2,540 results match your criteria Adrenal Carcinoma Imaging

[A Case Report of a Patient with Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma who Received the Combination Etoposide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin, and Mitotane Therapy and Achieved Remission].

Hinyokika Kiyo 2022 May;68(5):139-143

The Department of Urology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

A 40-year-old Japanese female was referred to our institution with a high serum lactate dehydrogenase level. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large right adrenal tumor, 14 cm in size without distant metastases. The patient was clinically diagnosed with T2N0M0 adrenocortical carcinoma and underwent right adrenalectomy. Read More

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Adrenal Tumors in Young Adults: Case Reports and Literature Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 May 30;58(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-214 Gdansk, Poland.

The current high detection rate of adrenal tumors (4-10% of general population) is attributable to a widespread use of variety of imaging studies, especially a computed tomography. Most of them represent clinically silent and biologically indolent incidentalomas, but some adrenal tumors may pose a significant clinical challenge. Thus, in every patient with an adrenal tumor, a decision on further management is made after careful hormonal and radiological evaluation. Read More

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Massive adrenocortical carcinoma presenting as peripheral edema: a case report.

David A Goodkin

J Med Case Rep 2022 Jun 20;16(1):249. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

, Washington, USA.

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare, but potentially lethal, malignancy that is usually detected as an incidental finding on abdominal imaging studies or owing to hormonal complications. This report recounts an unusual presentation with leg edema due to compression of the inferior vena cava. The dearth of proven effective treatment is also addressed. Read More

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An Appraisal and Update of Fluorodeoxyglucose and Non-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET Tracers in Thyroid and Non-Thyroid Endocrine Neoplasms.

PET Clin 2022 Jul;17(3):343-367

Radiation Medicine Centre (B.A.R.C), Tata Memorial Centre Annexe, Parel, Mumbai, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Endocrine neoplasms and malignancies are a diverse group of tumors with varied clinical, histopathologic, and functional features. These tumors vary from sporadic to hereditary, isolated entities to multiple neoplastic syndromes, functioning and non functioning tumors, unifocal locally invasive, and advanced to multifocal tumors with disseminated distant metastases. The presence of various specific biomarkers and specific receptor targets serves as valuable tools for diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Read More

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Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Unknown Primary with Metastasis to the Testis: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2022 Jan-Apr;15(1):388-393. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare epithelial neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation. Few cases of primary testicular poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PD-NECs) have been reported, and secondary testicular neoplasms are rare. A 61-year-old man with a chief complaint of left testicular swelling was referred to our hospital. Read More

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Targeted Therapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Genomic-Based Search for Available and Emerging Options.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 May 31;14(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of General, Visceral, Tumor and Transplant Surgery, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937 Cologne, Germany.

In rare diseases such as adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), in silico analysis can help select promising therapy options. We screened all drugs approved by the FDA and those in current clinical studies to identify drugs that target genomic alterations, also known to be present in patients with ACC. We identified FDA-approved drugs in the My Cancer Genome and National Cancer Institute databases and identified genetic alterations that could predict drug response. Read More

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PET-CT in Clinical Adult Oncology: III. Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 May 27;14(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.

PET-CT is an advanced imaging modality with many oncologic applications, including staging, assessment of response to therapy, restaging and longitudinal surveillance for recurrence. The goal of this series of six review articles is to provide practical information to providers and imaging professionals regarding the best use of PET-CT for specific oncologic indications, and the potential pitfalls and nuances that characterize these applications. In the third of these review articles, key tumor-specific clinical information and representative PET-CT images are provided to outline the role that PET-CT plays in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Read More

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CXCR4-targeted theranostics in oncology.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Würzburg, Oberdürrbacher Str. 6, 97080, Wurzburg, Germany.

A growing body of literature reports on the upregulation of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in a variety of cancer entities, rendering this receptor as suitable target for molecular imaging and endoradiotherapy in a theranostic setting. For instance, the CXCR4-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) agent [ Ga]PentixaFor has been proven useful for a comprehensive assessment of the current status quo of solid tumors, including adrenocortical carcinoma or small-cell lung cancer. In addition, [ Ga]PentixaFor has also provided an excellent readout for hematological malignancies, such as multiple myeloma, marginal zone lymphoma, or mantle cell lymphoma. Read More

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Adrenal Incidentaloma Needs thorough Biochemical Evaluation - An Institutional Experience.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2022 Jan-Feb;26(1):73-78. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Endocrinology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Context: Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are seen in around 2% of apparently healthy individuals. These require careful evaluation for the hormone excess state and the presence of malignancy prior to intervention.

Aims: To study the clinical, biochemical, and imaging characteristics of the patients with AI and correlate the diagnosis with the histopathology findings in patients undergoing surgery. Read More

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Left Adrenal Gland Sampling Through Transesophageal Bronchoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-B FNA): A New Route and a New Challenge.

