229,519 results match your criteria Advances In Anatomy Embryology And Cell Biology[Journal]


Shear-induced alignment of collagen fibrils using 3D cell printing for corneal stroma tissue engineering.

Biofabrication 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, KOREA, Pohang, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF.

The microenvironments of tissues or organs are complex architectures comprised of structural proteins including collagen. Particularly, the cornea is organized in a lattice pattern of collagen fibrils which play a significant role in its transparency. This paper introduces a transparent bioengineered corneal structure for transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/ab1a8bDOI Listing

Atomic-scale insights into zeolite-based catalysis in NO decomposition.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 1;673:266-271. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Nitrous oxide (NO) has been the most serious ozone-depleting species throughout the 21st century. Zeolite-based catalysis is a highly promising method for NO removal in large-scale industrial applications. However, the exchanged transition metal species in zeolites greatly influence the performance of catalysts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.481DOI Listing
April 2019
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Synthetic approaches and pharmaceutical applications of chloro-containing molecules for drug discovery: A critical review.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Apr 10;173:117-153. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 205 Luoshi Road, Wuhan, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

At present more than 250 FDA approved chlorine containing drugs were available in the market and many pharmaceutically important drug candidates in pre-clinical trials. Thus, it is quite obvious to expect that in coming decades there will be an even greater number of new chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals in market. Chlorinated compounds represent the family of compounds promising for use in medicinal chemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.03.063DOI Listing

Physiological roles of antisense RNAs in prokaryotes.

Biochimie 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

CNRS UMR8261, IBPC, 13 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Prokaryotes encounter constant and often brutal modifications to their environment. In order to survive, they need to maintain fitness, which includes adapting their protein expression patterns. Many factors control gene expression but this review focuses on just one, namely antisense RNAs (asRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) characterized by their location in cis and their perfect complementarity with their targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2019.04.015DOI Listing

Immune Signaling in Neurodegeneration.

Immunity 2019 Apr;50(4):955-974

Boston Children's Hospital, F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system progressively rob patients of their memory, motor function, and ability to perform daily tasks. Advances in genetics and animal models are beginning to unearth an unexpected role of the immune system in disease onset and pathogenesis; however, the role of cytokines, growth factors, and other immune signaling pathways in disease pathogenesis is still being examined. Here we review recent genetic risk and genome-wide association studies and emerging mechanisms for three key immune pathways implicated in disease, the growth factor TGF-β, the complement cascade, and the extracellular receptor TREM2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.016DOI Listing

Interleukin-1 and Related Cytokines in the Regulation of Inflammation and Immunity.

Immunity 2019 Apr;50(4):778-795

IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano Milan, Italy; Humanitas University, via Rita Levi Montalcini, 20090 Pieve Emanuele Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Forty years after its naming, interleukin-1 (IL-1) is experiencing a renaissance brought on by the growing understanding of its context-dependent roles and advances in the clinic. Recent studies have identified important roles for members of the IL-1 family-IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38-in inflammation and immunity. Here, we review the complex functions of IL-1 family members in the orchestration of innate and adaptive immune responses and their diversity and plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Evolutionary Trajectories for the Functional Diversification of Anthracycline Methyltransferases.

ACS Chem Biol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Microbial natural products are an important source of chemical entities for drug discovery. Recent advances in understanding the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites has revealed how this rich chemical diversity is generated through functional differentiation of biosynthetic enzymes. For instance, investigations into anthracycline anti-cancer agents have uncovered distinct S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) - dependent proteins: DnrK is a 4-O-methyltransferase involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis, whereas RdmB (52% sequence identity) from the rhodomycin pathway catalyzes 10-hydroxylation. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschembio.9b00238
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00238DOI Listing
April 2019
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Viable and necrotic tumor assessment from whole slide images of osteosarcoma using machine-learning and deep-learning models.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0210706. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States of America.

Pathological estimation of tumor necrosis after chemotherapy is essential for patients with osteosarcoma. This study reports the first fully automated tool to assess viable and necrotic tumor in osteosarcoma, employing advances in histopathology digitization and automated learning. We selected 40 digitized whole slide images representing the heterogeneity of osteosarcoma and chemotherapy response. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210706PLOS

The Concept of Chronic Edema-A Neglected Public Health Issue and an International Response: The LIMPRINT Study.

