250,152 results match your criteria Advances In Applied Mechanics[Journal]


Warming acts through earlier snowmelt to advance but not extend alpine community flowering.

Ecology 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050, USA.

Large-scale warming will alter multiple local climate factors in alpine tundra, yet very few experimental studies examine the combined yet distinct influences of earlier snowmelt, higher temperatures and altered soil moisture on alpine ecosystems. This limits our ability to predict responses to climate change by plant species and communities. To address this gap, we used infrared heaters and manual watering in a fully factorial experiment to determine the relative importance of these climate factors on plant flowering phenology, and response differences among plant functional groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3108DOI Listing

[Teleophthalmology Using Whole Slide Imaging (WSI): Clinical-Pathological Correlation Even Without Own Histological Laboratory].

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.

Telepathology has experienced enormous growth over the last two decades due to significant advances in IT and has led to the introduction of innovative solutions for digital imaging in ophthalmology. Whole Slide Imaging (WSI), where conventional glass slides are fully scanned, offers a wide range of applications, including remote (conciliary) diagnostics, second opinions, (remote) teaching and research and presentation. In addition to qualified and experienced personnel, a comparatively expensive basic equipment has so far also been an essential requirement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1114-8904DOI Listing

Cell shape, and not 2D migration, predicts extracellular matrix-driven 3D cell invasion in breast cancer.

APL Bioeng 2020 Jun 5;4(2):026105. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA.

Metastasis, the leading cause of death in cancer patients, requires the invasion of tumor cells through the stroma in response to migratory cues, in part provided by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent advances in proteomics have led to the identification of hundreds of ECM proteins, which are more abundant in tumors relative to healthy tissue. Our goal was to develop a pipeline to easily predict which ECM proteins are more likely to have an effect on cancer invasion and metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5143779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202897PMC

Draft Genome of the Liver Fluke .

ACS Omega 2020 May 6;5(19):11084-11091. Epub 2020 May 6.

Molecular and Structural Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, India.

Fascioliasis, a neglected foodborne disease caused by liver flukes (genus ), affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Despite technological advances, little is known about the molecular biology and biochemistry of these flukes. We present the draft genome of for the first time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241025PMC

Narrowband Polaritonic Thermal Emitters Driven by Waste Heat.

ACS Omega 2020 May 5;5(19):10900-10908. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, United States.

There are a broad range of applications for narrowband long-wave infrared (LWIR) sources, especially within the 8-12 μm atmospheric window. These include infrared beacons, free-space communications, spectroscopy, and potentially on-chip photonics. Unfortunately, commercial light-emitting diode (LED) sources are not available within the LWIR, leaving only gas-phase and quantum cascade lasers, which exhibit low wall-plug efficiencies and in many cases require large footprints, precluding their use for many applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241014PMC

Pseudodominant Nanophthalmos in a Roma Family Caused by a Novel Variant.

J Ophthalmol 2020 10;2020:6807809. Epub 2020 May 10.

Research Unit for Rare Diseases, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Ke Karlovu 2, 128 08 Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: The aim of the study was to identify the molecular genetic cause of two different Mendelian traits with ocular involvement present in the members of a single consanguineous Czech Roma family.

Methods: We have performed ocular examination and review of medical records in two individuals diagnosed with nanophthalmos (proband and her father) and one individual followed for bilateral congenital cataract and microcornea (uncle of the proband). DNA of subjects with nanophthalmos was analysed by exome sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6807809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212339PMC

Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Contrast Agents for Assessment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2020 6;2020:4764985. Epub 2020 May 6.

The First Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China.

Background And Aims: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has taken an important role in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the wake of current advances in nanotechnology, the drug delivery industry has seen a surge of nanoparticles advertising high specificity in target imaging. Given the rapid development of the field, this review has assembled related articles to explore whether molecular contrast agents can improve the diagnostic capability on gastrointestinal imaging, especially for IBD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4764985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225866PMC

Extracorporeal Blood Purification and Organ Support in the Critically Ill Patient during COVID-19 Pandemic: Expert Review and Recommendation.

