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    7665 results match your criteria Adrenal Adenoma

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    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Oct;78 Suppl 1:S11-S20
    Service d'endocrinologie, hôpital Haut-Lévèque, avenue Magellan, CHU de Bordeaux, 33600 Pessac, France.
    The 2017 Endocrine Society annual meeting included several communications and debates on the conservative adrenal surgery in bilateral hereditary pheochromocytomas (BHP), bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (BAMH) and primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA). The general principle is to preserve a part of the adrenal cortex to prevent the occurrence of a definitive adrenal insufficiency. In BHP, cortical sparing surgery allows more than 50% of patients to maintain normal corticotropic function at 10 years with a low recurrence rate (~ 10%). Read More

    Three cases of adrenocortical tumors mistaken for hepatocellular carcinomas/diagnostic pitfalls and differential diagnosis.
    Ann Diagn Pathol 2017 Dec 29;31:9-13. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Pathology, Pusan National University Hospital and Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea; BioMedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in other parenchyma are extremely rare, with few cases reported and because of the rarity of these tumors, they occasionally cause problems during diagnosis. Adrenal cortical neoplasms in liver parenchyma can be present in 3 forms, including direct invasion or adhesion to liver parenchyma, tumors arising in adrenohepatic fusion tissue or in ectopic adrenal gland tissue. We report 3 cases of adrenal cortical tumors that were misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma in the preoperative state. Read More

    A case report of hyponatremia after surgery for Conn's adenoma.
    J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2017 Oct-Dec;18(4):1470320317740240
    1 Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Italy.
    Primary aldosteronism (PA), also known as Conn's syndrome, is a frequent cause of secondary hypertension. If PA is due to a documented unilateral adrenal adenoma, adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice. Endocrine Society guidelines suggest monitoring potassium after adrenalectomy, while there is no mention of sodium disorders after surgery. Read More

    [Clinical value of tumor size in the evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Nov;97(42):3324-3328
    Department of Endocrinology, PLA Lanzhou General Hospital, Lanzhou 730030, China.
    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of tumor size in the evaluation of endocrinological and histological natures regarding adrenal incidentaloma (AI) patients. Methods: A total of 1 941 AI patients who were hospitalized in Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1997 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographics of patients, imaging features, functional status and histological results were analyzed. Read More

    [Role of adrenal vein sampling in differential diagnosis of primary aldosteronism subtypes].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Nov;97(42):3291-3296
    Department of Endocrinology, Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Objective: To investigate the role of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in identifying the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). Methods: AVS was performed in 50 patients who were confirmed as PA between September 2010 and September 2016 in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital. Clinical, biochemical and follow-up data were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

    Cardiovascular events and target organ damage in primary aldosteronism compared with essential hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Division of Internal Medicine and Hypertension Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: There is conflicting evidence, relying on heterogeneous studies, as to whether aldosterone excess is responsible for an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications in patients with primary aldosteronism. We aimed to assess the association between primary aldosteronism and adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, target organ damage, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, compared with the association of essential hypertension and these cardiovascular and end organ events, by integrating results of previous studies.

    Methods: We did a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective observational studies that compared patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension, to analyse the association between primary aldosteronism and stroke, coronary artery disease (as co-primary endpoints), atrial fibrillation and heart failure, target organ damage, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes (as secondary endpoints). Read More

    Calneuron 1 Increased Ca(2+) in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Aldosterone Production in Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma.
    Hypertension 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    From the Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan (K.K., K.O., H.O., K.I., Y.Y., M.Y., N.H.); Division of Endocrinology, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS (C.E.G.-S., E.P.G.-S.); and University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.E.G.-S., E.P.G.-S.).
    Aldosterone production is initiated by angiotensin II stimulation and activation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. In aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) cells, the activation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is independent of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. The purpose of our study was to clarify molecular mechanisms of aldosterone production related to Ca(2+) signaling. Read More

    Quality of Life in Primary Aldosteronism: a Comparative Effectiveness Study of Adrenalectomy and Medical Treatment.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine.
    Context: In primary aldosteronism (PA) two subtypes are distinguished: aldosterone-producing adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. In general these are treated by adrenalectomy and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists respectively.