Lymphat Res Biol 2019 Apr;17(2):121-126

2 Montpellier Medecine Vasculaire, EA2992, Universite Montpellier I, CHU Saint Eloi, Montpellier, France.

Lymphedema has always been a neglected global health care problem. A central requirement for the development of any chronic disease is the clear use of public health definitions that can be used internationally to define populations. The term "lymphedema" has historically been defined as either primary, resulting from failure of lymphatic development, or secondary, following damage to the lymphatics (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2018.0085DOI Listing

Quantitative MRI Musculoskeletal Techniques: An Update.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA.

For many years, MRI of the musculoskeletal system has relied mostly on conventional sequences with qualitative analysis. More recently, using quantitative MRI applications to complement qualitative imaging has gained increasing interest in the MRI community, providing more detailed physiologic or anatomic information. In this article, we review the current state of quantitative MRI, technical and software advances, and the most relevant clinical and research musculoskeletal applications of quantitative MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.21143DOI Listing

Use of pharmaceutical nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Apr 11;52:e20180246. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia Industrial, Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE, Brasil.

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a global public health concern. Currently available treatments are associated with considerable side effects. The use of nanotechnology has shown promise for improving efficacy and bioavailability and minimizing side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0246-2018DOI Listing

The theorical-methodological construction of theses and dissertations and their epistemological problems.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20171020. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia/PPGEO-CFCH-UFPE, Departamento de Ciências Geográficas, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CFCH 5o e 6o andar, Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 7803, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil.

This essay discusses the problem of the lack of dialogue between theory/empirical reality in the construction of the theoretical structure of dissertations and doctorates in Human Sciences in Brazil; taking Geography as an example, Santos (2000) observed this problem, which persists at the national level. The proposal is to present the question and to suggest the relationship between theory/empirical reality coming of the dialogue with specific research questions. It is these research questions that will define the limitations, factors, agents, processes and structures that will be studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920171020DOI Listing

Scientific collaboration in Zika: identification of the leading research groups and researchers via social network analysis.

Cad Saude Publica 2019 Apr 8;35(3):e00220217. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The association between Zika and microcephaly drew international attention to Brazil. The emergency situation demanded speed and collective effort by researchers worldwide, and Science was quick to investigate the disease and publish the results. Scientific knowledge was created and disseminated through collaboration in this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00220217DOI Listing

An overview of the recent advances in inorganic nanotubes.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute, Herzl Street 234, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

Advanced nanomaterials play a prominent role in nanoscience and nanotechnology developments, opening new frontiers in these areas. Among these nanomaterials, due to their unique characteristics and enhanced chemical and physical properties, inorganic nanotubes have been considered one of the most interesting nanostructures. In recent years, important progress has been achieved in the production and study of these nanomaterials, including boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenide nanotubular structures, misfit-based nanotubes and other hybrid/doped nanotubular objects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr01880hDOI Listing

Polygenic risk scores in coronary artery disease.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants accounting for a substantial portion of the heritable risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). These studies have not only catalyzed drug discovery but also have opened the possibility of improved risk prediction and stratification. Here we review the current state-of-the art in polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and look to the future, as these scores move towards clinical application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000629DOI Listing

Presentation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers on diverse nanoparticle platforms.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: We will discuss recent advances in the development of nanoparticle vaccines presenting HIV-1 envelope trimer vaccines and the immunological mechanisms by which they act.

Recent Findings: The multivalent presentation of Env trimers on nanoparticles is a promising strategy to increase Env immunogenicity. Recent studies have shed light on how Env nanoparticles increase lymph node trafficking and germinal center formation by using the lectin-mediated complement pathway and enhancing the interaction with naïve B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000549DOI Listing
April 2019
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Health, ecology and the microbiome.

Authors:
S Andrew Inkpen

Elife 2019 Apr 17;8. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Philosophy, Brandon University, Brandon, Canada.

Advances in microbiomics have changed the way in which many researchers think about health and disease. These changes have also raised a number of philosophical questions around these topics, such as the types of living systems to which these concepts can be applied. Here, I discuss the human microbiome from two perspectives: the first treats the microbiome as part of a larger system that includes the human; the second treats the microbiome as an independent ecosystem that provides services to humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47626DOI Listing

Recent advances in Z/E-isomers of tetraphenylethene derivatives: AIE mechanism, photophysical property, chemical probe, and stereoselectivity syntheses.

Authors:
Zhen Li

Chem Asian J 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Wuhan University, Department of Chemistry, Luojia Hill, 430072, Wuhan, CHINA.