Blood Purif 2020 May 26:1-11. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Critical Care, King's College London, Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom,

Critically ill COVID-19 patients are generally admitted to the ICU for respiratory insufficiency which can evolve into a multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome requiring extracorporeal organ support. Ongoing advances in technology and science and progress in information technology support the development of integrated multi-organ support platforms for personalized treatment according to the changing needs of the patient. Based on pathophysiological derangements observed in COVID-19 patients, a rationale emerges for sequential extracorporeal therapies designed to remove inflammatory mediators and support different organ systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508125DOI Listing

The EORTC-DeCOG nomogram adequately predicts outcomes of patients with sentinel node-positive melanoma without the need for completion lymph node dissection.

Eur J Cancer 2020 May 23;134:9-18. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Based on recent advances in the management of patients with sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma, we aimed to develop prediction models for recurrence, distant metastasis (DM) and overall mortality (OM).

Methods: The derivation cohort consisted of 1080 patients with SN-positive melanoma from nine European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) centres. Prognostic factors for recurrence, DM and OM were studied with Cox regression analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.04.022DOI Listing

Epidemiology, Treatments, and Cardiac Complications in Patients with Kawasaki Disease: The Nationwide Survey in Japan, 2017-2018.

J Pediatr 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Division of Public Health, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Objective: To report the epidemiologic characteristics, treatments, and cardiac complications of KD, using data from the nationwide survey in Japan.

Study Design: The nationwide KD survey in Japan has been conducted biennially since 1970. The most recent survey was completed in 2019, obtaining information for patients who developed KD during 2017-2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.034DOI Listing

Long non-coding RNA H19 in the liver-gut axis: A diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for liver diseases.

Exp Mol Pathol 2020 May 23:104472. Epub 2020 May 23.

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Liver diseases and related complications represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality and have become a significant economic burden worldwide. Dysregulated energy metabolism, alteration of redox homeostasis, immune responses, inflammation, fibrosis, and malfunctioning of the gut-liver axis are key driving forces of liver diseases. Emerging evidence suggested that long coding RNAs (lncRNAs) played crucial roles in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104472DOI Listing

Outside-in hypothesis revisited: the role of microbial, epithelial and immune interactions.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland; Christine Kühne-Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos, Switzerland.

Objective: Our understanding of the origin of allergic diseases has increased in recent years, highlighting the importance of microbial dysbiosis and epithelial barrier dysfunction in affected tissues. Exploring the microbial-epithelial-immune crosstalk underlying the mechanisms of allergic diseases will allow the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies of allergic diseases.

Data Sources: This review summarizes recent advances in microbial, epithelial, and immune interactions in atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.05.016DOI Listing

Deciphering the Self-Cleavage Reaction Mechanism of Hairpin Ribozyme.

J Phys Chem B 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Hairpin ribozyme catalyzes the reversible self-cleavage of phosphodiester bonds which plays prominent roles in key biological processes involving RNAs. Despite impressive advances on ribozymatic self-cleavage, critical aspects of its molecular reaction mechanism remain controversially debated. Here, we generate and analyze the multi-dimensional free energy landscape that underlies the reaction using extensive QM/MM metadynamics simulations to investigate in detail the full self-cleavage mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c03768DOI Listing

Genetic and biochemical reconstitution of bromoform biosynthesis in Asparagopsis lends insights into seaweed ROS enzymology.

ACS Chem Biol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Marine macroalgae, seaweeds, are exceptionally prolific producers of halogenated natural products. Biosynthesis of halogenated molecules in seaweeds is inextricably linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling as hydrogen peroxide serves as a substrate for haloperoxidase enzymes that participate in the construction these halogenated molecules. Here, using red macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis, a prolific producer of ozone depleting molecule- bromoform, we provide the discovery and biochemical characterization of a ROS-producing NAD(P)H oxidase from seaweeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.0c00299DOI Listing

NMT as a glycine and lysine myristoyltransferase in cancer, immunity, and infections.

