented by metabolic changes involving phytohormone network-mediated activation of stress response pathways, resulting in decreased photosynthetic activity and the accumulation of metabolites to maintain osmotic and redox homeostasis. Read More

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October 2021

Synthesis of functional oligosaccharides and their derivatives through cocultivation and cellular NTP regeneration.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 3;115:35-63. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Carbohydrates play an important role in the life cycle. Among them, functional oligosaccharides show a complex and diverse structures with unique physiological activities and biological functions. However, different preparation methods directly affect the structure, molecular weight, and other functions of oligosaccharides, as well as their application fields and manufacturing costs. Read More

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October 2021

Microbial bioassays in environmental toxicity testing.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 20;115:115-158. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

iBB-Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Accidental spills and the misuse of chemicals may lead to current and legacy environmental contamination and pose concerns over possible (eco)toxicological secondary effects and risks toward non-target microbes and higher eukaryotes, including humans, in ecosystems. In the last decades, scientists and regulators have faced requests to thoroughly screen, prioritize and predict the possible deleterious effects of the huge numbers of existing and emerging xenobiotics, wastewaters and environmental samples on biological systems. In this context, it has become necessary to develop and validate (eco)toxicity bioassays based on microorganisms (e. Read More

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October 2021

Expanding the lysine industry: biotechnological production of l-lysine and its derivatives.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 18;115:1-33. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China; Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

l-lysine is an essential amino acid that contains various functional groups including α-amino, ω-amino, and α-carboxyl groups, exhibiting high reaction potential. The derivatization of these functional groups produces a series of value-added chemicals, such as cadaverine, glutarate, and d-lysine, that are widely applied in the chemical synthesis, cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we review recent advances in the biotechnological production of l-lysine and its derivatives and expatiate key technological strategies. Read More

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October 2021

Molecular engineering to improve lignocellulosic biomass based applications using filamentous fungi.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 17;114:73-109. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Fungal Physiology, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute & Fungal Molecular Physiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource, and its utilization has become the focus of research and biotechnology applications as a very promising raw material for the production of value-added compounds. Filamentous fungi play an important role in the production of various lignocellulolytic enzymes, while some of them have also been used for the production of important metabolites. However, wild type strains have limited efficiency in enzyme production or metabolic conversion, and therefore many efforts have been made to engineer improved strains. Read More

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October 2021

Antimicrobial mechanisms and applications of yeasts.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 13;114:37-72. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland. Electronic address:

Yeasts and humans have had a close relationship for millenia. Yeast have been used for food production since the first human societies. Since then, alternative uses have been discovered. Read More

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October 2021

Microbial biomodification of clay minerals.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 26;114:111-139. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China; Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Clay minerals are important reactive centers in the soil system. Their interactions with microorganisms are ubiquitous and wide-ranging, affecting growth and function, interactions with other organisms, including plants, biogeochemical processes and the fate of organic and inorganic pollutants. Clay minerals have a large specific surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) per unit mass, and are abundant in many soil systems, especially those of agricultural significance. Read More

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October 2021

Recent advances in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2021 9;114:1-35. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Energy-Rich Compounds Production by Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation Research Center, Shandong Key Lab of Applied Mycology, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Isoprenoids, as the largest group of chemicals in the domains of life, constitute more than 50,000 members. These compounds consist of different numbers of isoprene units (CH), by which they are typically classified into hemiterpenoids (C5), monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), diterpenoids (C20), triterpenoids (C30), and tetraterpenoids (C40). In recent years, isoprenoids have been employed as food additives, in the pharmaceutical industry, as advanced biofuels, and so on. Read More

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October 2021

The microbiology of red brines.

Aharon Oren

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 17;113:57-110. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

The Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

The brines of natural salt lakes with total salt concentrations exceeding 30% are often colored red by dense communities of halophilic microorganisms. Such red brines are found in the north arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, in the alkaline hypersaline lakes of the African Rift Valley, and in the crystallizer ponds of coastal and inland salterns where salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or some other source of saline water. Red blooms were also reported in the Dead Sea in the past. Read More

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Predetermined clockwork microbial worlds: Current understanding of aquatic microbial diel response from model systems to complex environments.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 29;113:163-191. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

In the photic zone of aquatic ecosystems, microorganisms with different metabolisms and their viruses form complex interactions and food webs. Within these interactions, phototrophic microorganisms such as eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria interact directly with sunlight, and thereby generate circadian rhythms. Diel cycling originally generated in microbial phototrophs is directly transmitted toward heterotrophic microorganisms utilizing the photosynthetic products as they are excreted or exuded. Read More

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Clostridium thermocellum: A microbial platform for high-value chemical production from lignocellulose.

R Mazzoli D G Olson

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 14;113:111-161. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States; Center for BioEnergy Innovation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.