The focus research on Z/E-isomers of tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivatives were scare in comparison with thousands of AIEgens based on TPE moiety. The similar chemical and physical properties made them difficult to be separated by conventional purification operation of silica gel column chromatography. However, the Z/E-TPE isomers can be isolated by the introduction of polarity groups, and pure isomers showed unique values in deciphering the AIE mechanism and exhibited very different photophysical, mechanochromism, host-guest coordinate properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.201900282DOI Listing

Histopathological diagnosis of ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia.

Authors:
Hiroshi Kawachi

Dig Endosc 2019 Apr;31 Suppl 1:31-35

Department of Pathology, The Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR), Tokyo, Japan.

In patients with ulcerative colitis, tumor development occurs with an increase in the duration of the disease. Such lesions, known as ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia (UCAN), histologically show a broad variety of findings such as low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma. For pathologists, however, the histopathological diagnosis of UCAN is occasionally difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13387DOI Listing
April 2019
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Characterizing the Biomedical Data-Sharing Landscape.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):21-30

Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. Patricia A. Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses on demonstrating the value of genomic sequencing for health systems and policy-makers.Erika Versalovic is a Ph.D. student in the philosophy department at the University of Washington and a neuroethics fellow with the Center for Neurotechnology in Seattle, WA. Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine.

Advances in technologies and biomedical informatics have expanded capacity to generate and share biomedical data. With a lens on genomic data, we present a typology characterizing the data-sharing landscape in biomedical research to advance understanding of the key stakeholders and existing data-sharing practices. The typology highlights the diversity of data-sharing efforts and facilitators and reveals how novel data-sharing efforts are challenging existing norms regarding the role of individuals whom the data describe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840481DOI Listing

Machine-learning identifies parkinson's disease patients based on resting-state between-network functional connectivity.

Br J Radiol 2019 Apr 17:20180886. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty , Dusseldorf , Germany.

Objectives: Evaluation of a data-driven, model-based classification approach to discriminate idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) patients from healthy controls (HC) based on between-network connectivity in whole-brain resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI).

Methods: Whole-brain rs-fMRI (EPI/TR = 2.2  s/TE = 30  ms/flip angle = 90°/resolution = 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20180886DOI Listing

Role of Cardiac Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Myocardial Diseases.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Apr;27(2):73-92

Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Multimodality imaging is indicated for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) myocardial diseases. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows morphological and functional assessment of the LV along with soft tissue characterization. Technological advances in cardiac computed tomography (CT) have led to the development of techniques for diagnostic acquisition in LV myocardial disease. Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.4250/jcvi.2019.2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcvi.2019.27.e17DOI Listing
April 2019
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Alternatives to Cryogenic Distillation: Advanced Porous Materials in Adsorptive Light Olefin/Paraffin Separations.

Small 2019 Apr 17:e1900058. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore, 117585, Singapore.

As primary feedstocks in the petrochemical industry, light olefins such as ethylene and propylene are mainly obtained from steam cracking of naphtha and short chain alkanes (ethane and propane). Due to their similar physical properties, the separations of olefins and paraffins-pivotal processes to meet the olefin purity requirement of downstream processing-are typically performed by highly energy-intensive cryogenic distillation at low temperatures and high pressures. To reduce the energy input and save costs, adsorptive olefin/paraffin separations have been proposed as promising techniques to complement or even replace cryogenic distillation, and growing efforts have been devoted to developing advanced adsorbents to fulfill this challenging task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900058DOI Listing

Towards a molecular understanding of endosomal trafficking by Retromer and Retriever.

Traffic 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Endosomes are dynamic intracellular compartments that control the sorting of a constant stream of different transmembrane cargos either for ESCRT-mediated degradation or for egress and recycling to compartments such as the Golgi and the plasma membrane. The recycling of cargos occurs within tubulovesicular membrane domains and is facilitated by peripheral membrane protein machineries that control both membrane remodelling and selection of specific transmembrane cargos. One of the primary sorting machineries is the Retromer complex, which controls the recycling of a large array of different cargo molecules in cooperation with various sorting nexin (SNX) adaptor proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tra.12649DOI Listing

Atg2: a novel phospholipid transfer protein that mediates de novo autophagosome biogenesis.

Protein Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Microbial Chemistry (BIKAKEN), Tokyo 141-0021, Japan.

The degradation of cytoplasmic components via autophagy is crucial for intracellular homeostasis. In the process of autophagy, a newly synthesized isolation membrane (IM) is developed to sequester degradation targets and eventually the IM seals, forming an autophagosome. One of the most poorly-understood autophagy-related proteins is Atg2, which is known to localize to a contact site between the edge of the expanding IM and the exit site of the endoplasmic reticulum (ERES). Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pro.3623
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pro.3623DOI Listing
April 2019
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Overexpression of microRNA-190 inhibits migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis through suppression of protein kinase B-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway via binding to stanniocalicin 2 in breast cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Oncology, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng, P.R. China.