ACS Chem Biol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Protein myristoylation, the addition of a 14-carbon saturated acyl group, is an abundant modification implicated in biological events as diverse as development, immunity, oncogenesis, and infections. N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is the enzyme that catalyzes this modification. Many elegant studies have established the rules guiding the catalysis including substrate amino acid sequence requirement with the indispensable N-terminal glycine, and a co-translational mode of action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.0c00314DOI Listing

Quantile regression for survival data with covariates subject to detection limits.

Biometrics 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Statistics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 20052, U.S.A.

With advances in biomedical research, biomarkers are becoming increasingly important prognostic factors for predicting overall survival, while the measurement of biomarkers is often censored due to instruments' lower limits of detection. This leads to two types of censoring: random censoring in overall survival outcomes and fixed censoring in biomarker covariates, posing new challenges in statistical modeling and inference. Existing methods for analyzing such data focus primarily on linear regression ignoring censored responses or semiparametric accelerated failure time (AFT) models with covariates under detection limits (DL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.13309DOI Listing

Methodology for the American Society of Hematology VTE guidelines: current best practice, innovations, and experiences.

Blood Adv 2020 May;4(10):2351-2365

Michael G. DeGroote Cochrane Canada Centre.

Background: Methods for the development of clinical guidelines have advanced dramatically over the past 2 decades to strive for trustworthiness, transparency, user-friendliness, and rigor. The American Society of Hematology (ASH) guidelines on venous thromboembolism (VTE) have followed these advances, together with application of methodological innovations.

Objective: In this article, we describe methods and methodological innovations as a model to inform future guideline enterprises by ASH and others to achieve guideline standards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001768DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of precise in vivo targeted gene integration in human cells using AAVHSC15.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(5):e0233373. Epub 2020 May 26.

Homology Medicines Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Targeted gene integration via precise homologous recombination (HR)-based gene editing has the potential to correct genetic diseases. AAV (adeno-associated virus) can mediate nuclease-free gene integration at a disease-causing locus. Therapeutic application of AAV gene integration requires quantitative molecular characterization of the edited sequence that overcome technical obstacles such as excess episomal vector genomes and lengthy homology arms. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233373PLOS

A nagyérvasculitisek képalkotó vizsgálatának lehetőségei és azok jelentősége.

Orv Hetil 2020 Jun;161(23):939-950

Angiológia,Szent Imre Egyetemi Oktatókórház Budapest, Tétényi út 12-16., 1115.

According to the nomenclature of the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference, giant-cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis belong to the group of large-vessel vasculitis. Recognition of these diseases is primarily based on the clinical assessment and the use of various vascular imaging modalities. With regard to the latter one, significant technological advances have been observed in recent years, which allow not only to make a diagnosis but also to evaluate the extent of the disease and the degree of vascular inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2020.31744DOI Listing

Image-Guided Surgery and Intraoperative Imaging in Rhinology: Clinical Update and Current State of the Art.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 May 26:145561320928202. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Image-guided surgery (IGS) has gained widespread acceptance in otorhinolaryngology for its applications in sinus and skull base surgery. Although the core concepts of IGS have not changed, advances in image guidance technology, including the incorporation of intraoperative imaging, have the potential to enhance surgical education, allow for more rigorous preoperative planning, and aid in more complete surgery with improved outcomes.

Objectives: Provide a clinical update regarding the use of image guidance and intraoperative imaging in the field of rhinology and endoscopic skull base surgery with a focus on current state of the art technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320928202DOI Listing

Strategic Combinations to Prevent and Overcome Resistance to Targeted Therapies in Oncology.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2020 May;40:e292-e308

UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA.

