275,829 results match your criteria Advances In Agronomy[Journal]

Differentiation of Brain Tumor Microvasculature From Normal Vessels Using Optical Coherence Angiography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.

Background And Objectives: Despite rapid advances and discoveries in medical imaging, monitoring therapeutic efficacy for malignant gliomas and monitoring tumor vasculature remains problematic. The purpose of this study is to utilize optical coherence angiography for vasculature characterization inside and surrounding brain tumors in a murine xenograft brain tumor model. Features included in our analysis include fractional blood volume, vessel tortuosity, diameter, orientation, and directionality. Read More

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Toward a Liver Cell Atlas: Understanding Liver Biology in Health and Disease at Single-Cell Resolution.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Single-cell technologies are revolutionizing our understanding of cellular heterogeneity and functional diversity in health and disease. Here, we review the current knowledge and advances in liver biology using single-cell approaches. We focus on the landscape of the composition and the function of cells in a healthy liver in the context of its spatial organization. Read More

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Advances in the study of GPCRs by F NMR.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 Jun 12;69:169-176. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have advanced atomic resolution perspectives of inactive and active states of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), alone and in complex with G proteins or arrestin. F NMR can play a role in ascertaining activation mechanisms and understanding the complete energy landscape associated with signal transduction. Fluorinated reporters are introduced biosynthetically via fluorinated amino acid analogs or chemically, via thiol-specific fluorinated reporters. Read More

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Dismantling the bacterial glycocalyx: Chemical tools to probe, perturb, and image bacterial glycans.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Jun 7;42:116268. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Bowdoin College, 6600 College Station, Brunswick, ME 04011, USA. Electronic address:

The bacterial glycocalyx is a quintessential drug target comprised of structurally distinct glycans. Bacterial glycans bear unusual monosaccharide building blocks whose proper construction is critical for bacterial fitness, survival, and colonization in the human host. Despite their appeal as therapeutic targets, bacterial glycans are difficult to study due to the presence of rare bacterial monosaccharides that are linked and modified in atypical manners. Read More

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Single and double modified salinomycin analogs target stem-like cells in 2D and 3D breast cancer models.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 12;141:111815. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, United States.

Breast cancer remains one of the leading cancers among women. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are tumor-initiating cells which drive progression, metastasis, and reoccurrence of the disease. CSCs are resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies and their ability to survive such treatment enables tumor reestablishment. Read More

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Morphometric properties of immature reticulocytes in health and during acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 10;71:101578. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, Belgorod State University, 85 Pobeda St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia. Electronic address:

Despite significant advances, many changes occurring in the tumor microenvironment during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. The surface of immature reticulocytes was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine specific changes during the development of ALL and AML. In patients with ALL the surface area of reticulocytes increased by 18. Read More

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Small-molecule probes for fluorescent detection of cellular hypoxia-related nitroreductase.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 9;203:114199. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016, PR China; School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016, PR China. Electronic address:

Nitroreductase is a reductase that catalyzes nitro aromatic compounds to aromatic amines. It effectively reduces nitro to hydroxylamine or amino when in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. In terms of tumor, nitroreductase is upregulated in hypoxic tumor cells, and its content is directly related to the degree of hypoxia. Read More

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Getting back to the grass roots: harnessing specialized metabolites for improved crop stress resilience.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11;70:174-186. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Roots remain an understudied site of complex and important biological interactions mediating plant productivity. In grain and bioenergy crops, grass root specialized metabolites (GRSM) are central to key interactions, yet our basic knowledge of the chemical language remains fragmentary. Continued improvements in plant genome assembly and metabolomics are enabling large-scale advances in the discovery of specialized metabolic pathways as a means of regulating root-biotic interactions. Read More

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Deeply Mining a Universe of Peptides Encoded by Long Noncoding RNAs.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100109. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceuticals & Laboratory of Proteomics, institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Many small open reading frames (smORFs) embedded in lncRNA transcripts have been shown to encode biologically functional polypeptides (smORFs-encoded polypeptides, SEPs) in different organisms. Despite significant advances in genomics, bioinformatics and proteomics that largely enabled the discovery of novel SEPs, their identification across different biological samples is still hampered by their poor predictability, diminutive size and low relative abundance. Here, we take advantage of NONCODE, a repository containing the most complete collection and annotation of lncRNA transcripts from different species, to build a novel database that attempts to maximize a collection of SEPs from human and mouse lncRNA transcripts. Read More

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Sensitive and quantitative detection of MHC-I displayed neoepitopes using a semi-automated workflow and TOMAHAQ mass spectrometry.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100108. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Genentech, South San Francisco, 94080, California, USA. Electronic address:

Advances in several key technologies, including MHC peptidomics, have helped fuel our understanding of basic immune regulatory mechanisms and the identification of T cell receptor targets for the development of immunotherapeutics. Isolating and accurately quantifying MHC-bound peptides from cells and tissues enables characterization of dynamic changes in the ligandome due to cellular perturbations. However, the current multi-step analytical process is challenging, and improvements in throughput and reproducibility would enable rapid characterization of multiple conditions in parallel. Read More

