839 results match your criteria Adv Anat Pathol[Journal]


Implementing Deep Learning Algorithms in Anatomic Pathology Using Open-source Deep Learning Libraries.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jul;27(4):260-268

Division of Anatomical Pathology, School of Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand.

The application of artificial intelligence technologies to anatomic pathology has the potential to transform the practice of pathology, but, despite this, many pathologists are unfamiliar with how these models are created, trained, and evaluated. In addition, many pathologists may feel that they do not possess the necessary skills to allow them to embark on research into this field. This article aims to act as an introductory tutorial to illustrate how to create, train, and evaluate simple artificial learning models (neural networks) on histopathology data sets in the programming language Python using the popular freely available, open-source libraries Keras, TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Detecto. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000265DOI Listing

Explainable AI (xAI) for Anatomic Pathology.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jul;27(4):241-250

SpIntellx Inc.

Pathologists are adopting whole slide images (WSIs) for diagnosis, thanks to recent FDA approval of WSI systems as class II medical devices. In response to new market forces and recent technology advances outside of pathology, a new field of computational pathology has emerged that applies artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms to WSIs. Computational pathology has great potential for augmenting pathologists' accuracy and efficiency, but there are important concerns regarding trust of AI due to the opaque, black-box nature of most AI algorithms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000264DOI Listing

Convergence of Digital Pathology and Artificial Intelligence Tools in Anatomic Pathology Practice: Current Landscape and Future Directions.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 07;27(4):221-226

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000271DOI Listing

Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Departments of Pathology.

The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000268DOI Listing
June 2020
3.229 Impact Factor

Renal Hypoplasia, From Grossly Insufficient to Not Quite Enough: Consideration for Expanded Concepts Based Upon the Author's Perspective With Historical Review.

Authors:
Stephen M Bonsib

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Arkana Laboratories, Little Rock, AR.

Hypoplasia is defined in the Merriman-Webster dictionary as "a condition of arrested development in which an organ, or part, remains below the normal size, or in an immature state." The degree of reduced size is not definitional. Renal hypoplasia, however, has historically been defined as a more marked reduction in renal mass such that presentation in childhood is the norm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000269DOI Listing

The Evolving Spectrum of Precursor Lesions of Cervical Adenocarcinomas.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK.

Modern classification schemes divide cervical adenocarcinomas into human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated and HPV-independent types. The precursor lesions of the former are well known and comprise HPV-associated (usual/endocervical) adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and the much less common stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). The precursor lesions of HPV-independent cervical adenocarcinomas are much less well known, although postulated precursors of gastric-type adenocarcinoma include atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and gastric-type AIS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000266DOI Listing

A 2020 Vision Into Hodgkin Lymphoma Biology.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs) are lymphoid neoplasms uniquely characterized by a paucity of neoplastic cells embedded in a supportive heterogenous cellular microenvironment. Although first described in the 19th century, systematic biological understanding of HLs has been hindered due to the challenges presented in studying the complex tumor microenvironment and scarce tumorigenic cells. Recent advances in single-cell isolation and characterization, sensitive mutational analytic tools, and multiplex immunohistochemical strategies have allowed further advances in understanding the development and progression of HL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000270DOI Listing

Clinical Application of Image Analysis in Pathology.

Authors:
Toby C Cornish

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jul;27(4):227-235

Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Quantitative biomarkers are key prognostic and predictive factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In the clinical laboratory, the majority of biomarker quantitation is still performed manually, but digital image analysis (DIA) methods have been steadily growing and account for around 25% of all quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing performed today. Quantitative DIA is primarily employed in the analysis of breast cancer IHC biomarkers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu; more recently clinical applications have expanded to include human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu in gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and Ki-67 in both breast cancer and gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000263DOI Listing

Whole-slide Imaging: Clinical Workflows and Primary Diagnosis.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jul;27(4):236-240

Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Digital pathology has made great strides in recent years culminating with the approval to market devices from the Food and Drug Administration. The pathology community is now poised to begin using these systems for diagnostic purposes. This article will discuss the preparatory steps needed to implement digital pathology as well as some implementation styles that may be sufficient for a pathology department. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000272DOI Listing

Whole Slide Imaging: Technology and Applications.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jul;27(4):251-259

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Pathology has benefited from advanced innovation with novel technology to implement a digital solution. Whole slide imaging is a disruptive technology where glass slides are scanned to produce digital images. There have been significant advances in whole slide scanning hardware and software that have allowed for ready access of whole slide images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000273DOI Listing

Immunohistochemistry in Surgical Pathology: Part 2.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 05;27(3):113

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000262DOI Listing

An Algorithmic Immunohistochemical Approach to Define Tumor Type and Assign Site of Origin.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 May;27(3):114-163

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA.