Recent advances in the understanding of underlying molecular signaling mechanisms of cancer susceptibility and progression have led to an increase in the use of targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Despite improvements in survival with new treatment options in oncology, resistance to therapy is a major obstacle to the long-term effectiveness of targeted agents in metastatic cancer treatment, culminating in insensitivity to treatment and tumor outgrowth. Adaptive resistance can play an important role in primary and upfront resistance to therapy as well as in secondary or acquired resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/EDBK_280845DOI Listing

Dependence of MeV TOF SIMS secondary molecular ion yield from phthalocyanine blue on primary ion stopping power.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS) is a well-established mass spectrometry technique used for the chemical analysis of both organic and inorganic materials. In the last ten years, many advances have been made to improve the yield of secondary molecular ions, especially those desorbed from the surfaces of organic samples. For that, cluster ion beams with keV energies for the excitation were mostly used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.0c00080DOI Listing

1-D Nanostructured Oxide Chemoresistive Sensors.

Langmuir 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Day by day demand of portable, low cost and efficient chemical/gas sensing devices is increasing due to world-wide industrial growth for various purposes such as environmental monitoring and health care. To fulfil this demand, nanostructured metal oxides can be used as active materials for chemical/gas sensors due to their high crystallinity, remarkable physical/chemical properties, ease of synthesis and low cost. In particular, (1-D) one-dimensional metal oxides nanostructures, such as nanowires, exhibit fast response, selectivity and stability due to their high surface to volume ratio, well-defined crystal orientations, controlled unidirectional electrical properties and self-heating phenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00701DOI Listing

What's Hot, What's Not: The Trends of the Past 20 Years in the Chemistry of Odorants.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Givaudan S&T, Fragrance Research, Kemptpark 50, 8310, Kemptthal, SWITZERLAND.

This review is the sequel to the 2000 report on the recent advances in the chemistry of odorants and it summarizes the developments in fragrance chemistry over the past 20 years. Following the olfactory spectrum set out in that report, trendsetting so-called captive odorants (patent-protected ingredients unavailable to the market) are presented according to the main odor families: "fruity", "marine", "green", "floral", "spicy", "woody", "amber", and "musky". The design of odorants, their chemical synthesis, and their use in modern perfumery are illustrated with prominent examples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202005719DOI Listing

Trends in Reoperation for Surgical Site Infection after Spinal Surgery with Instrumentation in a Multicenter Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

Study Design: A multicenter retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database.

Objective: To examine the characteristics of reoperation for surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal instrumentation surgery, including the efficacy of treatment for SSI and instrumentation retention.

Summary Of Background Data: Aging of the population and advances in surgical techniques have increased the demand for spinal surgery in elderly patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003545DOI Listing

Estimands and missing data in clinical trials of chronic pain treatments: advances in design and analysis.

Pain 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

In clinical trials of treatments for chronic pain, the percentage of participants who withdraw early can be as high as 50%. Major reasons for early withdrawal in these studies include perceived lack of efficacy and adverse events. Commonly employed strategies for accommodating missing data include last observation carried forward, baseline observation carried forward, and more principled methods such as mixed model repeated measures and multiple imputation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001937DOI Listing

Progress in cancer mortality, incidence, and survival: a global overview.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health.

Cancer mortality has declined over the last three decades in most high-income countries reflecting improvements in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and management. However, there are persisting and substantial differences in mortality, incidence, and survival worldwide. In order to provide an up-to-date overview of trends in mortality, incidence, and survival, we retrieved data from high-quality, population-based cancer registries for all cancers and 10 selected cancer sites in six high-income countries and the European Union. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000594DOI Listing

Recent developments and advances in secondary prevention of lung cancer.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS.

Lung cancer prevention may include primary prevention strategies, such as corrections of working conditions and life style - primarily smoking cessation - as well as secondary prevention strategies, aiming at early detection that allows better survival rates and limited resections. This review summarizes recent developments and advances in secondary prevention, focusing on recent technological tools for an effective early diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000586DOI Listing

A Systematic Review of Emerging Therapeutic Strategies in the Management of Chemical Injuries of the Ocular Surface.