Breast cancer (BC) is known as the most deadly cancer among females, worldwide. Despite the research advances in this regard, effective diagnosis and treatment still have a long way to go. In this study, our stance was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of miR-190 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis via mediation of protein kinase B (AKT)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway by targeting stanniocalicin 2 (STC2) in BC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28409DOI Listing

Treatment in childhood central nervous system demyelinating disorders.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

The last two decades witnessed significant advances in the treatment of acquired demyelinating disorders: thirteen new agents have been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in adults by the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration in the last twenty years. Although the long-term efficacy and safety profiles of some new drugs are still being assessed in paediatric MS, clinicians may have to use them in the management of paediatric onset MS resistant to first-line medications, based on results obtained in adult-onset disease. This review summarizes the current approach to treatment in children with demyelinating syndromes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14228DOI Listing

Liver Microphysiological Systems for Predicting and Evaluating Drug Effects.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Translational Science, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Applied Regulatory Science.

Liver plays a major role in drug metabolism and is one of the main sites of drug adverse effects. Microphysiological systems (MPS), also known as organs-on-a-chip, are a class of microfluidic platforms that recreate properties of tissue microenvironments. Among different properties, the liver microenvironment is three-dimensional, fluid flows around its cells, and different cell types regulate its function. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpt.1458
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1458DOI Listing
April 2019
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Lipidome Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in HIV Infection.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Division of Medical Laboratory Science, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 453 W. 10th Ave. 535A Atwell Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lipid abnormalities that may enhance cardiovascular disease risk (CVD).

Recent Findings: Chronic inflammation persists in HIV+ individuals, and complex relationships exist among lipids and inflammation, as immune activation may be both a cause and a consequence of lipid abnormalities in HIV infection. Advances in mass spectrometry-based techniques now allow for detailed measurements of individual lipid species; improved lipid measurement might better evaluate CVD risk compared with the prognostic value of traditional assessments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00442-9DOI Listing

Recent advances in carbohydrate-based cancer vaccines.

Biotechnol Lett 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Diagnosis and Individualized Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital (People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College), Hangzhou, 310014, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which many promising therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapy are emerging. Malignant cells frequently express aberrant cell surface carbohydrates, which differentiate them from normal "healthy" cells. This characteristic presents a window for the development of synthetic carbohydrate antigen-based cancer vaccines which can be recognized by the immune system and can bring about T cell-dependent immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-019-02675-5DOI Listing

Implementations of 3D printing in ophthalmology.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, 9602, 31096, Haifa, Israel.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of how to best utilize 3D printing in medicine, and more particularly in ophthalmology in order to enhance the clinicians' ability to provide out-of-the-box solutions for unusual challenges that require patient personalization. In this review, we discuss the main applications of 3D printing for diseases of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye and discuss their current status and implementation. We aim to raise awareness among ophthalmologists and report current and future developments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-019-04312-3DOI Listing

Feasibility of Robotic-Assisted Neurovascular Interventions: Initial Experience in Flow Model and Porcine Model.

Neurosurgery 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Despite advances in robotic-assisted technology for cardiac and peripheral vascular interventions, a robotic-assisted platform for neurovascular intervention is not yet available.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the CorPath® GRX robotic-assisted platform (Corindus Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts) for neurovascular interventions through preclinical study.

Methods: The robotic system was tested for its ability to accurately navigate a variety of common neurovascular devices in an in Vitro flow model and in a live, anesthetized pig, under conditions and following procedures appropriate for clinical intervention. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/advance-article/doi/10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz064DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Photoionization studies of reactive intermediates using synchrotron radiation.

Authors:
John M Dyke

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.

Photoionization of reactive intermediates with synchrotron radiation has reached a sufficiently advanced stage of development that it can now contribute to a number of areas in gas-phase chemistry and physics. These include the detection and spectroscopic study of reactive intermediates produced by bimolecular reactions, photolysis, pyrolysis or discharge sources, and the monitoring of reactive intermediates in situ in environments such as flames. This review summarises advances in the study of reactive intermediates with synchrotron radiation using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and constant-ionic-state (CIS) methods with angular resolution, and threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES), taking examples mainly from the recent work of the Southampton group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp00623kDOI Listing

Advances in reducing cardiovascular risk in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors:
Ying Hu

Chronic Dis Transl Med 2019 Mar 15;5(1):25-36. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Lankenau Hospital, Main Line Health System, Wynnewood, PA 19096, USA.

