40,351 results match your criteria Adv Exp Med Biol[Journal]


5G, Big Data, and AI for Smart City and Prevention of Virus Infection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:189-214

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

With the development of urbanization, artificial intelligence, communication technology, and the Internet of Things, cities have evolved a new ecology from traditional city structures, that is, smart city. Combining 5G and big data, the applications of smart cities have been extended to every aspect of residents' lives. Based on the popularization of communication equipment and sensors, the great improvement in data transmission and processing technology, the production efficiency in medical field, industrial field, and security field has been improved. Read More

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Health-Based Geographic Information Systems for Mapping and Risk Modeling of Infectious Diseases and COVID-19 to Support Spatial Decision-Making.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:167-188

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Infectious diseases remain an essential global challenge in public health. For instance, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted in significant negative impacts on public health, infecting more than 214 million people and causing 4.47 million deaths worldwide as of August 2021. Read More

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Modeling the Virus Infection at the Population Level.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:141-166

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

As pointed out by many researchers in the last few decades, differential equations with fractional (non-integer) order differential operators, in comparison with classical integer order ones, have apparent advantages in modeling. A Caputo fractional order system of ordinary differential equations is introduced to model the virus infection at the population level in this chapter. As well known, there are two main methods to study the dynamics of a model: qualitative analysis and numerical modeling. Read More

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Predicting the Disease Severity of Virus Infection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:111-139

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented burden on global health and economic systems, promoting worldwide efforts to understand, control, and fight the disease. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical severity, effective risk factors, biomarkers, and models for predicting disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients are urgently needed to provide guidance for clinical intervention and management. In this chapter, we first describe the infection features of different COVID-19 strains and the potential of clinical features, cytokine storm and biomarkers in predicting the severity of COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Vaccines and Immunoinformatics for Vaccine Design.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:95-110

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The host immune system recognizes and responds to the selective antigens or epitopes (immunome) of the intruding pathogen over an entire organism. The immune response so generated is ample to confer the desired immunity and protection to the host. This led to the conception of immunome-derived vaccines that exploit selective genome-derived antigens or epitopes from the pathogen's immunome and not its entire genome or proteome. Read More

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In Silico Drug Discovery for Treatment of Virus Diseases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:73-93

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Viral infections have remained a serious public health burden despite significant improvements in medical and pharmaceutical research in recent years. In silico approaches for drug discovery and design are fruitful for the management of a plethora of viral diseases. Virtual screening of libraries is performed using various computational tools to search for potential antiviral compounds. Read More

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Bioinformatics for the Origin and Evolution of Viruses.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:53-71

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) caused by infection with human SARS-CoV-2 is a global threat to the human population. World effort has arisen toward the characterization of the origin and evolutionary features of this devastating virus. The development of high-throughput sequencing platforms has facilitated the surveillance of viral sequence diversity in both human and animal populations. Read More

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Detection and Prevention of Virus Infection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:21-52

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The pathogenic mechanism of viral infection is a complex process involving viral mutation, viral integration, and various aspects of the interaction between the viral genome and the host. Moreover, the virus mutation will lead to the failure of related vaccines, leading to the increasing of vaccine development costs and difficulties in virus prevention. With the accumulation of various types of data, using bioinformatics methods to mine the potential viral characteristics of the pathogenic process can help virus detection and diagnosis, to take intervention measures to prevent disease development or develop effective antiviral therapies. Read More

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Databases, Knowledgebases, and Software Tools for Virus Informatics.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1368:1-19

Institutes for Systems Genetics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Virus infection is a common social health issue. In the past decades, serious virus infectious events have caused great loss in people's life and the economics. The nature of rapid widespread and frequent variation increases the difficulty for precision viral prevention and treatment. Read More

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Overview of Adverse Outcome Pathways and Current Applications on Nanomaterials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:415-439

Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal.

Nanomaterials (NMs) have important and useful applications in chemical industry, electronics, pharmaceuticals, food and others. Their rapid proliferation presents a dilemma to regulators regarding hazard identification and increased concerns for public health.The Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are innovative central elements of a toxicological knowledge framework, developed for supporting chemical risk assessment based on mechanistic reasoning. Read More

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Nanomaterials in Foods and Human Digestion: An Important Layer in the Assessment of Potential Toxic Effects.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:403-414

Food and Nutrition Department, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.

The use of nanoparticles (e.g. titanium dioxide) in commercial food products to modify some properties, such as brightness and whiteness, increased in the last years and is nowadays widespread. Read More

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Nanomaterials, a New Challenge in the Workplace.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:379-402

ISQ - Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras, Portugal.

Nanomaterials are a nanotechnological product of increasing importance given the possibilities they offer to improve quality of life and support sustainable development. Safe management of nanomaterials is needed to ensure that this emerging technology has the highest levels of acceptance among different interest groups, including workers. This chapter reviews the current state that presents the different stages of risk management applied to nanomaterials, including standardisation, regulation, risk assessment and risk control. Read More

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Hazard Assessment of Benchmark Metal-Based Nanomaterials Through a Set of In Vitro Genotoxicity Assays.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:351-375

Department of Human Genetics, INSA - National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, I.P, Lisbon, Portugal.