    Objective: To compare the effects of surgical treatment and medical treatment on quality of life (QoL). Read More

    Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.
    Endocrine 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

    Design: Retrospective study.

    Participants: The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Read More

    Primary Hyperaldosteronism Due to Adrenocortical Adenoma: a Case Report.
    Acta Med Indones 2017 Jul;49(3):249-254
    Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University - Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang, Indonesia.
    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an adrenal abnormality in which there is some degree of autonomy of aldosterone secretion. We report a case of thirty three years old Javanese female presented with uncontrolled hypertension, muscular weakness, cramps  and progressing shortness of breath during working for 6 years. She had history of hypertension since age 20. Read More

    Dysregulation of Aldosterone Secretion in Mast Cell-Deficient Mice.
    Hypertension 2017 Dec 30;70(6):1256-1263. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    From the Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, INSERM U1239, Rouen, France (H.-G.B., J.W., S.R., C.D., I.B., H.L., E.L.); Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Biomedical Research, Rouen University Hospital, France (J.W.); Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, Rouen, France (A.A.); and Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University Hospital of Rouen, France (H.L.).
    Resident adrenal mast cells have been shown to activate aldosterone secretion in rat and man. Especially, mast cell proliferation has been observed in adrenal tissues from patients with aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma. In the present study, we show that the activity of adrenal mast cells is stimulated by low-sodium diet and correlates with aldosterone synthesis in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Read More

    High perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant nonfunctional adrenal tumors.
    J Surg Res 2017 Nov 6;219:259-265. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Division of Endocrine Surgery, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
    Background: Both functional (hormone hypersecreting) and nonfunctional (nonhypersecreting) adrenal tumors can have benign or malignant pathology. This study compares perioperative in-hospital outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with benign versus malignant nonfunctional primary adrenal tumors.

    Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2006-2011) to identify patients who underwent unilateral open or laparoscopic adrenalectomy for nonfunctional primary adrenal tumors. Read More

    Mouse models of primary aldosteronism: from physiology to pathophysiology.
    Endocrinology 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common form of endocrine hypertension that is characterized by the excessive production of aldosterone relative to suppressed plasma renin levels. PA is usually caused by either a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Somatic mutations have been identified in several genes that encode ion pumps and channels that may explain the aldosterone excess in over half of aldosterone-producing adenomas, whereas the pathophysiology of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia is largely unknown. Read More

    Primary Aldosteronism: The Next Five Years.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Hudson Institute of Medical Research and Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
    The management of primary aldosteronism is widely varied within various published guidelines, with very little in the way of data supporting the choice of one variation over others. Current estimates of prevalence are probably accurate for aldosterone producing adenoma, but fall very short of that for bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Discovery at the level of basic science has proven illuminating over the past 6 years in terms of unilateral disease and both somatic and germline mutations, with much less focus on the much more common bilateral disease; Attempts at harmonization have begun - for example, criteria for complete/partial/absent cure after adrenalectomy for unilateral disease; again focus on bilateral disease is muted. Read More

    An exceedingly rare adrenal collision tumor: adrenal adenoma-metastatic breast cancer-myelolipoma.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2017 Oct 9;7(4):241-244. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Department of Medicine, Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA.
    Adrenal collision tumors (ACTs), in which distinct tumors coexist without histological intermingling in the same adrenal gland, are rare and their actual prevalence is unknown. ACTs commonly consist of adrenal cortical adenoma, myelolipoma, or metastatic malignant tumor. We report a 58-year-old woman with a past history of breast cancer, who presented with a 1 month history of fevers, chills, and abdominal fullness. Read More

    Comparison of DWIBS/T2 image fusion and PET/CT for the diagnosis of cancer in the abdominal cavity.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Oct 22;14(4):3754-3760. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido, Chiba 284-0003, Japan.
    Fusion images of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression and T2-weighted image (DWIBS/T2) demonstrate a strong signal for malignancies, with a high contrast against the surrounding tissues, and enable anatomical analysis. In the present study, DWIBS/T2 was compared with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for diagnosing cancer in the abdomen. Patient records, including imaging results of examination conducted between November 2012 and May 2014, were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