Cureus 2022 Apr 28;14(4):e24571. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Critical Care Medicine, Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (PGIMS), Rohtak, IND.

Metastasis to adrenal glands from primary pulmonary carcinoma is quite a common occurrence. In most cases, the diagnosis is made based on an imaging evaluation done because of chronic non-specific pulmonary symptoms. Further evaluation to determine the type of carcinoma is done using histopathological evaluation of the primary lung lesion. Read More

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Analysis of Spatial Heterogeneity of Responses in Metastatic Sites in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated with Nivolumab.

Tomography 2022 05 20;8(3):1363-1373. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre (RGCIRC), New Delhi 110085, India.

The purpose was to determine whether tumor response to CPI varies by organ and to characterize response patterns in a group of surgically treated metastatic RCC patients treated with Nivolumab. : A retrospective analysis was undertaken between January 2016 and March 2020 on patients receiving Nivolumab for metastatic RCC, following first-line therapy and having at least one baseline and two follow-up scans. A Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical variables, and a Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare continuous variables. Read More

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Adrenal carcinoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 May 30;16(1):229. Epub 2022 May 30.

National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka.

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy (0.5-2 cases/million/year) with a poor prognosis. Hypercortisolism, virilization, and compressive features are among the common presentations of adrenocortical carcinoma. Read More

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Ang-Tie Angiogenic Pathway Is Distinctively Expressed in Benign and Malignant Adrenocortical Tumors.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 17;23(10). Epub 2022 May 17.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (I3S), Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

The differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) relies on unspecific clinical, imaging and histological features, and, so far, no single molecular biomarker has proved to improve diagnostic accuracy. Similarly, prognostic factors have an insufficient capacity to predict the heterogeneity of ACC clinical outcomes, which consequently lead to inadequate treatment strategies. Angiogenesis is a biological process regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including VEGF and the Ang-Tie pathway. Read More

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Iliac vein deep vein thrombosis as an atypical presentation of an adrenocortical carcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 17;15(5). Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Histopathology, Royal Oldham Hospital, Oldham, UK.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare form of cancer with an annual incidence of two per million. The risk of venous thromboembolism increases sevenfold in patients with cancer. This case report describes an iliac vein deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as an atypical presentation of an ACC and highlights the value of further imaging investigation in patients with unprovoked DVTs. Read More

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Inter-individual comparison of diagnostic accuracy of adrenal washout CT compared to chemical shift MRI plus the T2-weighted (T2W) adrenal MRI calculator in indeterminate adrenal masses: a retrospective non-inferiority study.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2022 Jul 10;47(7):2453-2461. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, 1053 Carling Avenue, C1 Radiology, Ottawa, ON, K1Y 4E9, Canada.

Objective: To compare diagnostic accuracy of washout (WO)-CT to chemical shift (CS)-MRI + T2W adrenal MRI Calculator (T2W-Calculator) to diagnose adrenal adenoma in indeterminate adrenal masses.

Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional, non-inferiority study evaluated 40 consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses; each with WO-CT and MRI. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated in mixed order: pre-contrast attenuation (Hounsfield Units, HU) and absolute WO ([Peak. Read More

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Epstein-Barr virus-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma type methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders presenting in the adrenal gland.

IJU Case Rep 2022 May 8;5(3):172-174. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Urology Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center Amagasaki-shi Hyogo Japan.

Introduction: Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders appear during treatment with methotrexate as an immunosuppressive drug. However, the mechanism and frequency are still unknown, and the treatment is undefined.

Case Presentation: A 76-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in the right adrenal region. Read More

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Diagnostic dilemmas: a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of adrenal incidentaloma pathology based on radiographic size.

BMC Urol 2022 Apr 30;22(1):73. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Urology, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV, 26505, USA.

Introduction/background: Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are masses > 1 cm found incidentally during radiographic imaging. They are present in up to 4.4% of patients undergoing CT scan, and incidence is increasing with usage and sensitivity of cross-sectional imaging. Read More

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Isolated adrenal metastasis for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

AME Case Rep 2022 25;6:18. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Surgery, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA.

Background: We report one of the few cases in the United States of an isolated contralateral adrenal gland metastasis found 2 years after resection of a primary right hepatic lobe hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Case Description: The patient is a 60-year-old male with chronic hepatitis B and C who was found on imaging to have a 5.5 cm mass in segment 7 of the liver. Read More

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Characterization of tumor thrombus in renal cell carcinoma with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT).

Urol Oncol 2022 06 22;40(6):276.e1-276.e9. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Urology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Department of Urology, Redcliffe Hospital, Queensland, Australia; Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Venous tumor thrombus (TT) occurs as part of the natural history of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) local progression in a small minority of cases. MRI is currently the most accurate imaging modality for determining TT extent. PSMA PET/CT may improve RCC staging and IVC TT characterization. Read More

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EDP-mitotane in children: reassuring evidence of reversible side-effects and neurotoxicity.