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Future prospects for mitosis-targeted antitumor therapies.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:114655. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Dept. Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Zaragoza and IIS Aragón, Spain. Electronic address:

Dysregulation of cell cycle progression is a hallmark of cancer cells. In recent years, efforts have been devoted to the development of new therapies that target proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and mitosis. Novel targeted antimitotic drugs include inhibitors of aurora kinase family, polo-like kinase 1, Mps1, Eg5, CENP-5 and the APC/cyclosome complex. Read More

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Innate immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jun;39(6):725-729

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is a complex ecosystem that contains adaptive and innate immune cells that have tumor-promoting and anti-tumor effects. There is still much to learn about the diversity, plasticity, and functions of innate immune cells in the TIME and their roles in determining the response to immunotherapies. Experts discuss recent advances in our understanding of their biology in cancer as well as outstanding questions and potential therapeutic avenues. Read More

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Pharmacogenetics-guided advances in antipsychotic treatment.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Pharmacogenetics (PGx) research over the past two decades has produced extensive evidence for the influence of genetic factors on the efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic treatment. However, the application of these findings to optimize treatment outcomes for patients in clinical practice has been limited. This paper presents a meta-review of key PGx findings related to antipsychotic response and common adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG), tardive dyskinesia (TD) and clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIAG), and highlights advances and challenges in clinical implementation. Read More

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Detailed balance limits for inversion in solar-pumped lasers and allied systems.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2916-2919

Solar-pumped lasers and optical amplifiers continue to draw research interest with advances in nanomaterials science and technology. Establishing accurate detailed balance limits for inversion in these systems is essential. In this Letter, we re-examine the threshold limits for inversion in broadband-pumped lasers, with reference to those provided by Roxlo and Yablonvitch [Opt. Read More

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Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Fibroblasts: Promise and Challenge.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Cell and Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Bruker-MUSC Center of Excellence, Clinical Glycomics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston SC USA.

Introduction: Fibroblasts maintain tissue and organ homeostasis through output of extracellular matrix that affects nearby cell signaling within the stroma. Altered fibroblast signaling contributes to many disease states and the extracellular matrix secreted by fibroblasts has been used to stratify patient by outcome, recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in imaging mass spectrometry allow access to single cell fibroblasts and their ECM niche within clinically relevant tissue samples. Read More

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Managing Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e000078. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Atrial fibrillation can precipitate and can be a consequence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and cardiomyopathy. Atrial fibrillation and heart failure, when present together, are associated with worse outcomes. Read More

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Cardiac Amyloidosis: Multimodal Imaging of Disease Activity and Response to Treatment.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e009025. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Amyloidosis Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, MA (F.L.R.).

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a disease characterized by the deposition of misfolded protein deposits in the myocardial interstitium. Although advanced CA confers significant morbidity and mortality, the magnitude of deposition and ensuing clinical manifestations vary greatly. Thus, an improved understanding of disease pathogenesis at both cellular and functional levels would afford critical insights that may improve outcomes. Read More

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Androgen receptor signalling inhibitors: post-chemotherapy, pre-chemotherapy and now in castration sensitive prostate cancer.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

S Kaochar, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, United States.

Based on pioneering work by Huggins, Hodges and others, hormonal therapies have been established as an effective approach for advanced prostate cancer (PC) for the past 8 decades. However, it quickly became evident that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) via surgical or medical castration accomplishes inadequate inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) axis, with clinical resistance inevitably emerging due to adrenal and intratumoral sources of androgens and other mechanisms. Early efforts to augment ADT by adding adrenal-targeting agents (aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole) or AR antagonists (flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide, cyproterone) failed to achieve overall survival (OS) benefits, although they did exhibit some evidence of limited clinical activity. Read More

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Regioselective Radical Arene Amination for the Concise Synthesis of -Phenylenediamines.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, U.K.

The formation of arene C-N bonds directly from C-H bonds is of great importance and there has been rapid recent development of methods for achieving this through radical mechanisms, often involving reactive -centered radicals. A major challenge associated with these advances is that of regiocontrol, with mixtures of regioisomeric products obtained in most protocols, limiting broader utility. We have designed a system that utilizes attractive noncovalent interactions between an anionic substrate and an incoming radical cation in order to guide the latter to the arene position. Read More

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Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and peripheral biomarkers: An update.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Peripheral biomarkers are important tools for detecting occupational exposures to prevent the onset and/or progression of diseases. Studies that reveal early peripheral biomarkers are highly important to preserve the health of workers and can potentially contribute to diagnosing and/or prognosing occupational pathologies. Exposure to crystalline silica is a problem in several workplaces because it increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis, cancer, and pulmonary fibrosis, clinically defined as silicosis. Read More

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Studying human nociceptors: from fundamentals to clinic.