Eye Contact Lens 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

The Department of Ophthalmology (S.H.L.P., W.H.L.W., Y.B., A.C.Y.L., Y.K.C., K.C.S.), Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR; and Department of Ophthalmology (V.J.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objectives: To evaluate recent in vivo studies on emerging therapies for managing corneal epithelial injuries.

Methods: The search was conducted on PubMed for articles published between January 2015 and September 2019 and in English language.

Results: Thirty studies were identified for evaluation, including those on mesenchymal stem cells, amniotic membrane-derived therapies, endogenous peptides and their inhibitors, as well as hydrogel therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICL.0000000000000715DOI Listing

Primary central nervous system lymphoma: status and advances in diagnosis, molecular pathogenesis, and treatment.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Hematology, Department of Hematology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare group of extra-nodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is confined to the central nervous system or eyes. This article aims to present a brief profile of PCNSL diagnosis and treatment in immunocompetent patients. The authors retrieved information from the PubMed database up to September 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000844DOI Listing

The economics of drug allergy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: As drug allergy research aims to inform clinical practice, implementation of best practices may be influenced by financial resources required to incorporate new interventions and the resulting clinical and economic returns on those resource investments. The present review summarizes new insights into the economics of drug allergy over the past year.

Recent Findings: While considering economic implications of recent drug allergy research, many studies have addressed different contextual factors related to the setting, provider, or outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000651DOI Listing

Whole Slide Imaging: Technology and Applications.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Pathology has benefited from advanced innovation with novel technology to implement a digital solution. Whole slide imaging is a disruptive technology where glass slides are scanned to produce digital images. There have been significant advances in whole slide scanning hardware and software that have allowed for ready access of whole slide images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000273DOI Listing

HTS-Compatible CometChip Enables Genetic Screening for Modulators of Apoptosis and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair.

SLAS Discov 2020 May 26:2472555220918367. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Dysfunction of apoptosis and DNA damage response pathways often drive cancer, and so a better understanding of these pathways can contribute to new cancer therapeutic strategies. Diverse discovery approaches have identified many apoptosis regulators, DNA damage response, and DNA damage repair proteins; however, many of these approaches rely on indirect detection of DNA damage. Here, we describe a novel discovery platform based on the comet assay that leverages previous technical advances in assay precision by incorporating high-throughput robotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2472555220918367DOI Listing

An up-to-date overview of computational polypharmacology in modern drug discovery.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2020 May 26:1-20. Epub 2020 May 26.

Intelligent Molecular Discovery Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center , Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: In recent years, computational polypharmacology has gained significant attention to study the promiscuous nature of drugs. Despite tremendous challenges, community-wide efforts have led to a variety of novel approaches for predicting drug polypharmacology. In particular, some rapid advances using machine learning and artificial intelligence have been reported with great success. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17460441.2020.1767063DOI Listing

Emerging Approaches to Functionalizing Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles.

Biochemistry 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

There has been a significant interest in developing cell membrane-coated nanoparticles due to their unique abilities of biomimicry and biointerfacing. As the technology progresses, it becomes clear that the application of these nanoparticles can be drastically broadened if additional functions beyond those derived from the natural cell membranes can be integrated. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the functionalization of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00343DOI Listing

Evolution of Bio-Inspired Artificial Synapses: Materials, Structures, and Mechanisms.

Small 2020 May 26:e2000041. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Photoelectronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, P. R. China.

Artificial synapses (ASs) are electronic devices emulating important functions of biological synapses, which are essential building blocks of artificial neuromorphic networks for brain-inspired computing. A human brain consists of several quadrillion synapses for information storage and processing, and massively parallel computation. Neuromorphic systems require ASs to mimic biological synaptic functions, such as paired-pulse facilitation, short-term potentiation, long-term potentiation, spatiotemporally-correlated signal processing, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202000041DOI Listing

P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia: Biological and prognosis implications.

Int J Lab Hematol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DACT/UFRN), Natal, Brazil.