Discov Oncol 2022 Apr 18;13(1):25. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Máxima MC, Ds. Th. Fliedernerstraat 1, Eindhoven/Veldhoven, 5631 BM , The Netherlands.

Adrenocortical carcinoma affects one in 5 million children each year. Since prognosis for children older than 4 years is limited, clinicians often choose aggressive treatment with etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin (EDP) and mitotane after resection. However, little is known about the impact of EDP-mitotane in children. Read More

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Imaging Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Carcinoma With 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2022 Apr 15. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, and pentixafor is considered to be a potent ligand for the CXCR4 receptor. Recently, 68Ga-pentixafor has been reported as a potential PET imaging agent for CXCR4-positive tumors and inflammatory lesions, including adrenocortical lesions. We report a case of primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical carcinoma with intense 68Ga-pentixafor activity on PET/CT. Read More

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Recurrent Acromegaly in a Patient With a Mutation.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2022 Mar-Apr;8(2):85-88. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Neuroendocrine Unit and Neuroendocrine and Pituitary Tumor Clinical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background/objective: is a cell-cycle checkpoint kinase and is part of the ATM-CHEK2-p53 cascade, which is protective against carcinogenesis. We describe a germline CHEK2 mutation in a patient with acromegaly and other tumors.

Case Report: We present a woman with a germline 110delC mutation previously diagnosed with fibroadenoma of the breast and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Read More

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November 2021

Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Jun;107(7):e2662-e2670

ENETS Center of Excellence for Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Tumors, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The key for molecular imaging is the use of a radiotracer with a radioactive and a functional component. While the functional component targets a specific feature of the tumor, the radioactive component makes the target visible. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are a diverse group of rare tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells found mainly in the gastroenteropancreatic system, lung, thyroid, and adrenal glands. Read More

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Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt via the Right Adrenal Vein in an Asymptomatic Cirrhotic Patient.

Curr Med Imaging 2022 Apr 4. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Radiology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Turkey.

Purpose: Intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSSs) draining to the inferior vena cava (IVC) via the right adrenal vein have been reported very rare and all the reported patients presented with hepatic encephalopathy. Here, we present a patient with intrahepatic PSS via the right adrenal vein diagnosed incidentally in the absence of encephalopathy.

Case Presentation: suspecting nodule on the ultrasound was examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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Lung Cancer Metastasis to the Pituitary Gland.

Cureus 2022 Feb 25;14(2):e22608. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Internal Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, USA.

Common sites of lung cancer metastasis include the bone, brain, liver, and adrenal gland. Cancer metastasis to the pituitary gland or sellar region is a rare finding. Here, we present a case of pituitary gland metastasis from underlying lung cancer in a patient presenting with a predominance of pituitary symptoms over respiratory symptoms. Read More

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February 2022

Isolated recurrence of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma to adrenal gland.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2022 Apr 14;40:100954. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Women's Health, Bronx, NY, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this report was to present the diagnosis and management of an unusual case of a woman with ovarian carcinoma who developed an isolated recurrence to the adrenal gland six years after initial diagnosis.

Case: A 79-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IVa high-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary with malignant pleural effusion in January 2014. She received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel and underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and optimal tumor debulking in May 2014. Read More

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Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Hypophysitis and Patterns of Loss of Pituitary Function.

Front Oncol 2022 8;12:836859. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Medicine (Medical Oncology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are clinically active across multiple tumor types but the associated immune-related adverse events (irAEs) lead to treatment delays or discontinuation and negatively impact quality-of-life. Hypophysitis is often a permanent irAE that may affect multiple pituitary hormonal axes. Here we comprehensively characterize our institution's clinical experience with ICI-induced hypophysitis and the associated patterns of pituitary function loss. Read More

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Approach to androgen excess in women: Clinical and biochemical insights.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2022 Mar 29. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.

Androgen excess in women typically presents clinically with hirsutism, acne or androgenic alopecia. In the vast majority of cases, the underlying aetiology is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common chronic condition that affects up to 10% of all women. Identification of women with non-PCOS pathology within large cohorts of patients presenting with androgen excess represents a diagnostic challenge for the endocrinologist, and rare pathology including nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, severe insulin resistance syndromes, Cushing's disease or androgen-secreting tumours of the ovary or adrenal gland may be missed in the absence of a pragmatic screening approach. Read More

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Integration of molecular imaging in the personalized approach of patients with adrenal masses.

Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2022 Jun 28;66(2):104-115. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Adrenal masses are a frequent finding in clinical practice. Many of them are incidentally discovered with a prevalence of 4% in patients undergoing abdominal anatomic imaging and require a differential diagnosis. Biochemical tests, evaluating hormonal production of both adrenal cortex and medulla (in particular, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and catecholamines), have a primary importance in distinguishing functional or non-functional lesions. Read More

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Right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2022 Jun 17;103(6):327-328. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Université Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Paris 75006, France; Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris 75014, France.

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