Immunohistochemistry represents an indispensable complement to an epidemiology and morphology-driven approach to tumor diagnosis and site of origin assignment. This review reflects the state of my current practice, based on 15-years' experience in Pathology and a deep-dive into the literature, always striving to be better equipped to answer the age old questions, "What is it, and where is it from?" The tables and figures in this manuscript are the ones I "pull up on the computer" when I am teaching at the microscope and turn to myself when I am (frequently) stuck. This field is so exciting because I firmly believe that, through the application of next-generation immunohistochemistry, we can provide better answers than ever before. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000256DOI Listing

Non-Neoplastic Mediastinal Cysts.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan 17. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Primary mediastinal cysts are infrequent lesions that can arise from a variety of mediastinal organs or structures. Most of these are congenital in origin and incidental findings during investigations for unrelated conditions. Histologically, the cysts may be composed of various tissues, including bronchogenic, pericardial, thymic, enteric, Müllerian, lymphatic, and parathyroid types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000261DOI Listing
January 2020

Practical Approach to the Histologic Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Lymphomas Through the First-line Marker Battery of CD20, CD3, CD30, and Epstein-Barr Virus-encoded RNAs.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar;27(2):75-86

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a prevalent site for extranodal lymphomas. Some subtypes of GI tract lymphomas are aggressive and have dismal clinical outcomes. Therefore, prompt histopathologic detection of such types can be very important. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000260DOI Listing
March 2020
3.229 Impact Factor

Metastatic Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases Preceding the Hedgehog Pathway Antagonists Era.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar;27(2):98-111

Department of Pathology, The Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel.

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of malignant human tumor. However, metastatic BCC is a very rare event with weakly effective therapeutic options and a poor prognosis, until a few years ago. In 2012, small-molecule therapies, capable of inactivating the hedgehog signaling pathway and thus reducing tumor growth and progression, were introduced into clinical practice for the treatment of patients with advanced BCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000259DOI Listing

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Past and Present.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar;27(2):87-97

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) afflicting humans has been recognized as a disease for >3000 years. However, very little was known about its etiology and pathogenesis until about a century ago when increasing knowledge about anatomy and physiology of the human body gradually led to our understanding that the hormone insulin produced by the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and maintaining the blood sugar level within a normal range. DM is caused by inadequate insulin production (type 1) or insulin resistance (type 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000257DOI Listing

Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma (SNUC): From an Entity to Morphologic Pattern and Back Again-A Historical Perspective.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar;27(2):51-60

International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy.

Since the first description of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) as a distinctive highly aggressive sinonasal neoplasm with probable origin from the sinonasal mucosa (Schneiderian epithelium), SNUC has been the subject of ongoing study and controversy. In particular, the SNUC category gradually became a "wastebasket" for any undifferentiated or unclassifiable sinonasal malignancy of definite or probable epithelial origin. However, with the availability of more specific and sensitive immunohistochemical antibodies and increasing implementation of novel genetic tools, the historical SNUC category became the subject of progressive subdivision leading to recognition of specific genetically defined, reproducible subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000258DOI Listing
March 2020
3.229 Impact Factor

The Ever Changing Landscape of Anatomic Pathology Practice.

Authors:
George J Netto

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):1-2

Department of Pathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000255DOI Listing
January 2020

Updates on the Genomics of Bladder Cancer and Novel Molecular Taxonomy.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):36-43

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the bladder that encompasses a wide spectrum of histopathologic features and various molecular alterations and subtypes, responsible for its significant morphologic and genomic heterogeneity. Morphologically, in addition to classic UC (not otherwise specified), many well documented variant histologies are a common finding in invasive UC, and include squamous, glandular, micropapillary, sarcomatoid, small cell/neuroendocrine, clear cell, lymphoepithelioma-like, and plasmacytoid types, among others. This review provides an update on the recent advances in the molecular characterization and novel molecular taxonomy of UC and variant histologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000252DOI Listing
January 2020

Lymphoid Neoplasms With Plasmablastic Differentiation: A Comprehensive Review and Diagnostic Approaches.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Mar;27(2):61-74

Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan.