Background: Despite the advances in the cure rate for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a considerable number of patients die from the disease due to the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Overexpression of the transporter proteins, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), confers resistance to the treatment of these leukemias.

Methods: To analyze the expression of the Pgp and MRP1 in patients with AML and determine their correlation between expression and demographic, clinical, and laboratorial variables, bone marrow and peripheral blood samples from 346 patients with a diagnosis of AML were assessed for the expression of Pgp and MRP1 by flow cytometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13241DOI Listing

Quantitative evaluation of intraspecific genetic diversity in a natural fish population using environmental DNA analysis.

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Hakubi Center, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Recent advances in environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) enable evaluation of intraspecific genetic diversity in a population. As the intraspecific genetic diversity provides invaluable information for wildlife conservation and management, there is an increasing demand to apply eDNA analysis to population genetics and the phylogeography by quantitative evaluation of intraspecific diversity. However, quantitative evaluations of intraspecific genetic diversity using eDNA is not straightforward because the number of eDNA sequence reads obtained by HTS may not be an index of the quantity of eDNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13200DOI Listing

Diazaphospholene and Diazaarsolene Derived Homogeneous Catalysis.

Chemistry 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Cardiff University, Chemistry, Main Building, Park Place, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, UNITED KINGDOM.

The past 20 years has seen significant advances in main group chemistry and their use in catalysis. This minireview showcases the recent emergence of phosphorus and arsenic containing heterocycles as catalysts. With that, we discuss how the Group 15 compounds diazaphospholenes, diazaarsolenes, and their cationic counterparts have proven to be highly effective catalysts for a wide range of reduction transformations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202001734DOI Listing

YAP1 withdrawal in hepatoblastoma drives therapeutic differentiation of tumor cells to functional hepatocyte-like cells.

Hepatology 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01605, United States.

Background & Aims: Despite surgical and chemotherapeutic advances, the five-year survival rate for Stage IV Hepatoblastoma (HB), the predominant pediatric liver tumor, remains at 27%. YAP1 and β-Catenin co-activation occurs in 80% of children's HB; however, a lack of conditional genetic models precludes tumor maintenance exploration. Thus, the need for a targeted therapy remains unmet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31389DOI Listing

Adipose stem cells in obesity: challenges and opportunities.

Biosci Rep 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Adipose tissue, the storage of excessive energy in the body, secretes various proteins called adipokines, which connect the body's nutritional status to the regulation of energy balance. Obesity triggers alterations of quantity and quality of various types of cells that reside in adipose tissue, including adipose stem cells (ASCs; referred to adipose-derived stem/stromal cells in vitro). These alterations in the functionalities and properties of ASCs impair adipose tissue remodeling and adipose tissue function, which induces low-grade systemic inflammation, progressive insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20194076DOI Listing

A 96-well high-throughput, rapid-screening platform of extracellular electron transfer in microbial fuel cells.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Aug 8;162:112259. Epub 2020 May 8.

Bioelectronics & Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, State University of New York-Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 13902-6000, USA. Electronic address:

Microbial extracellular electron transfer (EET) stimulates a plethora of intellectual concepts leading to potential applications that offer environmentally sustainable advances in the fields of biofuels, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, desalination, and biosensing. Despite its vast potential and remarkable research efforts to date, bacterial electrogenicity is arguably the most underdeveloped technology used to confront the aforementioned challenges. Severe limitations are placed in the intrinsic energy and electron transfer processes of naturally occurring microorganisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112259DOI Listing

The Advances of the Structure and Function of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 and Its Inhibitors.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

College of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Sichuan Industrial Institute of Antibiotics, Key Laboratory of Coarse Cereal Processing Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chengdu University, Chengdu. China.

Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is the only rate-limiting enzyme outside the liver that catalyzes the oxidation and cracking of indole rings in the tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway (KP). The overactivation of IDO1 is closely related to the pathogenesis of various human immune and neurological diseases. As an important target for the treatment of many human serious diseases including malignant tumors, the development of IDO1 inhibitors is of great practical significance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389203721666200526122304DOI Listing

Conservatives' Moral Foundations Are More Densely Connected Than Liberals' Moral Foundations.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2020 May 26:146167220916070. Epub 2020 May 26.