Treatment intended to lower cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with diabetes has always been a primary goal of diabetes treatment. Due to the subdued effects of reducing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) on macrovascular complications, controlling other CV risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia instead of hyperglycemia has been the mainstay treatment to improve CV outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) until recent years. This review is intended to summarize and compare the results from the available cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) for the two classes of glucose lowering drug: sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2095882X183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2019.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449766PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Current advances in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Chronic Dis Transl Med 2019 Mar 19;5(1):15-24. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA 17822, USA.

Hodgkin's lymphoma is a highly treatable malignancy. It has high cure rates yet there are many patients who relapse or are refractory to treatment. Traditionally, treatment has been with conventional chemotherapy; however, the development of brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized the care of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2019.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450804PMC

An ATF3-CreERT2 Knock-In Mouse for Axotomy-Induced Genetic Editing: Proof of Principle.

eNeuro 2019 Mar-Apr;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 1M9.

Genome editing techniques have facilitated significant advances in our understanding of fundamental biological processes, and the Cre-Lox system has been instrumental in these achievements. Driving Cre expression specifically in injured neurons has not been previously possible: we sought to address this limitation in mice using a Cre-ERT2 construct driven by a reliable indicator of axotomy, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). When crossed with reporter mice, a significant amount of recombination was achieved (without tamoxifen treatment) in peripherally-projecting sensory, sympathetic, and motoneurons after peripheral nerve crush in hemizygotes (65-80% by 16 d) and was absent in uninjured neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0025-19.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464513PMC

Advances in surgical applications of growth factors for wound healing.

Burns Trauma 2019 5;7:10. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501 Japan.

Growth factors have recently gained clinical importance for wound management. Application of recombinant growth factors has been shown to mimic cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation , allowing for external modulation of the healing process. Perioperative drug delivery systems can enhance the biological activity of these growth factors, which have a very short half-life after topical administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41038-019-0148-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450003PMC

The Prevalence of Complications of Prematurity among 1000 Newborns in Isfahan, Iran.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 21;8:12. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Different morbidity conditions are globally reported from different nations for premature infants. The aim of this study was to identify the relative frequency of some of the most important complications of prematurity in a population of about 1000 of very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e. Read More

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http://www.advbiores.net/text.asp?2019/8/1/12/252652
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_84_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425744PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Advances in Therapeutic Endoscopy.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2019 12;2019:6253837. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6253837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434265PMC

Race and socioeconomic disparity in treatment and outcome of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with fracture: Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 1998-2009.

Spinal Cord 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Florida, Lillian S. Wells Department of Neurosurgery, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Study Design: A retrospective national administrative database study.

Objective: Advances in treatment of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with fracture (TCSCIF) have led to significant improvements in clinical outcomes; however, progress in healthcare is seldom ubiquitous across demographic groups. Therefore, we explored if disparities in treatment and outcome after TCSCIF exist across race and socioeconomic status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41393-019-0280-6DOI Listing

Advances in the role of HCV nonstructural protein 5a (NS5A) of 3a genotype in inducing insulin resistance by possible phosphorylation of AKT/PKB.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6150. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Lahore, Pakistan.

HCV genes interfere with host cellular genes and play crucial role in pathogenesis. The mechanism under which HCV genes induce insulin resistance is not much clear. This study is aimed to examine the role of HCV NS5A in inducing insulin resistance by examining its affect in the phosphorylation level of AKT/PKB. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42602-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42602-2DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Chiral acid-catalysed enantioselective C-H functionalization of toluene and its derivatives driven by visible light.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 16;10(1):1774. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immuno-Engineering of Henan Province, Henan University, 475004, Kaifeng, Henan, China.