    On the effect of hyperaldosteronism-inducing mutations in Na/K pumps.
    J Gen Physiol 2017 Nov 13;149(11):1009-1028. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Cell Physiology and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Membrane Protein Research, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX
    Primary aldosteronism, a condition in which too much aldosterone is produced and that leads to hypertension, is often initiated by an aldosterone-producing adenoma within the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Somatic mutations of ATP1A1, encoding the Na/K pump α1 subunit, have been found in these adenomas. It has been proposed that a passive inward current transported by several of these mutant pumps is a "gain-of-function" activity that produces membrane depolarization and concomitant increases in aldosterone production. Read More

    Pheochromocytoma as a frequent false-positive in adrenal washout CT: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Eur Radiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744, Korea.
    Objective: To evaluate the proportion of pheochromocytomas meeting the criteria for adenoma on adrenal washout CT and the diagnostic performance of adrenal washout CT for differentiating adenoma from pheochromocytoma.

    Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to 28 March 2017. We included studies that used adrenal washout CT for characterisation of pheochromocytomas. Read More

    Chromogranin A as a Biochemical Marker for Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Center Experience at Royal Hospital, Oman.
    Oman Med J 2017 Sep;32(5):365-370
    Department of Chemical Pathology, Directorate of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman.
    Objectives: To evaluate the significance of serum chromogranin A (CgA) status in patients with and without different neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) by conducting a retrospective assessment of the diagnostic utility and limitations of CgA as a biomarker for NETs in a tertiary care hospital in Oman.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of CgA requests referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman over a 24-month period (April 2012 to March 2014). During this time, 302 CgA tests for 270 patients (119 males and 151 females; age range 11-86 years and mean±standard deviation (SD) 44. Read More

    Imaging of Nonmalignant Adrenal Lesions in Children.
    Radiographics 2017 Oct;37(6):1648-1664
    From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131-MIR, St Louis, MO 63110.
    The adrenal glands in children can be affected by a variety of benign lesions. The diagnosis of adrenal lesions can be challenging, but assessment of morphologic changes in correlation with the clinical presentation can lead to an accurate diagnosis. These lesions can be classified by their cause: congenital (eg, discoid adrenal gland, horseshoe adrenal gland, and epithelial cysts), vascular and/or traumatic (eg, adrenal hemorrhage), infectious (eg, granulomatous diseases), enzyme deficiency disorders (eg, congenital adrenal hyperplasia [CAH] and Wolman disease), benign neoplasms (eg, pheochromocytomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal adenomas, and myelolipomas), and adrenal mass mimics (eg, extralobar sequestration and extramedullary hematopoiesis). Read More

    A Novel Method: Super-selective Adrenal Venous Sampling.
    J Vis Exp 2017 Sep 15(127). Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Endocrinology & Diabetes Center, Yokohama Rosai Hospital;
    Primary aldosteronism (PA) and subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) are conditions in which the adrenal glands autonomously produce excessive amounts of aldosterone and cortisol, respectively. The conventional adrenal venous sampling (cAVS) method collects blood samples from both adrenal central veins and is useful for identifying the laterality of excess hormone production in a unilateral lesion(s), as documented in PA cases. In cAVS, plasma cortisol concentrations (PCCs) are used to normalize plasma aldosterone concentrations (PACs). Read More

    Diagnosis of Adrenocortical Tumors by Reticulin Algorithm.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep-Oct;21(5):734-737
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Aims: To apply reticulin algorithm (RA) to the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors on adrenalectomy specimens and compare its efficacy to the modified Weiss criteria or Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia (LWB) criteria for oncocytic variant.

    Materials And Methods: Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) diagnosed on resected specimens including the variants during January 2010-June 2016 were retrieved from the pathology records. The demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. Read More

    Luteinizing Hormone and GATA4 Action in the Adrenocortical Tumorigenesis of Gonadectomized Female Mice.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 4;43(3):1064-1076. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Background/aims: Physiological role of luteinizing hormone (LH) and its receptor (LHCGR) in adrenal remains unknown. In inhibin-α/Simian Virus 40 T antigen (SV40Tag) (inhα/Tag) mice, gonadectomy-induced (OVX) elevated LH triggers the growth of transcription factor GATA4 (GATA4)-positive adrenocortical tumors in a hyperplasia-adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence.