Tilburg University, The Netherlands.

We use network psychometrics to map a subsection of moral belief systems predicted by moral foundations theory (MFT). This approach conceptualizes moral systems as networks, with moral beliefs represented as nodes connected by direct relations. As such, it advances a novel test of MFT's claim that liberals and conservatives have different systems of foundational moral values, which we test in three large datasets ( = 854; = 679; = 2,572), from two countries (the United States and New Zealand). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167220916070DOI Listing

Exploring the Usage of a Violence Prevention and Response App Among Community College Students.

Health Educ Behav 2020 Jun;47(1_suppl):44S-53S

University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA.

Sexual assault is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, much of the research on prevention and response has been conducted with students enrolled at traditional 4-year institutions. Limited research exists on 2-year institutions (also known as community colleges), which enroll a more diverse population (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198120910995DOI Listing

[Advances on selective posterior rhizotomy for lower limb function in patients with cerebral palsy].

Zhongguo Gu Shang 2020 May;33(5):489-92

The Fourth Department of Orthopaedics, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China.

Cerebral palsy is a common clinical syndrome of neurological disability in childhood, which seriously affects the quality of life of children and their families, and brings a heavy economic burden to the society. Domestic and foreign scholars had a long history of the application of selective posterior rhizotomy for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy or mixed cerebral palsy with limb paralysis. It is effective in improving the lower extremity spasm of patients with cerebral palsy, and there are few cases with recurrences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12200/j.issn.1003-0034.2020.05.020DOI Listing

Advances in chemiluminescence and electrogenerated chemiluminescence based on silicon nanomaterials.

Luminescence 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Since 1950, when chemiluminescence (CL) of siloxane upon treatment with strong oxidants was discovered by Kurtz, many silicon-based nanomaterials with different elements, specific molecules, shapes and sizes have been developed as light emitters, energy acceptors, and catalyzers to provide valuable CL and electrogenerated CL (ECL) detection platforms in analytical chemistry fields. This review mainly focuses on the recent development of their mechanisms and sensing methodologies for small molecules, free radicals, ion, enzyme, protein, DNA, cancer cells, and metabolites based on specific reactions such as aptamer sensing and enzymatic reaction. Additionally, the future trend is discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.3805DOI Listing

Catalytic, Enantioselective Sulfenofunctionalization of Alkenes- Development and Recent Advances.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Chemistry, 600 S. Mathews Ave., 245 Roger Adams Laboratory, 61801, Urbana, UNITED STATES.

The last decade has witnessed a burgeoning of new methods for the enantioselective vicinal difunctionalization of alkenes initiated by electrophilic sulfenyl group transfer. The addition of sulfenium ions to alkenes results in the generation of chiral, non-racemic thiiranium ions. These highly reactive intermediates are susceptible to attack by a myriad of nucleophiles in a stereospecific ring-opening event to afford anti 1,2-sulfenofunctionalized products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202005920DOI Listing

Estimating Environmental Hazard and Risks from Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): Outcome of a SETAC Focused Topic Meeting.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Division of the National Toxicology Program/NIEHS, RTP, NC.

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are a group of highly fluorinated synthetic chemicals that were originally developed for uses as surfactants and surface protectors. Increasingly, specific substances of this class are being found in environmental media (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4784DOI Listing

Training of a discrete motor skill in humans is accompanied by increased excitability of the fastest corticospinal connections at movement onset.

J Physiol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, 79117, Germany.

Key Points: The primary motor cortex (M1) is fundamentally important for the acquisition of skilled motor behaviours. We tested the excitability changes of distinct M1 circuits at movement onset with TMS H-reflex conditioning. Human subjects trained a discrete spatiotemporal motor skill. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP279879DOI Listing