Plasmablastic neoplasms encompass several entities including plasmablastic lymphoma, plasmablastic plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma, primary effusion lymphoma and its extracavitary variant, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Morphologically, the tumor cells are large with eccentrically located nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and basophilic/amphophilic cytoplasm. Immunophenotypically, the tumor cells express plasma cell-related antigens including CD38, CD138, interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4)/MUM1, PR domain zinc finger protein-1 (PRDM1), and/or X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1), with frequent loss of CD20. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000253DOI Listing

Genomic Molecular Classification of CNS Malignancies.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):44-50

Department of Pathology.

Molecular studies have identified distinct genomic drivers providing insights in biology of brain tumors. Advances in genetic and epigenetic analysis, as well as development of mutation-specific antibodies enable more accurate classification of histologically indistinguishable tumors. Compared with histopathologic grading, molecular biomarkers are also superior in predicting natural behavior of tumors and therapeutic response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000254DOI Listing
January 2020
4 Reads

Thymic Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Nov;26(6):341-345

Department of Pathology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Thymic mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a rare tumor that remains poorly characterized and a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this review is to characterize this tumor in a larger cohort of patients using all the available cases in the literature. We systematically searched the PubMed and Scopus database for primary thymic mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000250DOI Listing
November 2019

Primary Mediastinal Nodal and Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: Current Concepts, Historical Evolution, and Useful Diagnostic Approach: Part 1.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Nov;26(6):346-370

Department of Pathology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (PM-NHLs) represent ~5% of all NHLs and comprise lymphomas of B-cell and T-cell origin. PM-NHLs are defined as involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes, thymus, and/or mediastinal organs (heart, lung, pleura, pericardium) by NHL without evidence of systemic disease at presentation. The clinical scenario is variable and depends on the lymphoma subtype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000249DOI Listing
November 2019
20 Reads

Classification of Endometrial Carcinoma: New Perspectives Beyond Morphology.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Nov;26(6):421-427

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Endometrial carcinoma has been traditionally divided into type 1 or endometrioid type that is usually moderate to well differentiated and type 2 that is usually poorly differentiated with high histologic grade and aggressive clinical behavior. However, interobserver diagnostic agreement is suboptimal, particularly among the high-grade histotypes. Furthermore, recent data indicate that this histotype assignment does not independently correlate with survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000251DOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read

Immunohistochemistry as a Genetic Surrogate in Dermatopathology: Pearls and Pitfalls.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Nov;26(6):390-420

Dermatopathology Section, Dermatopathology Section, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, VA-Integrated-Service-Network-1 (VISN1), West Roxbury, MA.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is routinely performed in most laboratories, and other than purchase of commercially available antibodies, requires no additional equipment or reagents. As such, IHC is an accessible and relatively inexpensive test and one that can be performed quite quickly. This is in sharp contrast to genomic or mutational testing methodologies that are routinely "send out" tests as they require specialized equipment and reagents as well as individuals with expertise in the performance of the tests and analysis of the results, resulting in a prolonged turn-round-time and enhanced associated costs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000246DOI Listing
November 2019

Primary Mediastinal Nodal and Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: Current Concepts, Historical Evolution, and Useful Diagnostic Approach: Part 2.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Nov;26(6):371-389

Department of Pathology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (PM-NHLs) represent ∼5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and comprise lymphomas of B-cell and T-cell origin. PM-NHLs are defined as involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes, thymus, and/or mediastinal organs (heart, lung, pleura, pericardium) by NHL without evidence of systemic disease at presentation. The clinical scenario is variable and depends on the lymphoma subtype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000248DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer as a Precision Oncology Paradigm: Emerging Targets and Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB).

