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    4126 results match your criteria Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy

    1 OF 83

    Acute pituitary disease in pregnancy: how to handle hypophysitis and Sheehan's syndrome?
    Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Pregnancy-related hypophysitis (PR-Hy) that typically occurs during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period is considered an autoimmune disorder. Knowledge and awareness of characteristic clinical symptoms and specific endocrine and neuroradiological features mostly enables a correct diagnosis and guarantees best possible management. In the presence of mild clinical symptoms, a "wait and watch" policy is recommended. Read More

    Cushing's disease: major difficulties in diagnosis and management during pregnancy.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain -
    Pregnancy in women with a diagnosis of Cushing' syndrome (CS) is an extremely rare event and its diagnosis and treatment are a real medical challenge. During pregnancy, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis undergoes major changes leading to a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels throughout gestation. The difficulties in diagnosis are related to the resemblance of symptoms of CS and those of pregnancy, and to the complex interpretation of the screening tests. Read More

    A human exposure based mixture of persistent organic pollutants affects the stress response in female mice and their offspring.
    Chemosphere 2018 Apr 18;197:585-593. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Section for Experimental Biomedicine, Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are found in the food chain of both humans and animals and exert a wide spectrum of potentially adverse effects. The present experiment aimed to investigate whether a defined mixture of 29 POPs, based on the dietary intake of Scandinavians, could affect the stress response in female mice exposed through ingestion, and in their offspring. Female mice 129:C57BL/6F0 hybrids were exposed from weaning, throughout pregnancy, and up until necropsy, to either 5000 × or 100 000 × the estimated daily intake for Scandinavians. Read More

    Postpartum depression and vitamin D: A systematic review.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Feb 2:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    c Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.
    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent mood disorder estimated to affect 20%-40% of women worldwide after childbirth. In recent studies, the effect of vitamin D on prevention of mood disorders and depression has been investigated, but it is still unclear how vitamin D may affect PPD. The evidence on the relevance between vitamin D deficiency and PPD is inconsistent, and assessment of the recent literature has not previously been carried out. Read More

    Osmotic Demyelination Unrelated to Hyponatremia.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX; Renal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX.
    Osmotic demyelination unrelated to hyponatremia is rarely reported. We present a case of osmotic demyelination in a patient with hypernatremia in the absence of preceding hyponatremia and review previously reported cases of osmotic demyelination in nonhyponatremic patients. We conclude that a rapid increase in serum sodium concentration and plasma tonicity even in the absence of preceding hyponatremia may surpass the brain's capacity for adaptation to hypertonicity and lead to osmotic demyelination in predisposed individuals. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Fertility, pregnancy and lactation in women with adrenal insufficiency.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Feb 30;178(2):R45-R53. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Klinik für EndokrinologieDiabetologie und Klinische Ernährung, UniversitätsSpital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
    With the introduction of hormonal substitution therapy in the 1950s, adrenal insufficiency (AI) has been turned into a manageable disease in pregnant women. In fact, in the light of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and improved obstetric care, it is realistic to expect good maternal and fetal outcomes in patients with AI. However, there are still a number of challenges such as establishing the diagnosis of AI in pregnant women and optimizing the treatment of AI and related comorbidities prior to as well as during pregnancy. Read More

    A Case of Cushing's Syndrome in Pregnancy.
    Iran J Med Sci 2017 Nov;42(6):607-610
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Cushing's syndrome (CS) occurs rarely during pregnancy. CS can be caused by prolonged abnormal exposure to excess glucocorticoids leading to special and significant signs and symptoms. It is often difficult to diagnose pathological hypercortisolism in pregnant women since some symptoms of the disease might be due to a complicated pregnancy, including preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. Read More

    Effects and Interactions of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, a Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet and Gender on Adult Hypercholesterolemia Occurrence in Offspring Rats.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 23;44(2):657-670. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Background/aims: Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) could induce intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation and susceptibility to adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring. This study aimed to analyse the effects and interactions of PEE, a post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD) and gender on the occurrence of adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring rats.

    Methods: Wistar female rats were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg. Read More

    Malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple vertebral metastases causing acute incomplete paralysis during pregnancy: Literature review with one case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(44):e8535
    aDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences bDepartment of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College cDepartment of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China dDepartment of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.
    Rationale: We present a rare case of malignant pheochromocytoma with thoracic metastases during pregnancy that presented with symptoms of myelopathy and was treated with circumferential decompression, stabilization, and radiation. The management of this unique case is not well documented. The clinical manifestations, imaging results, pathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of the case were analyzed. Read More

    No. 350-Hirsutism: Evaluation and Treatment.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017 Nov;39(11):1054-1068
    Ottawa, ON.
    Objectives: To review the etiology, evaluation, and treatment of hirsutism.

    Evaluation: A thorough history and physical examination plus selected laboratory evaluations will confirm the diagnosis and direct treatment.