    Methods: We investigated the role of LHCGR in tumor induction, by crossbreeding inhα/Tag with Lhcgr knockout (LuRKO) mice. Read More

    Genetic causes of functional adrenocortical adenomas.
    Endocr Rev 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    INSERM, UMRS_970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France.
    Aldosterone and cortisol, the main mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid hormones in humans, are produced in the adrenal cortex, which is composed of three concentric zone with specific functional characteristics. Adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) may lead to the autonomous secretion of aldosterone responsible for primary aldosteronism, the most frequent form of secondary arterial hypertension. In the case of cortisol production, ACA lead to overt or subclinical Cushing syndrome. Read More

    The subtyping of primary aldosteronism by adrenal vein sampling: sequential blood sampling causes factitious lateralization.
    J Hypertens 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    aDepartment of Medicine, DIMED, Clinica dell'Ipertensione Arteriosa bDepartment of Medicine, DIMED, Institute of Radiology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy *Current address for G.R. is Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Background: The pulsatile secretion of adrenocortical hormones and a stress reaction occurring when starting adrenal vein sampling (AVS) can affect the selectivity and also the assessment of lateralization when sequential blood sampling is used. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a simulated sequential blood sampling could decrease the diagnostic accuracy of lateralization index for identification of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), as compared with bilaterally simultaneous AVS.

    Methods And Results: In 138 consecutive patients who underwent subtyping of primary aldosteronism, we compared the results obtained simultaneously bilaterally when starting AVS (t-15) and 15 min after (t0), with those gained with a simulated sequential right-to-left AVS technique (R ⇒ L) created by combining hormonal values obtained at t-15 and at t0. Read More

    CTNNB1 Mutation in Aldosterone Producing Adenoma.
    Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2017 Sep;32(3):332-338
    TAIPAI (Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism investigator), Taipei, Taiwan.
    Discoveries of somatic mutations permit the recognition of subtypes of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) with distinct clinical presentations and pathological features. Catenin β1 (CTNNB1) mutation in APAs has been recently described and discussed in the literature. However, significant knowledge gaps still remain regarding the prevalence, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and outcomes in APA patients harboring CTNNB1 mutations. Read More

    Daily salivary cortisol and cortisone rhythm in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
    Endocrine 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Medicine DIMED, Endocrinology Unit, University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Background And Aim: Impaired cortisol rhythm is a characteristic feature of Cushing's Syndrome, nevertheless late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is not suitable to detect subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI). We studied daily salivary cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) rhythm in patients with AI.

    Materials And Methods: Six saliva samples were collected from awakening to night in 106 patients with AI and 40 controls. Read More

    Adrenal GIPR expression and chromosome 19q13 microduplications in GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
    JCI Insight 2017 Sep 21;2(18). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Inserm U1185, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
    GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome is caused by ectopic expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas or in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias. Molecular mechanisms leading to ectopic GIPR expression in adrenal tissue are not known. Here we performed molecular analyses on adrenocortical adenomas and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasias obtained from 14 patients with GIP-dependent adrenal Cushing's syndrome and one patient with GIP-dependent aldosteronism. Read More

    The Role of Cortisol/ACTH Ratio for Screening of Subclinical Hypercortisolism in Patients with Adrenal Incidentalomas.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Introduction The cortisol/ACTH ratio was supposed to be helpful in the screening of subclinical hypercortisolism (SHC) in the published literatures. This study assessed the cortisol/ACTH ratio in patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI) confirmed to have SHC and investigated its role for screening SCS in patients with AI. Methods This descriptive retrospective study included 183 patients with AIs [45 with SHC and 138 with non-functional adenoma (NFA)]. Read More

    Favorable surgical outcomes of aldosterone-producing adenoma based on lateralization by CT imaging and hypokalemia: a non-AVS-based strategy.
    Int Urol Nephrol 2017 Dec 16;49(12):2151-2156. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Endocrinology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan Er Road, 58th, Guangzhou, 510080, China.
    Purpose: To test the efficacy of a strategy based on CT imaging and clinical characteristics on lateralizing origin of excess aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism.

