4,647 results match your criteria Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy


A Case of Prenatally Diagnosed Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia With Brain Morphometric Differences.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2022 Jan-Dec;10:23247096221105245

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA.

We report a case of a fetus with a prenatal diagnosis of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Although CAH is typically assessed postnatally, this fetal case had multiple prenatal clinical assessments made feasible by an interdisciplinary CAH center. The approach facilitated the development and delivery of comprehensive and earlier care for the fetus, and the family living with this complex, congenital condition, with perinatology, endocrinology, genetic counseling, psychology, and urology involvement. Read More

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Robotic-assisted left adrenal cystic mass excision in a pregnant patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jun 1;15(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Surgery, Stamford Health Medical Group, Stamford, Connecticut, USA.

A symptomatic adrenal mass diagnosed during pregnancy is a rare clinical scenario. Two primary considerations are the timing of intervention and determining the appropriate surgical approach. Here, we present the case of a young female patient with flank pain, whom on diagnostic imaging, was found to have a large cystic adrenal mass. Read More

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Litter Size Reduction as a Model of Overfeeding during Lactation and Its Consequences for the Development of Metabolic Diseases in the Offspring.

Nutrients 2022 May 13;14(10). Epub 2022 May 13.

Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Roberto Alcantara Gomes Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20551-031, RJ, Brazil.

Overfeeding during lactation has a deleterious impact on the baby's health throughout life. In humans, early overnutrition has been associated with higher susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disorders in childhood and adulthood. In rodents, using a rodent litter size reduction model (small litter) to mimic early overfeeding, the same metabolic profile has been described. Read More

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Adrenal insufficiency and pregnancy.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2022 06;29(3):277-283

Endocrine Unit, First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Adrenal insufficiency is a disorder characterized by the failure of adrenocortical function because of distorted function of hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis. Pregnancy is a state of a physiological glucocorticoid excess as the HPA axis is functioning at a higher level.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of the present review was to shed light on current evidence of adrenal insufficiency management during pregnancy, along with maternal and neonatal outcomes. Read More

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Maternal immune activation accelerates puberty initiation and alters mechanical allodynia in male and female C57BL6/J mice.

Dev Psychobiol 2022 07;64(5):e22278

School of Arts & Sciences, Health Psychology Program, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The mechanisms that link maternal immune activation (MIA) with the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders remain largely unclear. Accelerated puberty is also associated with a heightened risk for psychopathology in later life, but there is a dearth of evidence on the impacts of maternal infection on pubertal timing. We examined the effects of MIA on reproductive development, mechanical allodynia, and sensorimotor gating in juvenile, adolescent, and adult male and female mice. Read More

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Desmopressin Stimulation Test in a Pregnant Patient with Cushing's Disease.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2022 May-Jun;8(3):105-108. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, and Hormonal and Metabolic Research Unit, Excellence Center in Diabetes, Hormone and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation during pregnancy complicates the investigation of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our objective was to present the case of a pregnant patient with CS caused by a pituitary tumor in whom the desmopressin stimulation test helped in the diagnosis and led to appropriate management.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman with 9-week gestation presented with a 2-month history of proximal myopathy. Read More

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November 2021

Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study: Effects of a Multiple Sclerosis Relapse Therapy With Methylprednisolone on Offspring Neurocognitive Development and Behavior (MS-Children).

Front Neurol 2022 26;13:830057. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common neuroimmunological disease in women of childbearing age. Current MS therapy consists of immunomodulatory relapse prevention with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and acute relapse therapy with the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC) methylprednisolone (MP). As most DMTs are not approved for use during pregnancy, treatment is usually discontinued, increasing the risk for relapses. Read More

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Spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy and review of the literature.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 6;15(5). Epub 2022 May 6.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.

Spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage (SAH) is a rare condition. The incidence of adrenal haemorrhage in pregnancy is currently not known; however, an association with pregnancy has been reported.An acute presentation with severe back or flank pain should raise suspicion of this condition. Read More

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Neonatal bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and adrenal insufficiency accompanied by Subgaleal hematoma: a case report with brief review of literature.

BMC Pediatr 2022 05 5;22(1):248. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Family Medicine, Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage (NAH) is an almost infrequent phenomenon (0.2-0.55%). Read More

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The diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy.

J Neuroendocrinol 2022 Mar 14:e13118. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Clinical and biochemical changes in healthy pregnancy overlap with those seen in pregnancy complicated by CS; the diagnosis is therefore challenging and can be delayed. During normal gestation, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels rise. Read More

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Classical and non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: What is the difference in subsequent fertility?

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2022 Jun 27;83(3):181-185. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

AP-HP, IE3M, hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, department of endocrinology and reproductive medicine and Centre de référence des maladies endocriniennes rares de la croissance, centre de référence des pathologies gynécologiques Rares, ICAN, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, Paris, France. Electronic address:

21-Hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is the most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Increased production of adrenal-derived androgens and progesterone in 21OHD women interfere with their reproductive function and their fertility in many different ways, depending on the severity of the disease. Sexuality and fertility in women with classic 21OHD is impaired, due to several issues such as disrupted gonadotropic axis due to androgen and progesterone overproduction, and mechanical, psychological factors related to genital surgery. Read More

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Prenatal earthquake stress exposure in different gestational trimesters is associated with methylation changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and long-term working memory in adulthood.