    Treatment: Pharmacologic interventions can suppress ovarian or adrenal androgen production and block androgen receptors in the hair follicle. Read More

    Newborn genome-wide DNA methylation in association with pregnancy anxiety reveals a potential role for.
    Clin Epigenetics 2017 3;9:107. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Neurosciences, Genetic Research About Stress and Psychiatry (GRASP), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: There is increasing evidence for the role of prenatal stress in shaping offspring DNA methylation and disease susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways associated with pregnancy anxiety using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach.

    Methods: We selected 22 versus 23 newborns from our Prenatal Early Life Stress (PELS) cohort, exposed to the lowest or highest degree of maternal pregnancy anxiety, respectively. Read More

    Maternal Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome Associated with Severe Perinatal Brain Injury.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 Sep;54(9):771-773
    Department of Neonatology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore. Correspondence to: Dr Shrenik Vora, Senior Staff Registrar, Department of Neonatology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899,
    Background: Maternal electrolyte imbalance is rarely reported as causative factor of severe perinatal brain injury.

    Case Characteristics: This case outlines a unique maternal and neonatal pseudo-Bartter syndrome presented with metabolic alkalosis and hypochloremia due to maternal severe vomiting.

    Observation: Neonatal MRI brain revealed extensive brain hemorrhages with porencephalic cysts. Read More

    The highs and lows of programmed cardiovascular disease by developmental hypoxia: studies in the chicken embryo.
    J Physiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Physiology, Development & Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK.
    It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Suboptimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction. Read More

    Fertility outcome and information on fertility issues in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development: findings from the dsd-LIFE study.
    Fertil Steril 2017 Nov 15;108(5):822-831. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Objective: To investigate fertility outcome in individuals with different forms of disorders of sex development (DSD), if assisted reproductive technology (ART) was used, and the patients' satisfaction with the information they had received.

    Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study, dsd-LIFE.

    Setting: Not applicable. Read More

    Long-Term Effects of the Periconception Period on Embryo Epigenetic Profile and Phenotype: The Role of Stress and How This Effect Is Mediated.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1014:117-135
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
    Stress represents an unavoidable aspect of human life, and pathologies associated with dysregulation of stress mechanisms - particularly psychiatric disorders - represent a significant global health problem. While it has long been observed that levels of stress experienced in the periconception period may greatly affect the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet comprehensively understood. In order to address this question, this chapter will take a 'top-down' approach, by first defining stress and associated concepts, before exploring the mechanistic basis of the stress response in the form of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and how dysregulation of the HPA axis can impede our mental and physical health, primarily via imbalances in glucocorticoids (GCs) and their corresponding receptors (GRs) in the brain. Read More

    Sensitive Monogenic Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis by Targeted Haplotyping.
    Am J Hum Genet 2017 Sep 24;101(3):326-339. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
    During pregnancy, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood encompasses a small percentage of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA), an easily accessible source for determination of fetal disease status in risk families through non-invasive procedures. In case of monogenic heritable disease, background maternal cfDNA prohibits direct observation of the maternally inherited allele. Non-invasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD) of monogenic diseases therefore relies on parental haplotyping and statistical assessment of inherited alleles from cffDNA, techniques currently unavailable for routine clinical practice. Read More

    Adrenal Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Nov 17;177(5):K13-K20. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Internal MedicineErasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Cushing syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with only a few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis of CS is common because of overlapping features like fatigue, weight gain, striae and emotional changes that can occur during normal pregnancy. Changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of glucocorticoid hormone levels during gestation. Read More

    Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Accumulating research shows that prenatal exposure to maternal stress increases the risk for behavioral and mental health problems later in life. This review systematically analyzes the available human studies to identify harmful stressors, vulnerable periods during pregnancy, specificities in the outcome and biological correlates of the relation between maternal stress and offspring outcome. Effects of maternal stress on offspring neurodevelopment, cognitive development, negative affectivity, difficult temperament and psychiatric disorders are shown in numerous epidemiological and case-control studies. Read More

    The use of a unique co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis as a screening tool for endocrine disruptors: The effects of neonicotinoids on aromatase activity and hormone production.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2017 10 24;332:15-24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    INRS - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC H7V 1B7, Canada. Electronic address:
    Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy is dependent on the collaboration between the fetus producing the androgen precursors, and the placenta expressing the enzyme aromatase (CYP19). Disruption of estrogen production by contaminants may result in serious pregnancy outcomes. We used our recently developed in vitro co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis to screen the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides on the catalytic activity of aromatase and the production of steroid hormones. Read More

    Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone As the Homeostatic Rheostat of Feto-Maternal Symbiosis and Developmental Programmingand Neonatal Life.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 11;8:161. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Translational Medicine, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate. Read More