For safety assessment of nanomaterials (NMs), in vitro genotoxicity data based on well-designed experiments is required. Metal-based NMs are amongst the most used in consumer products. In this chapter, we report results for three metal-based NMs, titanium dioxide (NM-100), cerium dioxide (NM-212) and silver (NM-302) in V79 cells, using a set of in vitro genotoxicity assays covering different endpoints: the medium-throughput comet assay and its modified version (with the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase, Fpg), measuring DNA strand beaks (SBs) and oxidized purines, respectively; the micronucleus (MN) assay, assessing chromosomal damage; and the Hprt gene mutation test. Read More

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Toxicological Aspects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:303-350

Grupo DICOMOSA, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA), Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidade da Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.

Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION), with unique magnetic properties, have attracted huge scientific attention for a wide variety of uses, mostly in the biomedical field, due to their high biocompatibility, ability to cross biological membranes, appropriate surface architecture and easy conjugation with targeting ligands. Their current applications include diagnostic imaging, cell labelling, site-directed drug delivery and anticancer hyperthermia therapy. The ION surface may be modified by coating with different materials, aiming to stabilize the nanoparticles in different environments, to allow biomolecule binding favouring surface attachments with several molecules, and to prolong the recognition time by the immune system. Read More

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Drosophila as a Suitable In Vivo Model in the Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:275-301

Group of Mutagenesis, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Nanotechnology is often praised as the future technology that will revolutionize the world as we know it, because nanomaterials (NMs) offer numerous practical applications for a wide range of fields such as medicine, cosmetics, food preservation, paintings, and industry. Produced by nanotechnology, NMs are in the front line of this innovative applied science, while nanoparticles (NPs) refer to materials existing in the natural world and measuring 1-100 nanometers in at least one dimension. The recent surge in the number of endeavors to utilize NMs makes it imperative to identify hazards and risk factors involved as we have yet to know harmful effects of this uncharted territory on the environment and public health. Read More

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Nanomaterial-Induced Extra-Pulmonary Health Effects - the Importance of Next Generation Physiologically Relevant In Vitro Test Systems for the Future of Nanotoxicology.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:259-273

Bangor University, School of Medical Sciences, Bangor, UK.

Manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) offer incredible scientific and societal benefits but their potential hazard to human health is not yet fully comprehended. In the last decade, a significant body of evidence indicates that certain NMs are capable of translocating from the primary exposure site (skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract) to a number of secondary organs which includes the liver. Moreover, recent advances in the field of nanomedicine has resulted in increasing direct intravenous injection of NMs with the liver being a particularly important organ with regards to potential toxic effects and accumulation of said materials. Read More

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Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity of Ingested Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:225-257

Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal.

An exponential increase in products containing titanium dioxide nanomaterials (TiO), in agriculture, food and feed industry, lead to increased oral exposure to these nanomaterials (NMs). Thus, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) emerges as a possible route of exposure that may drive systemic exposure, if the intestinal barrier is surpassed. NMs have been suggested to produce adverse outcomes, such as genotoxic effects, that are associated with increased risk of cancer, leading to a concern for public health. Read More

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Epigenetic Mechanisms in Understanding Nanomaterial-Induced Toxicity.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:195-223

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre Environment & Health, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The toxic effects of different forms of nanomaterials comprise a series of biological effects such as oxidative stress; DNA damage; inflammatory response; activation of nuclear transcription factors. Some of these are key characteristics of human carcinogens and have been considered for hazard identification of nanomaterials. In addition, epigenetic changes also play a key role in the multi-step sequential process of carcinogenesis. Read More

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New "Omics" Approaches as Tools to Explore Mechanistic Nanotoxicology.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:179-194

Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal.

In the last years, "omics" approaches have been applied to study the toxicity of nanomaterials (NM) with the aim of obtaining insightful information on their biological effects. One of the most developed "omics" field, transcriptomics, expects to find unique profiles of differentially-expressed genes after exposure to NM that, besides providing evidence of their mechanistic mode of action, may also be used as biomarkers for biomonitoring purposes. Moreover, several NM have been associated with epigenetic alterations, i. Read More

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Nanocelluloses - Nanotoxicology, Safety Aspects and 3D Bioprinting.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:155-177

Occupational Safety, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.

Nanocelluloses have good rheological properties that facilitate the extrusion of nanocellulose gels in micro-extrusion systems. It is considered a highly relevant characteristic that makes it possible to use nanocellulose as an ink component for 3D bioprinting purposes. The nanocelluloses assessed in this book chapter include wood nanocellulose (WNC), bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), and tunicate nanocellulose (TNC), which are often assumed to be non-toxic. Read More

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Nanocelluloses: Production, Characterization and Market.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:129-151

RAIZ - Forest and Paper Research Institute, Quinta de S. Francisco, Apartado 15, PT, Portugal.