Transl Psychiatry 2022 04 29;12(1):176. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei province, People's Republic of China.

Prenatal stress exposure is thought to affect the long-term development of the foetal brain via the HPA axis and to change health outcomes in adulthood, including working memory (WM). The potential mechanism is that there is a critical period of brain development of the foetus, which is a result of selective adaptation to the external environment. The human glucocorticoid gene (NR3C1) is associated with memory and cognition. Read More

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A systematic review and standardized clinical validity assessment of genes involved in female reproductive failure.

Reproduction 2022 04 22;163(6):351-363. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Scientific Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.

Genetic testing is becoming increasingly required at almost every stage of failed female reproduction/infertility. Nonetheless, clinical evidence for the majority of identified gene-disease relationships is ill-defined, thus leading to difficult gene variant interpretation and poor translation of existing knowledge into clinics. We aimed to identify the genes that have ever been implicated in monogenic female reproductive failure in humans and to classify the identified gene-disease relationship pairs using a standardized clinical validity assessment. Read More

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Impact of Cushing's syndrome on fertility and pregnancy.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2022 Jun 17;83(3):188-190. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Aix-Marseille University, U1251 Marseille Medical Genetics, Marmara Institute, and Department of endocrinology, La Conception Hospital, Assistance publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France.

Cushing's syndrome is defined by an endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolism. Increased cortisol, as well as increased androgens will have a negative impact on the pulsatile secretion of GnRH, thus leading to an increased risk of infertility. However, pregnancy can occur in a woman with Cushing's syndrome: it is a challenging situation, because of the numerous consequences which can be observed in the mother (increased risk of gestational diabetes, hypertension, eclampsia… in addition to the specific complications of hypercortisolism) and in the fetus (intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity). Read More

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The underlying sex differences in neuroendocrine adaptations relevant to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2022 Apr 11;66:100995. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry & Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex multisystem disease characterised by severe and disabling new-onset symptoms of post-exertional malaise (PEM), fatigue, brain fog, and sleep dysfunction that lasts for at least six months. Accumulating evidence suggests that sex and endocrine events have a significant influence on symptom onset and moderation of ME/CFS, with female sex being one of the most consistent and credible predictive risk factors associated with diagnosis. Such sex differences suggest sex chromosomes and sex steroids may play a part in the development of the condition or moderation of symptoms, although this has yet to be explored in detail. Read More

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Cushing Disease Treated Successfully With Metyrapone During Pregnancy.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2022 Mar-Apr;8(2):78-81. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Background: Cushing disease (CD) during pregnancy is a rare but serious disease that adversely impacts maternal and fetal outcomes. As the sole use of metyrapone in the management of CD has been rarely reported, we describe our experience of using it to treat a pregnant patient with CD.

Case Report: A 34-year-old woman with hypertension was diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent CD on the basis of a urinary free cortisol (UFC) level of 290 μg/24 h (reference range, 6-42 μg/dL) and an abnormal dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol level, 12. Read More

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October 2021

Development of pups born to rats established as a model of underweight Japanese women and the onset of impaired glucose tolerance.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2022 Jun;86(7):875-883

Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kindai University, Nara, Japan.

An increasing number of Japanese women of childbearing age are underweight (BMI <18.5), but the association between this and the increased number of low-birth-weight babies born remains unclear. Here, a rat model was established to mimic the undernutrition (85% of the energy required for those with normal activity levels) experienced by such women and to evaluate the associated impaired glucose tolerance. Read More

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An Uncommon Presentation of Pheochromocytoma in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and the Importance of Long-Term Follow-Up.

Acta Med Port 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Endocrinology Department. Coimbra Hospital and University Centre. Coimbra. Portugal.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NFT1) is a disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. It is associated with a higher incidence of chromaffin cell tumors which are usually adrenal, unilateral and benign. The presence of these tumors during pregnancy is extremely rare and frequently associated with fatal outcomes. Read More

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Primary aldosteronism in pregnancy: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

Endokrynol Pol 2022 5;73(2):377-378. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, General and Teaching Hospital Celje, Slovenia.