    Patients And Methods: Consecutive patients with diagnosed primary hyperaldosteronism from June 2006 to July 2012 in our center underwent adrenal surgeries without pre-operational adrenal venous sampling (AVS) if all the three criteria were met: (1) round- or oval-shaped occupational lesion of low density after contrast enhancement with diameter >1 cm on CT scan was located in one adrenal gland; (2) unequivocally normal contralateral adrenal gland; (3) serum potassium level lower than 3.5 mmol/L. Read More

    Impact of etiology, age and gender on onset and severity of hyponatremia in patients with hypopituitarism: retrospective analysis in a specialised endocrine unit.
    Endocrine 2017 Nov 14;58(2):312-319. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Neuroendocrinology, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Background: Hyponatremia can unmask hypopituitarism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. This is important, since the need to screen for steroid deficiency, in patients with hyponatremia is often neglected.

    Patients And Methods: In a retrospective study, twenty-five patients (13f/12m, age 58. Read More

    A 13-Steroid Serum Panel Based on LC-MS/MS: Use in Detection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Viapath), King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, with an annual incidence of 1 or 2 cases per million. Biochemical diagnosis is challenging because up to two-thirds of the carcinomas are biochemically silent, resulting from de facto enzyme deficiencies in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Urine steroid profiling by GC-MS is an effective diagnostic test for ACC because of its capacity to detect and quantify the increased metabolites of steroid pathway synthetic intermediates. Read More

    Cortisol overproduction results from DNA methylation of CYP11B1 in hypercortisolemia.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 11;7(1):11205. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.
    Adrenocortical hormone excess, due to primary aldosteronism (PA) or hypercortisolemia, causes hypertension and cardiovascular complications. In PA, hypomethylation of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is associated with aldosterone overproduction. However, in hypercortisolemia, the role of DNA methylation of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which catalyzes cortisol biosynthesis and is highly homologous to CYP11B2, is unclear. Read More

    Adrenal venous sampling for primary aldosteronism: laboratory medicine best practice.
    J Clin Pathol 2017 Nov 11;70(11):911-916. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension and is critical to identify because when caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or another unilateral form, it is potentially curable, and even when caused by bilateral disease, antihypertensives more specific to PA treatment can be employed (ie, aldosterone antagonists). Identification of unilateral forms is not generally accomplished with imaging because APAs may be small and elude detection, and coincidental identification of a non-functioning incidentaloma contralateral to an APA may lead to removal of an incorrect gland. For this reason, the method of choice for identifying unilateral forms of PA is selective adrenal venous sampling (AVS) followed by aldosterone and cortisol analysis on collected samples. Read More

    Is there a role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in adrenocortical tumors?
    Endocrine 2017 Nov 8;58(2):276-288. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Endocrinology Section, Federal Hospital of Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Purpose: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological dynamic process by which epithelial cells lose their epithelial phenotype and acquire mesenchymal invasive and migratory characteristics. This has been postulated as an essential step during cancer progression and metastasis. Although this is well described in other tumors, the role of EMT in adrenocortical tumors (ACT) has yet to be addressed. Read More

    Preliminary studies on the differential expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor in adrenal adenomas.
    Endokrynol Pol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Introduction: The ACTH receptor (ACTHR) is primarily expressed in the adrenal cortex. Previous studies focused on the regulatory function of ACTHR in glucocorticoid secretion, but research on adrenal tumours is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate ACTHR expression in common adrenal adenomas and investigate its influence on adrenal tumorigenesis using adrenocortical H295R cells. Read More

    A Novel PRKAR1A Mutation Identified in a Patient with Isolated Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.
    Case Rep Oncol 2017 May-Aug;10(2):769-776. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome, especially the isolated form without Carney complex, associated with germline mutations in PRKAR1A, the protein kinase A regulatory subunit type 1 alpha gene. We report a 31-year-old female who presented with secondary amenorrhea, cushingoid appearance, and hypertension without Carney complex. Biochemical laboratory examinations confirmed the ACTH-independent adrenal Cushing syndrome with negative Liddle test. Read More

    Biventricular Cardiac Hypertrophy in a Patient with Primary Aldosteronism and Atrial Septal Defect.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Sep 7;18:963-971. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Subdivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Medical Faculty of Diponegoro University and Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia.
    BACKGROUND Primary aldosteronism can be caused by adrenocortical adenoma and is usually associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. Biventricular cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in the presence of a pre-existing atrial septal defect (ASD) are a rare association of primary aldosteronism. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old woman with resistant hypertension and refractory hypokalemia presented with signs and symptoms of heart failure. Read More

    A case of Adrenocoricotrophic hormone -independent bilateral adrenocortical macronodular hyperplasia concomitant with primary aldosteronism.
    BMC Surg 2017 Sep 6;17(1):97. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.
    Background: Adrenocoricotrophic hormone (ACTH) - independent bilateral adrenocortical macronodular hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, and is characterized by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. However, Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a relatively common adrenal disease.