Second generation biorefining, namely fermentation processes based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, has attracted tremendous interest (owing to the large availability and low cost of this biomass) as a strategy to produce biofuels and commodity chemicals that is an alternative to oil refining. However, the innate recalcitrance of lignocellulose has slowed progress toward economically viable processes. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), i. Read More

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Gaps in the assortment of rapid assays for microorganisms of interest to the dairy industry.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 14;113:1-56. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

This review presents the results of a study into the offering of rapid microbial detection assays to the Irish dairy industry. At the outset, a consultation process was undertaken whereby key stakeholders were asked to compile a list of the key microorganisms of interest to the sector. The resultant list comprises 19 organisms/groups of organisms divided into five categories: single pathogenic species (Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes); genera containing pathogenic species (Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Salmonella; Staphylococcus); broad taxonomic groupings (Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal Streptococci, sulfite reducing bacteria/sulfite reducing Clostridia [SRBs/SRCs], yeasts and molds); organisms displaying certain growth preferences or resistance as regards temperature (endospores, psychrotrophs, thermodurics, thermophiles); indicators of quality (total plate count, Pseudomonas spp. Read More

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Peptidoglycan biosynthesis and remodeling revisited.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 15;112:67-103. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

The bacterial peptidoglycan layer forms a complex mesh-like structure that surrounds the cell, imparting rigidity to withstand cytoplasmic turgor and the ability to tolerate stress. As peptidoglycan has been the target of numerous clinically successful antimicrobials such as penicillin, the biosynthesis, remodeling and recycling of this polymer has been the subject of much interest. Herein, we review recent advances in the understanding of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and remodeling in a variety of different organisms. Read More

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Antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria from animal-based foods.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 23;112:143-183. Epub 2020 May 23.

Molecular and Analytical Laboratory Center, Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Chemistry Institute, Food Science Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; National Institute of Health Quality Control, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide public health threat. Farm animals are important sources of bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Although the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture and livestock has been reduced in several countries, these compounds are still routinely applied in animal production, and contribute to ARGs emergence and spread among bacteria. Read More

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Evasion of host defenses by intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 27;112:105-141. Epub 2020 May 27.

University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of hospital and community-acquired infections worldwide. The increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains and the high rates of recurrent staphylococcal infections have placed several treatment challenges on healthcare systems. In recent years, it has become evident that S. Read More

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Degradation strategies and associated regulatory mechanisms/features for aromatic compound metabolism in bacteria.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 25;112:1-65. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai, India.

As a result of anthropogenic activity, large number of recalcitrant aromatic compounds have been released into the environment. Consequently, microbial communities have adapted and evolved to utilize these compounds as sole carbon source, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The constitutive expression of enzymes necessary for metabolism imposes a heavy energy load on the microbe which is overcome by arrangement of degradative genes as operons which are induced by specific inducers. Read More

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Yeasts for low input winemaking: Microbial terroir and flavor differentiation.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 17;111:89-121. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Ramey Wine Cellars, Healdsburg, CA, United States.

Vitis vinifera flowers and grape fruits are one of the most interesting ecosystem niches for native yeasts development. There are more than a 100 yeast species and millions of strains that participate and contribute to design the microbial terroir. The wine terroir concept is understood when grape and wine micro-regions were delimited by different quality characteristics after humans had been growing vines for more than 10,000 years. Read More

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Engineering transport systems for microbial production.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 8;111:33-87. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

The rapid development in the field of metabolic engineering has enabled complex modifications of metabolic pathways to generate a diverse product portfolio. Manipulating substrate uptake and product export is an important research area in metabolic engineering. Optimization of transport systems has the potential to enhance microbial production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Read More

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Advances in the control of phytopathogenic fungi that infect crops through their root system.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 10;111:123-170. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Instituto de Investigación de la Viña y el Vino, Universidad de León, León, Spain.

Productivity and economic sustainability of many herbaceous and woody crops are seriously threatened by numerous phytopathogenic fungi. While symptoms associated with phytopathogenic fungal infections of aerial parts (leaves, stems and fruits) are easily observable and therefore recognizable, allowing rapid or preventive action to control this type of infection, the effects produced by soil-borne fungi that infect plants through their root system are more difficult to detect. The fact that these fungi initiate infection and damage underground implies that the first symptoms are not as easily noticeable, and therefore both crop yield and plant survival are frequently severely compromised by the time the infection is found. Read More

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Genetic engineering for enhanced productivity in bioelectrochemical systems.

Adv Appl Microbiol 2020 8;111:1-31. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Biosciences-Department of Applied Biology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Biological Interfaces, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

A shift from petrochemical processes toward a bio-based economy is one of the most advocated developments for a sustainable future. To achieve this will require the biotechnological production of platform chemicals that can be further processed by chemical engineering. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a novel tool within the biotechnology field. Read More

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