Not required for Clinical Vignette. Read More

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Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 04 4;4:CD003935. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Infants born preterm (before 37 weeks' gestation) are at risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and need for respiratory support due to lung immaturity. One course of prenatal corticosteroids, administered to women at risk of preterm birth, reduces the risk of respiratory morbidity and improves survival of their infants, but these benefits do not extend beyond seven days. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids have been used for women at ongoing risk of preterm birth more than seven days after their first course of corticosteroids, with improvements in respiratory outcomes, but uncertainty remains about any long-term benefits and harms. Read More

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Sex differences and heritability of adrenal steroidogenesis in offspring rats induced by prenatal nicotine exposure.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2022 Jul 31;221:106102. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical College of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

The epidemiological investigation has suggested prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces multiorgan developmental toxicity and increases the risk of metabolic diseases in offspring. Our previous study found that the occurrence of fetal-originated diseases was associated with abnormal adrenal development in offspring. However, the long-term harmful effects on adrenal development in offspring induced by PNE remain unclear. Read More

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Programming of Vascular Dysfunction by Maternal Stress: Immune System Implications.

Front Physiol 2022 10;13:787617. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Health Education Research Center (NUPADS), Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Sinop, Brazil.

A growing body of evidence highlights that several insults during pregnancy impact the vascular function and immune response of the male and female offspring. Overactivation of the immune system negatively influences cardiovascular function and contributes to cardiovascular disease. In this review, we propose that modulation of the immune system is a potential link between prenatal stress and offspring vascular dysfunction. Read More

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Implementation of corticosteroids in treatment of COVID-19 in the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: prospective, cohort study.

Lancet Digit Health 2022 04;4(4):e220-e234

Centre for Medical Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Dexamethasone was the first intervention proven to reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19 being treated in hospital. We aimed to evaluate the adoption of corticosteroids in the treatment of COVID-19 in the UK after the RECOVERY trial publication on June 16, 2020, and to identify discrepancies in care.

Methods: We did an audit of clinical implementation of corticosteroids in a prospective, observational, cohort study in 237 UK acute care hospitals between March 16, 2020, and April 14, 2021, restricted to patients aged 18 years or older with proven or high likelihood of COVID-19, who received supplementary oxygen. Read More

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COVID-19 and the Endocrine System: A Review of the Current Information and Misinformation.

Infect Dis Rep 2022 Mar 11;14(2):184-197. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection primarily involves the respiratory system but has many noteworthy extra pulmonary manifestations as well. We write this review to highlight the basis of some pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 infection-induced endocrine dysfunction. Different scientific databases and institutional websites were searched to collect and consolidate the most up-to-date data relating to COVID-19 infection and endocrine systems. Read More

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Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cortisol levels vs. microbiology of the digestive system of sheep during lambing.

BMC Vet Res 2022 Mar 18;18(1):107. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Environmental Hygiene and Animal Welfare, Wrocław University of Enviromental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego St. 38E, 51-630, Wrocław, Poland.

Background: During parturition, animals exhibit variation in hormone levels, homeostasis disturbance and dysfunction of the immune system as a result of stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is responsible for the occurrence of oxidative stress in the cells. Cortisol is known as the stress hormone, but it is also involved in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and metabolism processes led by adipose tissue. Read More

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Systemic interventions for treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 03 11;3:CD013130. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital - General Campus, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome are rare, severe cutaneous adverse reactions usually triggered by medications. In addition to tertiary-level supportive care, various systemic therapies have been used including glucocorticoids, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs), cyclosporin, N-acetylcysteine, thalidomide, infliximab, etanercept, and plasmapheresis. There is an unmet need to understand the efficacy of these interventions. Read More

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A Review of the Associations Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Possible Mechanisms of Disease.

Reprod Sci 2022 Mar 7. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) usually leads to the occurrence of diabetes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common gestational complication associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Increasing studies suggest that women with OSA during pregnancy may be at a significantly greater risk of developing GDM. Read More

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with homozygous and heterozygous mutations: a rare family case report.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Mar 7;22(1):57. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, 063210, Hebei, China.

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), characterized by defective adrenal steroidogenesis, is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. Mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene CYP21A2 causing steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency account for most cases of CAH. The c. Read More

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Preclinical animal models of mental illnesses to translate findings from the bench to the bedside: Molecular brain mechanisms and peripheral biomarkers associated to early life stress or immune challenges.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2022 05 27;58:55-79. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Biological Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy; Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Animal models are useful preclinical tools for studying the pathogenesis of mental disorders and the effectiveness of their treatment. While it is not possible to mimic all symptoms occurring in humans, it is however possible to investigate the behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical alterations relevant for these complex disorders in controlled conditions and in genetically homogeneous populations. Stressful and infection-related exposures represent the most employed environmental risk factors able to trigger or to unmask a psychopathological phenotype in animals. Read More

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Prenatal dexamethasone treatment for classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Europe.

Eur J Endocrinol 2022 Mar 23;186(5):K17-K24. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre National de Référence 'Développement Génital: du fœtus à l'adulte DEV-GEN' Université Lyon I, Lyon, France.

Objective: To assess the current medical practice in Europe regarding prenatal dexamethasone (Pdex) treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

Design And Methods: A questionnaire was designed and distributed, including 17 questions collecting quantitative and qualitative data. Thirty-six medical centres from 14 European countries responded and 30 out of 36 centres were reference centres of the European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions, EndoERN. Read More

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