    Case Presentation: A 56-year-old man who has been treated hypertension and diabetes mellitus was detected low plasma potassium level with an elevated level of plasma aldosterone concentration and bilateral adrenal swelling. Read More

    Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma.
    Am J Surg Pathol 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    *Department of Pathology, University Health Network †Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto ‡Endocrine Oncology Site Group, The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada §Department of Pathology, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize ∥Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey.
    The diagnosis of low-grade adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) confined to the adrenal gland can be challenging. Although there are diagnostic and prognostic molecular tests for ACC, they remain largely unutilized. We examined the diagnostic and prognostic value of altered reticulin framework and the immunoprofile of biomarkers including IGF-2, proteins involved in cell proliferation and mitotic spindle regulation (Ki67, p53, BUB1B, HURP, NEK2), DNA damage repair (PBK, γ-H2AX), telomere regulation (DAX, ATRX), wnt-signaling pathway (beta-catenin) and PI3K signaling pathway (PTEN, phospho-mTOR) in a tissue microarray of 50 adenomas and 43 carcinomas that were characterized for angioinvasion as defined by strict criteria, Weiss score, and mitotic rate-based tumor grade. Read More

    Unusual presentations of Carney Complex in patient with a novel PRKAR1A mutation.
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2017 Aug 5;38(4):248-254. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara, Turkey.
    Carney Complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by skin tumors and pigmented lesions, myxomas, and various endocrine tumors. The aim of this case report was to describe a case of CNC with a novel PRKAR1A mutation. A man aged 46 years with a medical history of surgery for cardiac myxomas at the age of 39 was admitted to our hospital because of four newly-developed heart masses. Read More

    Aberrant G protein-receptor expression is associated with DNA methylation in aldosterone-producing adenoma.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    This study aimed to evaluate the methylation levels of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) related genes and the effects of methylation on mRNA expression levels in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). DNA methylation array and transcriptome analysis were applied in non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma (NFA) and APA. We investigated 192 GPCR-related genes and found hypo-methylation in the promoter region of 66 of these genes in APA. Read More

    Regulation of Corticosteroidogenic Genes by MicroRNAs.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 9;2017:2021903. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    The loss of normal regulation of corticosteroid secretion is important in the development of cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that microRNAs regulate the terminal stages of corticosteroid biosynthesis. Here, we assess microRNA regulation across the whole corticosteroid pathway. Read More

    Update in diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism.
    Clin Chem Lab Med 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
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    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a group of disorders in which aldosterone is excessively produced. These disorders can lead to hypertension, hypokalemia, hypervolemia and metabolic alkalosis. The prevalence of PA ranges from 5% to 12% around the globe, and the most common causes are adrenal adenoma and adrenal hyperplasia. Read More

    Acute hypopituitarism associated with periorbital swelling and cardiac dysfunction in a patient with pituitary tumor apoplexy: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Aug 24;11(1):235. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Uonuma Institute of Community Medicine, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan.
    Background: Pituitary tumor apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome caused by acute hemorrhage or infarction in a preexisting pituitary adenoma. It typically manifests as an acute episode of headache, visual disturbance, mental status changes, cranial nerve palsy, and endocrine pituitary dysfunction. However, not all patients present with classical symptoms, so it is pertinent to appreciate the clinical spectrum of pituitary tumor apoplexy presentation. Read More

    Cofilin is a cAMP effector in mediating actin cytoskeleton reorganization and steroidogenesis in mouse and human adrenocortical tumor cells.
    Cancer Lett 2017 Oct 5;406:54-63. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Endocrine Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    cAMP pathway plays a major role in the pathogenesis of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPA). cAMP-induced steroidogenesis is preceded by actin cytoskeleton reorganization, a process regulated by cofilin activity. In this study we investigated cofilin role in mediating cAMP effects on cell morphology and steroidogenesis in adrenocortical tumor cells. Read More

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