Authors:
Laura J Tafe

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):3-10

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), since the recognition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations that sensitized tumors to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, has been a poster child for precision oncology in solid tumors. The emergence of resistance to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors led to the unveiling of multiple resistance mechanisms that are now recognized to be frequent mechanisms across multiple tumor types. Coevolution of technological advancements in testing methods available to clinical laboratories now has identified a growing number of molecularly defined subsets of NSCLC that have new therapeutic implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000244DOI Listing
January 2020
1 Read

The Genomic and Molecular Pathology of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapy.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):11-19

Brady Urological Institute.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting American men and the second most common cause of cancer death. The traditional risk classification schemes for PCa are limited due to the vast clinical and molecular heterogeneity of the disease. Fortunately, recent advancements in sequencing technologies have provided us with valuable insight into the genomics of PCa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000245DOI Listing
January 2020
4 Reads

Molecular Pathology of Colorectal Cancer.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):20-26

The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis and the role of molecular testing in the management of CRC. The majority of CRCs arise from precursor lesions such as adenoma, transforming to adenocarcinoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000247DOI Listing
January 2020

A Comprehensive Review of Ovarian Serous Carcinoma.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Sep;26(5):329-339

Departments of Tumor Pathology.

Although ovarian serous carcinoma is a well-studied human gynecologic malignancy, this high-grade tumor remains fatal. The main purpose of this review is to summarize the accumulated evidence on serous malignant tumors and to clarify the unresolved issues. We discuss the 8 dichotomies of serous carcinoma: high grade versus low grade, ovarian versus extraovarian primary, extrauterine versus uterine primary, sporadic versus hereditary, orthodox versus alternative histology, p53 overexpression versus complete absence of immunophenotype, TP53-mutated versus intact precursor, and therapy responsive versus refractory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043727PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Celiac Disease: Updates on Pathology and Differential Diagnosis.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Sep;26(5):292-312

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Celiac disease is a gluten-triggered immune-mediated disorder, characterized by inflammation of the enteric mucosa following lymphocytic infiltration and eventually resulting in villous blunting. There have been many developments in refining diagnostic laboratory tests for celiac disease in the last decade. Biopsy-sparing diagnostic guidelines have been proposed and validated in a few recent prospective studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000242DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumor of Soft Tissue of the Foot: Report of a Case With Review of the Literature.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Sep;26(5):320-328

Endocrinology Unit, "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza" IRCCS-Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) is a rare neoplasm that ectopically secretes fibroblast growth factor 23, a bone cell-derived protein that regulates phosphate homeostasis. The overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 causes a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by hyperphosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, hypovitaminosis D, and vitamin D refractory rickets/osteomalacia, effects that disappear with tumor removal. The PMT may occur in several anatomic regions, mainly in the limbs, usually involving both soft tissue and bone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000240DOI Listing
September 2019
6 Reads

Utility of Cyclin D1 in the Diagnostic Workup of Hematopoietic Neoplasms: What Can Cyclin D1 Do for Us?

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Sep;26(5):281-291

Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Cyclin D1, encoded by CCND1, promotes cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Its expression is induced by MAPK/ERK pathway as well as translocations/rearrangements involving CCND1 gene. The evaluation of cyclin D1 expression by immunohistochemistry plays an important role in the diagnostic workup of various hematopoietic diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000241DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads
3.229 Impact Factor

Intrinsic Molecular Subclassification of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: Are We Finally there?

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):251-256

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Bladder cancer is a highly prevalent disease throughout the world usually encountered in older patients, and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. The treatment of bladder cancer has remained unchanged for the last several decades. However, in recent years the availability of comprehensive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and other large projects have considerably improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of these tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000235DOI Listing
July 2019
18 Reads

Urothelial Carcinoma In Situ (CIS): New Insights.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Sep;26(5):313-319

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a high-grade noninvasive malignancy with a high tendency of progression. Although it is typically grouped with other nonmuscle invasive bladder cancers, its higher grade and aggressiveness make it a unique clinical entity. Urothelial CIS is histologically characterized by replacement of the urothelium by cells which fulfill the morphologic criteria of malignancy including nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromasia, prominent nucleoli, and increased numbers of normal and abnormal mitoses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000239DOI Listing
September 2019
8 Reads

A Comprehensive Review of Biomarker Use in the Gynecologic Tract Including Differential Diagnoses and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 May;27(3):164-192