Brain 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Chronic pain affects one in five of the general population and is the third most important cause of disability-adjusted life-years globally. Unfortunately, treatment remains inadequate due to poor efficacy and tolerability. There has been a failure in translating promising preclinical drug targets into clinic use. Read More

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The Genitourinary Pathology Society Update on Classification of Variant Histologies, T1 Substaging, Molecular Taxonomy, and Immunotherapy and PD-L1 Testing Implications of Urothelial Cancers.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 Jul;28(4):196-208

Department of Pathology, West German Cancer Center/University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder cancer focusing on important topics of high interest for the practicing surgical pathologist and urologist. This review represents the second of 2 manuscripts ensuing from this effort. Herein, we address the effective reporting of bladder cancer, focusing particularly on newly published data since the last 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Read More

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The Genitourinary Pathology Society Update on Classification and Grading of Flat and Papillary Urothelial Neoplasia With New Reporting Recommendations and Approach to Lesions With Mixed and Early Patterns of Neoplasia.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 Jul;28(4):179-195


The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder neoplasia with a focus on issues relevant to the practicing surgical pathologist for the understanding and effective reporting of bladder cancer, emphasizing particularly on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The work is presented in 2 manuscripts. Here, in the first, we revisit the nomenclature and classification system used for grading flat and papillary urothelial lesions centering on clinical relevance, and on dilemmas related to application in routine reporting. Read More

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Current Advancements in Animal Models of Postsurgical Lymphedema: A Systematic Review.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 12223, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Los Angeles, California, United States.

Significance: Secondary lymphedema is a debilitating disease caused by lymphatic dysfunction characterized by chronic swelling, dysregulated inflammation, disfigurement, and compromised wound healing. Since there is no effective cure, animal model systems that support basic science research into the mechanisms of secondary lymphedema are critical to advancing the field. Recent Advances: Over the last decade, lymphatic research has led to the improvement of existing animal lymphedema models and the establishment of new models. Read More

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Updates on Excisional Procedures for Lymphedema.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Washington Department of Surgery, 312784, Division of Plastic Surgery, Seattle, Washington, United States;

Significance: Excisional procedures for lymphedema have been used for over a century, and many surgeons have abandoned the old techniques as improvements in non-surgical management and microsurgery have limited their clinical utility. Nonetheless, excisional procedures remain relevant as an important tool in the comprehensive surgical management of lymphedema. Recent Advances: Modifications to the Charles procedure and other direct excisional procedures have improved the complication profile and patient outcomes. Read More

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Advanced Wound Diagnostics: Towards Transforming Wound Care into Precision Medicine.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Tufts University School of Medicine, 12261, Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Significance Non-healing wounds are an ever-growing global pandemic with mortality rates and management costs exceeding many common cancers. Although our understanding of the molecular and cellular factors driving wound healing continues to grow, standards for diagnosing and evaluating wounds remain largely subjective and experiential, while therapeutic strategies fail to consistently achieve closure and clinicians are challenged to deliver individualized care protocols. There is a need to apply precision medicine practices to wound care by developing evidence-based approaches, which are predictive, prescriptive, and personalized. Read More

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Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube ( Mill.) fruit.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Jun;22(6):431-449

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Jujube ( Mill.), a highly nutritious and functional fruit, is reported to have various health benefits and has been extensively planted worldwide, especially in China. Many studies have shown that bioactive components derived from jujube fruit have significant nutritional and potential biological effects. Read More

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Advancing estuarine ecological forecasts: seasonal hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jun 14:e2384. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Annapolis, MD, USA, 21403.

Ecological forecasts are quantitative tools that can guide ecosystem management. The co-emergence of extensive environmental monitoring and quantitative frameworks allows for widespread development and continued improvement of ecological forecasting systems. We use a relatively simple estuarine hypoxia model to demonstrate advances in addressing some of the most critical challenges and opportunities of contemporary ecological forecasting, including predictive accuracy, uncertainty characterization, and management relevance. Read More

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Recent advances (2019-2021) of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for multilevel proteomics.

Mass Spectrom Rev 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Multilevel proteomics aims to delineate proteins at the peptide (bottom-up proteomics), proteoform (top-down proteomics), and protein complex (native proteomics) levels. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) can achieve highly efficient separation and highly sensitive detection of complex mixtures of peptides, proteoforms, and even protein complexes because of its substantial technical progress. CE-MS has become a valuable alternative to the routinely used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for multilevel proteomics. Read More

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Insights into the mechanisms underlying opioid use disorder and potential treatment strategies.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27th Taiping Road, Beijing, 100850, China.

Opioid use disorder is a worldwide societal problem and public health burden. Strategies for treating opioid use disorder can be divided those that target the opioid receptor system and those that target non-opioid receptor systems, including the dopamine and glutamate receptor systems. Currently, the clinical drugs used to treat anti-opioid use disorder include the opioid receptor agonists methadone and buprenorphine, which are limited by abuse liability, and the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone, which is limited by poor compliance. Read More

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