    Exposure to intimate partner violence in utero and infant internalizing behaviors: Moderation by salivary cortisol-alpha amylase asymmetry.
    Early Hum Dev 2017 10 20;113:40-48. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, USA.
    Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11.8months). Read More

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: evidence based antenatal and postnatal management strategies.
    Expert Rev Hematol 2017 Aug 29;10(8):729-737. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    c Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics , Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden , The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a relatively rare but potentially lethal disease, leading to severe bleeding complications in 1 in 11.000 newborns. It is the leading cause of thrombocytopenia in healthy term-born neonates. Read More

    Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: exploring the affected biological systems and mechanisms.
    BMC Psychiatry 2017 06 15;17(1):221. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Biological Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio - Fatebenefratelli, via Pilastroni 4, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: According to several studies, the onset of the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) depends on the combination between genetic and environmental factors (GxE), in particular between biological vulnerabilities and the exposure to traumatic experiences during childhood. We have searched for studies reporting possible alterations in several biological processes and brain morphological features in relation to childhood trauma experiences and to BPD. We have also looked for epigenetic mechanisms as they could be mediators of the effects of childhood trauma in BPD vulnerability. Read More

    Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women.
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 Sep;23(5):580-599
    Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.
    Background: Non-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess.

    Objective And Rationale: We conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed. Read More

    Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Action During Development.
    Curr Top Dev Biol 2017 16;125:147-170. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Molecular Endocrinology Group, Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States. Electronic address:
    Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Read More

    Anxiety and Epigenetics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;978:145-166
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA, 02125, USA.
    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. Read More

    Neurobehavioral risks of SSRIs in pregnancy: Comparing human and animal data.
    Reprod Toxicol 2017 Sep 8;72:191-200. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. Read More

    Antenatal corticosteroids for neonates born before 25 Weeks-A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(5):e0176090. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Neonatal Pediatrics, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Western Australia.
    Background: Efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids before 25 weeks of gestation is unclear.

    Objective: To assess and compare neonatal outcomes following ANC exposure at 22, 23 and 24 weeks of gestation by conducting systematic review and meta- analysis.

    Methods: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) and non-RCTs reporting on neonatal outcomes after exposure to ANC up to 246 weeks of gestation using the Cochrane systematic review methodology. Read More

    Management of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 during pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Exp Ther Oncol 2016 Jul;11(3):217-220
    Department of Perinatology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) or Wermer's syndrome is a rare hereditary endocrine syndrome with high penetrance caused by mutations in MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. MEN1 is characterized by hyperplasia or tumoral enlargement in a number of endocrine organs (parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland) and it could be hormonally active or inactive. MEN1 is a significant cause of morbidity due to hormone secretion and mass effect. Read More

    Pregnancy outcomes in women with different doses of corticosteroid supplementation during labor and delivery.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Jul 19;43(7):1132-1138. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to report the pregnancy outcomes of women who received different doses of corticosteroid supplementation during labor and delivery.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 102 pregnant women who received oral corticosteroid therapy, delivered at Osaka University Hospital, and were administered intravenous corticosteroid supplementation during labor and delivery. From January 2008 to May 2012, 47 women were administered a high dose of corticosteroids (HD group). Read More

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Pregnancy.
    Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2017 05 14;43(2):215-226. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins Lupus Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, Suite 7500, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a strong female predilection. Pregnancy remains a commonly encountered but high-risk situation in this setting. Both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity are still significantly increased despite improvements in outcomes. Read More

    ENDOCRINOLOGY IN PREGNANCY: Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: case series and review of literature.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Aug 5;177(2):R49-R58. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Internal MedicineErasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy is extremely rare. Early recognition is crucial as antepartum diagnosis can largely decrease maternal and fetal mortality rates. As symptoms of pheochromocytoma are rather similar to those of other far more common causes of hypertension during pregnancy, timely diagnosis is a challenge. Read More

    Prenatal diagnosis of Bartter syndrome: amniotic fluid aldosterone.
    Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2017 Apr;75(2):204-208
    Service de biochimie-hormonologie, Hôpital Robert Debré, AP-HP, Paris, France, Service de biochimie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France.
    Bartter syndrome is a severe inherited tubulopathy characterized at birth by salt wasting, severe polyuria, dehydration, growth retardation and secondary hyperaldosteronism. Prenatally, the disease is usually discovered following onset of severe polyhydramnios. We studied amniotic fluid aldosterone concentration in cases of Bartter syndrome and in control groups. Read More

    Life-threatening endocrine emergencies during pregnancy - management and therapeutic features.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Jul 31;33(7):510-514. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    b Department of Medicine II , University of Lübeck , Lübeck , Germany.
    Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy may be life-threatening events for both mother and fetus. Besides pregnancy-associated endocrine disorders, several pre-existing endocrinopathies such as type-1 diabetes and Grave's disease or adrenal failure may acutely deteriorate during pregnancy. Since "classical" signs are often modified by pregnancy, early diagnosis and management may be hampered. Read More

    Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 03 21;3:CD004454. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand, 1142.
    Background: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed. Read More

    A successful case of pregnancy in a woman with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome treated with ketoconazole and metyrapone.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 May 26;33(5):349-352. Epub 2017 Feb 26.
    b Department of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease , Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute , Lodz , Poland.
    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease caused by a chronic excess of cortisol. Hypercortisolaemia may affect reproductive system leading to infertility in women. However, some of the patients remain fertile, although pregnancy is uncommon. Read More

    Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Read More

    The relationship between maternal corticosteroid use and orofacial clefts-a meta-analysis.
    Reprod Toxicol 2017 Apr 13;69:99-105. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Stomatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China; The Key Laboratory of Oral Clinical Medicine of Shandong Province, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China.
    The aim was to evaluate the relationship between maternal corticosteroid use during first trimester of pregnancy and risk of orofacial clefts (OC). The overall findings showed a certain association between maternal corticosteroid use and occurrence of OC, compared with non-users (OR=1.16 [95% CI: 1. Read More

    Sex-Specific Neurodevelopmental Programming by Placental Insulin Receptors on Stress Reactivity and Sensorimotor Gating.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 30;82(2):127-138. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk. Read More

    Safety of treatments for inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical practice guidelines of the Italian Group for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IG-IBD).
    Dig Liver Dis 2017 04 17;49(4):338-358. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    San Giuseppe Hospital, Gastroenterology, Milan, Italy.
    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic conditions of unknown etiology, showing a growing incidence and prevalence in several countries, including Italy. Although the etiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is unknown, due to the current knowledge regarding their pathogenesis, effective treatment strategies have been developed. Several guidelines are available regarding the efficacy and safety of available drug treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases. Read More

    [Tetraparesis revealing Conn adenoma in a pregnant woman].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 27;25:24. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université Mohammed V, Rabat, Maroc.
    We report the case of Conn adenoma revealed by tetraparesis in a 33-year old pregnant woman at the 16week of amenorrhea. The patient had a blood pressure of 147/87 mmHg, which was considered high-normal, hypokalemia at 1.1 mmol/l. Read More

    Case Report: Acute Flair of Ulcerative Colitis during Pregnancy Is Still a Major Problem.
    Dig Dis 2017 1;35(1-2):134-138. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Zvezdara, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Although severe flare of ulcerative colitis (UC) is uncommon, it significantly increases the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and other adverse fetal outcomes. It is critical to optimize aggressive medical treatment with both mother and fetal health. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with a severe flare of UC at the 16th gestational week. Read More

    Bell's facial nerve palsy in pregnancy: a clinical review.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 May 31;37(4):409-415. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    a Corneoplastic Unit , Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Foundation Trust , East Grinstead , UK.
    Bell's facial nerve palsy (FNP) during pregnancy and the puerperium can present significant challenges for the patient and clinician. Presentation and prognosis can be worse in this group of patients. This article reviews the background, manifestation and management options of FNP. Read More

    Combined Effects of Gestational Phthalate Exposure and Zinc Deficiency on Steroid Metabolism and Growth.
    Toxicol Sci 2017 04;156(2):469-479
    Departments of Nutrition and of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, California 95616.
    Disruption of steroid hormone signaling has been implicated independently in the developmental abnormalities resulting from maternal phthalate plasticizer exposure and developmental zinc deficiency. This study investigated if secondary zinc deficiency may result from dietary exposure to a low level of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) through gestation and if this could be associated with altered steroid metabolism. The interaction between marginal zinc nutrition and DEHP exposure to affect pregnancy outcome, zinc status, and steroid metabolism was also assessed. Read More

    Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans suggest increased vulnerability in females: a systematic review.
    J Dev Orig Health Dis 2017 Apr 20;8(2):244-255. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science,Queen's Medical Research Institute,University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh,UK.
    Fetal glucocorticoid overexposure is a key mechanism linking early development with later-life disease. In humans, low birth weight associates with increased fasting cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, and with cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline. As there are sex differences in these adult diseases, we hypothesized that there may be sex differences in programming of the HPA axis in response to prenatal stressors. Read More

    Neonatal neuroblastoma with adrenal primary and metastasis to the liver: A case report and a review of literature.
    Afr J Paediatr Surg 2016 Oct-Dec;13(4):217-222
    Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.
    We report the case of a 23-day-old neonate with neuroblastoma (NBL) in the right adrenal gland and widespread metastases to the liver. This raises the possibility of foetal NBL, which was missed during periodic ultrasonography done during the mother's pregnancy. We hope that this report would increase the awareness of physicians about foetal, congenital and neonatal NBL; and of sonographers about space-occupying lesions in the foetus. Read More

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