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Morphologic (ie, hematoxylin and eosin) evaluation of the Mullerian tract remains the gold standard for diagnostic evaluation; nevertheless, ancillary/biomarker studies are increasingly utilized in daily practice to assist in the subclassification of gynecologic lesions and tumors. The most frequently utilized "biomarker" technique is immunohistochemistry; however, in situ hybridization (chromogenic and fluorescence), chromosomal evaluation, and molecular analysis can also be utilized to aid in diagnosis. This review focuses on the use of immunohistochemistry in the Mullerian tract, and discusses common antibody panels, sensitivity and specificity of specific antibodies, and points out potential diagnostic pitfalls when using such antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000238DOI Listing
May 2020
2 Reads

Evaluation of Breast and Axillary Lymph Node Specimens in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):221-234

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Breast and axillary lymph node specimens from breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant systemic therapy are being encountered by pathologists with increasing frequency. Evaluation of these specimens presents challenges that differ from those encountered during the examination of other types of breast specimens. This article reviews the key issues regarding the gross and microscopic evaluation of post-neoadjuvant systemic therapy breast and lymph node specimens, and emphasizes the importance of accurate specimen evaluation in assessing treatment response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000237DOI Listing
July 2019
9 Reads

Molecular Classification of Breast Cancer.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Jan;27(1):27-35

Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Cancer classification aims to provide an accurate diagnosis of the disease and prediction of tumor behavior to facilitate oncologic decision making. Traditional breast cancer classification, mainly based on clinicopathologic features and assessment of routine biomarkers, may not capture the varied clinical courses of individual breast cancers. The underlying biology in cancer development and progression is complicated. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00125480-900000000-9990
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000232DOI Listing
January 2020
4 Reads

Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Larynx: Confusion of Terminology and Uncertainty of Early Studies.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):246-250

Coordinator of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua, Italy.

Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (also known as "carcinoid") of the larynx is an exceedingly rare tumor that has an epithelial origin. These tumors are malignant and have a low, but definite, risk of metastasis. Although it can be challenging, this tumor should be differentiated from moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (also known as "atypical carcinoid"). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00125480-900000000-9990
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000236DOI Listing
July 2019
11 Reads

Pathogenesis of Testicular Germ Cell Neoplasia: A Conceptual Approach.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):241-245

Department of Pathology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Testicular germ cell tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms, consisting of the prepubertal type 1 tumors, pure teratoma, and pure yolk sac tumor, the type 2 tumors, which are biologically malignant, preceded by germ cell neoplasia in situ, and harbor chromosome 12p abnormalities, and the type 3 tumor, spermatocytic tumor, which features chromosome 9p amplification. These arise in distinct clinical settings, and harbor distinct genetic abnormalities, immunohistochemical properties, and morphologic features. Here we have attempted to unify embryology, morphology, immunohistochemistry, and genetics in order to distill this fascinating group of neoplasms into what we hope is a useful framework for understanding their classification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000233DOI Listing
July 2019
17 Reads

Determination of Mismatch Repair Status in Human Cancer and Its Clinical Significance: Does One Size Fit All?

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):270-279

Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

The clinical management of cancers has progressed rapidly into the immunopathology era, with the unprecedented histology-agnostic approval of pembrolizumab in mismatch repair (MMR) deficient tumors. Despite the significant recent achievements in the treatment of these patients, however, the identification of clinically relevant subclasses of cancers based on the MMR status remains a major challenge. Many investigations have assessed the role of different diagnostic tools, including immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and tumor mutational burden in both prognostic and therapeutic settings, with heterogenous results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000234DOI Listing
July 2019
3 Reads

Non-Neoplastic and Benign Tumoral Lesions of the Thymic Gland: A Review and Update.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Jul;26(4):257-269

Department of Pathology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

The thymus is a dynamic organ that undergoes changes throughout life and can demonstrate a myriad of pathologic alterations. A number of benign entities of the thymus prove to be diagnostic dilemmas owing to their resemblance and association with true thymic tumors. These are usually discovered incidentally on routine imaging and most patients are either asymptomatic or present with signs and symptoms of compression of adjacent organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000231DOI Listing
July 2019
6 Reads

Review of Drug-induced Injury in Mucosal Biopsies From the Tubular Gastrointestinal Tract.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 May;26(3):151-170