Toluene and its derivatives are petroleum-derived raw materials produced from gasoline by catalytic reformation. These abundant chemical feedstocks are commonly used as solvents in organic synthesis. The C(sp)-H functionalization of these unactivated substrates has been widely used to directly introduce benzylic motifs into diverse molecules to furnish important compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09857-9DOI Listing

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: update on diagnosis, immunopathogenesis and treatment.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Neurology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated neuropathy typically characterised by symmetrical involvement, and proximal as well as distal muscle weakness (typical CIDP). However, there are several 'atypical' subtypes, such as multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and 'distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy', possibly having different immunopathogenesis and treatment responses. In the absence of diagnostic and pathogenetic biomarkers, diagnosis and treatment may be difficult, but recent progress has been made in the application of neuroimaging tools demonstrating nerve hypertrophy and in identifying subgroups of patients who harbour antibodies against nodal proteins such as neurofascin and contactin-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-320314DOI Listing

Developments in the space of new MAPK pathway inhibitors for BRAF-mutant melanoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Melanoma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center

The characterization of the MAPK signaling pathway has led to the development of multiple promising targeted therapy options for a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma. The combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors represents an FDA-approved standard of care in patients with metastatic and resected BRAF mutated melanoma. There are currently three FDA-approved BRAF/MEK inhibitor combinations for the treatment of patients with BRAF mutated melanoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0836DOI Listing

All-cause, cause-specific and age-specific standardised mortality ratios of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Ontario, Canada over 43 years (1971-2013).

Ann Rheum Dis 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Prognosis Studies in the Rheumatic Diseases, Toronto Lupus Clinic, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Background: Survival in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has improved substantially in the last 50 years. The aim of the present study was to assess the evolution of the all-cause, cause-specific and age-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of patients with lupus in Ontario, Canada.

Patients And Methods: Between 1971 and 2013, 1732 patients were followed in the Toronto Lupus Clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214802DOI Listing

Engineering Multidimensional Evolutionary Forces to Combat Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.

With advances in technology and bioinformatics, we are now positioned to view and manage cancer through an evolutionary lens. This perspective is critical as our appreciation for the role of tumor heterogeneity, tumor immune compartment, and tumor microenvironment on cancer pathogenesis and evolution grows. Here, we explore recent knowledge on the evolutionary basis of cancer pathogenesis and progression, viewing tumors as multilineage, multicomponent organisms whose growth is regulated by subcomponent fitness relationships. Read More

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http://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1158/2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-1196DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Brain organoids: advances, applications and challenges.

Development 2019 Apr 16;146(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience and Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, Perelman School for Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Brain organoids are self-assembled three-dimensional aggregates generated from pluripotent stem cells with cell types and cytoarchitectures that resemble the embryonic human brain. As such, they have emerged as novel model systems that can be used to investigate human brain development and disorders. Although brain organoids mimic many key features of early human brain development at molecular, cellular, structural and functional levels, some aspects of brain development, such as the formation of distinct cortical neuronal layers, gyrification, and the establishment of complex neuronal circuitry, are not fully recapitulated. Read More

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http://dev.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/dev.166074
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.166074DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Intracellular calcium dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder: An analysis of converging organelle signaling pathways.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Nov 9;1865(11 Pt B):1718-1732. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; UCI Center for Autism Research and Translation, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Section of Human Genetics and Genomics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of complex, neurological disorders that affect early cognitive, social, and verbal development. Our understanding of ASD has vastly improved with advances in genomic sequencing technology and genetic models that have identified >800 loci with variants that increase susceptibility to ASD. Although these findings have confirmed its high heritability, the underlying mechanisms by which these genes produce the ASD phenotypes have not been defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2018.08.003DOI Listing
November 2018

Intravital imaging of skin infections.

Authors:
Ali Zaid

Cell Immunol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Parklands Drive, Southport, QLD 4215, Australia.

Intravital imaging of cutaneous immune responses has revealed intricate links between the skin's structural properties, the immune cells that reside therein, and the carefully orchestrated migratory dynamics that enable rapid sensing and subsequent elimination of skin pathogens. In particular, the development of 2-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM), which enables the excitation of fluorescent molecules within deep tissue with minimal light scattering and tissue damage, has proven an invaluable tool in the characterization of different cell subset's roles in skin infection. The ability to visualize cells, tissue structures, pathogens and track migratory dynamics at designated times following infection, or during inflammatory responses has been crucial in defining how immune responses in the skin are coordinated, either locally or in concert with circulating immune cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Annotated bacterial chromosomes from frame-shift-corrected long-read metagenomic data.

Microbiome 2019 Apr 16;7(1):61. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore, 117456, Singapore.

Background: Short-read sequencing technologies have long been the work-horse of microbiome analysis. Continuing technological advances are making the application of long-read sequencing to metagenomic samples increasingly feasible.

Results: We demonstrate that whole bacterial chromosomes can be obtained from an enriched community, by application of MinION sequencing to a sample from an EBPR bioreactor, producing 6 Gb of sequence that assembles into multiple closed bacterial chromosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0665-yDOI Listing