Nanocelluloses are a very promising material that has been widely explored for the most diverse applications. The pursuit for sustainable and environmentally friendly materials is in line with the nature of nanocelluloses and therefore they have emerged as the perfect candidate for plastics substitution, food additive, rheology controller, 3D printing of diverse structures, among many other possibilities. This derives from their interesting characteristics, such as reduced size and high specific surface area, high tensile strength, crystallinity and transparency, and from the fact that, such as cellulose, they are obtained from renewable sources, with relative ease for functionalization in order to obtain desired specificities. Read More

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Targeting Cancer by Using Nanoparticles to Modulate RHO GTPase Signaling.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:115-127

Department of Human Genetics, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.

Functionalized nanomaterials have recently been introduced as efficient vehicles for targeted delivery of drugs and other tailored molecules to cancer cells. They emerge as new opportunities for addressing particular challenging targets such as RHO guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), a group of signaling molecules involved in the progression of a variety of tumor types. RHO GTPases comprise a subfamily of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. Read More

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Dermal Delivery of Lipid Nanoparticles: Effects on Skin and Assessment of Absorption and Safety.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:83-114

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier (ITQB), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal.

During the recent decades, dermal delivery has achieved visible popularity mainly due to the increase of chronic skin diseases and the demand for targeted delivery and patient compliance. Dermal delivery provides an attractive alternative to oral drug delivery, promoting the drug application directly at the site of action, resulting in higher localized drug concentration with reduced systemic drug exposure. Among several types of drug delivery systems used in dermal delivery are the lipid nanoparticles, which include solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Read More

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LipNanoCar Technology - A Versatile and Scalable Technology for the Production of Lipid Nanoparticles.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:43-82

Associate Laboratory, i4HB-Institute for Health and Bioeconomy at Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Brisbane, Australia.

The extensive knowledge in the miniemulsion technique used in biocatalysis applications by the authors allowed the development of drug delivery systems that constitutes the LipNanoCar technology core for the production of lipid nanoemulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles. The LipNanoCar technology, together with adequate formulations of different oils, fatty acids, surfactants, and temperature, allows the entrapment of several bioactive and therapeutic compounds in lipid nanoparticles for cosmetic, nutrition, and pharmaceutical applications.The LIpNanoCar technology allowed lipid nanoparticles production with average sizes ranging from 100 to 300 nm and Zeta Potentials between -55 and -20 mV. Read More

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Trends in the Design and Evaluation of Polymeric Nanocarriers: The In Vitro Nano-Bio Interactions.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:19-41

Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Different types of natural and synthetic polymeric nanocarriers are being tested for diverse biomedical applications ranging from drug/gene delivery vehicles to imaging probes. The development of such innovative nanoparticulate systems (NPs) should include in the very beginning of their conception a comprehensive evaluation of the nano-bio interactions. Specifically, intrinsic physicochemical properties as size, surface charge and shape may have an impact on cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis and cyto- or genocompatibility. Read More

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Challenges in Nanomaterial Characterization - From Definition to Analysis.

Authors:
José A M Catita

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:3-17

FP-ENAS, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal.

Nanomaterials have outstanding properties and have several applications, ranging from foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals to energy, construction, etc. As with all novel products, the benefits of nanomaterials use must be weighed against its health and environmental impact. They have different origins, natural, incidental, or engineered, they are widespread, and they need to be classified and characterized for various purposes, including nanotoxicology studies and risk assessment, workplaces and environment safety evaluation, consumer products evaluation, as well as manufacturing process control. Read More

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HDL and Surgery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1377:189-195

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

In addition to the well-known functions, plasma HDL also plays an important role in postsurgery periods. In this chapter, we summarized the changes of HDL after surgery like bariatric surgery and cardiac surgery. Not only the amount of HDL changed, the HDL components or functions have also been altered after various surgeries. Read More

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HDL and Therapy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1377:171-187

Beijing Tiantan Hospital, China National Clinical Research Center of Neurological Diseases, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, The Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

A wealth of evidence indicates that high-density lipoprotein assumes the unique antiatherosclerosis and other cardioprotective properties. Based on that, HDL-C has been considered as a promising therapy target to reduce the cardiovascular diseases. Recombinant HDL (rHDL) and apolipoprotein mimetic peptides emerge in recent years and have great potential in the future. Read More

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HDL and Kidney Diseases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1377:163-170

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Serum lipid profiles, as well as HDL can be altered in patients with kidney diseases. There are various types of kidney diseases, including nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. In patients with nephrotic syndrome, plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and ApoA-I were within or below the normal limits. Read More

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HDL and microRNAs.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1377:153-161

School of Bioscience and Technology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, China.

In previous chapters, we know that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) could act at multiple cell lines and then trigger intracellular molecular pathway to prevent several metabolic diseases. Besides the classic genes regulating cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), microRNAs (miRNAs) could also affect HDLs biogenesis, metabolism, and functions. This chapter summarizes the miRNAs, which regulate HDLs functions in table. Read More

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