Department of Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

The use of prescription and over-the-counter medications is on the rise in the US population, especially among those aged 65 and over, with over 46% of the population taking at least 1 prescription medication. Given the frequency of medication use, and that the majority of these medications are taken orally, it has become increasingly relevant for pathologist examining endoscopically obtained gastrointestinal tract mucosal biopsies to consider and recognize patterns of mucosal injury associated with various drugs. Reports on injuries associated with certain classes of drugs can be scattered among different sources, making a comprehensive view of various injury patterns and the drugs known to cause them difficult to obtain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000230DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

The Implementation of an Introductory Surgical Pathology Didactic Series to Transition First Year Residents and Facilitate Upper Level Resident Teaching.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 May;26(3):210-214

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

The increasing complexity of the practice of pathology and health care in general requires that pathology residents acquire a vast number of skills during their training. This has been reflected by the broad range of skills addressed in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. In order to address some of these milestones, our residency program instituted an introductory didactic series in surgical pathology that focused on 2 objectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000229DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

Epithelioid Vascular Tumors: A Review.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 May;26(3):186-197

Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Vascular tumors are a diagnostically challenging area. This is particularly true in the case of epithelioid vascular tumors. Not only is the distinction between different epithelioid vascular tumors challenging, but also the differential diagnosis may be substantially expanded by the inclusion of melanoma, carcinomas, and other epithelioid soft tissue tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000228DOI Listing
May 2019
35 Reads

New and Emerging Biomarkers in Endocrine Pathology.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 May;26(3):198-209

Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital.

Significant advances in genomics and molecular genetics in recent years have reshaped the practice of endocrine pathology. Pan-genomic studies, including the pioneering ones on papillary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, provided a comprehensive integrated genomic analysis of endocrine tumors into distinct molecularly defined subtypes. Better understanding of the molecular landscape and more accurate definition of biological behavior has been accordingly achieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000227DOI Listing
May 2019
6 Reads

Iatrogenic Disease of the Genitourinary Tract.

Authors:
Helen P Cathro

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 May;26(3):171-185

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Iatrogenic disease is defined as illness caused by diagnostic procedures or treatment given by health care professionals. More recently described treatment complications involving the genitourinary tract include newly recognized variants of renal carcinoma in the setting of dialysis/end-stage renal disease, treatment effect in genitourinary carcinomas, and medical renal disease caused by drug therapies, including immunotherapy. The objective of this review is to cover iatrogenic inflammatory diseases, pseudotumors and tumors of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testis and paratestis of most interest to surgical pathologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000226DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Advances in Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry for Primary Tumors of the Central Nervous System.

Authors:
David M Meredith

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 May;27(3):206-219

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

As genomic characterization becomes increasingly necessary for accurate diagnosis of tumors of the central nervous system, identification of rapidly assessible biomarkers is equally important to avoid excessive cost and delay in initiation of therapy. This article reviews novel immunohistochemical markers that may be used to determine mutation status, activation of signaling pathways, druggable targets, and cell lineage in many diverse tumor types. In particular, recently added entities to the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system tumors will be addressed, including IDH-mutant gliomas, diffuse midline glioma, epithelioid glioblastoma, angiocentric glioma, RELA-rearranged ependymoma, embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, pineoblastoma, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, and other genetically defined high-grade neuroepithelial tumors), and meningiomas associated with germline alterations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000225DOI Listing
May 2020
5 Reads

Update on Molecular Testing for Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 Mar;26(2):114-123

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and ultrasonography are the most common modalities for the diagnosis and follow up of thyroid nodules. FNAB is able to distinguish benign from malignant nodules with high sensitivity and specificity; however, 20% to 30% of nodules are diagnosed as indeterminate with a risk of malignancy varying from 10% to 75% based on the 2017 revision of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Molecular tests are being increasingly used to triage this group of nodules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000211DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

One Actor, Many Roles: Histopathologies Associated With APOL1 Genetic Variants.

Adv Anat Pathol 2019 May;26(3):215-219

Kidney Diseases Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda.

Genetic variants in APOL1, encoding apolipoprotein L1, are major drivers of glomerular disease in peoples of sub-Saharan African descent. APOL1-associated primary glomerular diseases include focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathies, and arterionephrosclerosis. Other conditions where APOL1 variants affect outcomes include membranous nephropathy, lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, and kidney transplant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458071PMC
May 2019
8 Reads