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    111 results match your criteria Adolescent medicine clinics[Journal]

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    Asperger's syndrome.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):771-88; abstract xiii
    Yale Child Study Center, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Asperger's syndrome is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social impairments and rigid and repetitive interests or behaviors paired with relatively preserved cognitive and verbal facilities. This article describes the clinical manifestation of the disorder and guidelines for diagnostic assessment and intervention. Existing research is reviewed within the areas of epidemiology, medical/neurobiologic factors, genetics, and outcome, and future directions for research are recommended. Read More

    Prescription drug misuse: a growing national problem.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):751-69; abstract xiii
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Misuse of prescription drugs has been a growing problem in the United States affecting all age groups, including adolescents. Recent years have produced many advances in medical management of chronic pain, depression and anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Many of the medications used to treat these disorders, such as the opioids, benzodiazepines, and psychostimulants, also have potential for abuse and dependence. Read More

    Abuse of proprietary (over-the-counter) drugs.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):733-50; abstract xiii
    Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Medicine, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.
    A predominantly overlooked type of substance abuse by adolescents and young adults in the United States and around the world is the abuse of medications and other products sold without a prescription, or over-the-counter (OTC), to the public. OTC substance abuse causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there are concerns that some types of OTC substance abuse are increasing. Regular office screening for inhalant abuse and other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be part of standard pediatric care. Read More

    Performance-enhancing drug use in young athletes.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):719-31; abstract xii
    University of Florida Pediatric Program, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
    This article explores the issue of performance-enhancing drug use in adolescent athletes. The article describes current substances that are being used by adolescent athletes, explains their positive and negative effects, examines factors contributing to their increased use in adolescent athletes, and discusses approaches to educating adolescents about alternate means of enhancing their athletic performance. It is hoped that this information will be useful toward encouraging young athletes to pursue, safe, healthy, and natural means of performance enhancement, such as practice and strength training, to improve sports performance in a safe, effective manner. Read More

    Tobacco use cessation for adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):697-717; abstract xii
    Department of Adolescent Medicine, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA.
    Adolescent tobacco users are unique. Thus far, effective interventions for adult tobacco users have been disappointing when applied to adolescents. This article reviews current evidence regarding adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions, explores under-researched areas in tobacco use cessation for adolescents, and offers assistance with treating adolescent tobacco users across the spectrum of use. Read More

    Expedited partner therapy for adolescents diagnosed with gonorrhea or chlamydia: a review and commentary.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):687-95; abstract xii
    Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
    Management of sex partners is a cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection control in the United States. Face-to-face investigation and notification of exposure of sex partners by public health professionals seems to be the most effective method of ensuring appropriate partner management. However, resources rarely permit such intensive partner management for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection. Read More

    Vaginal microbicides.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):673-85; abstract xi
    Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Tufts University School of Medicine, The Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
    This article reviews the current status of microbicide development and challenges faced in developing safe and effective compounds. The ever growing HIV pandemic, lack of effective vaccines against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, concern about the vulnerability of women, and difficulty in condom negotiation are factors that drive the development of topical microbicides as a prophylactic method for women. The ideal microbicide needs to be safe and highly effective and not increase viral resistance or cause disruption of host defenses. Read More

    Advances in hormonal contraception.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):653-71; abstract xi
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
    This article presents a review of advances made in hormonal contraception over the past 15 years. It looks at the different routes of administration that have been developed, at newer formulations of conventional methods, and at novel contraceptive agents that are in the process of approval. The article provides a short description of each of these contraceptive methods, information about compliance, side effects, and efficacy, and an update on that particular method. Read More

    Bone health in adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):639-52; abstract xi
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Adolescence is a crucial period for the accrual of bone density and achievement of peak bone mass. Unique situations can arise during adolescence that place an adolescent at risk for bone loss or the failure to attain appropriate bone mass. Clinicians also are challenged by the limitations of currently available measurement tools to evaluate skeletal status in young patients. Read More

    Current concepts in acne management.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):613-37; abstract x-xi
    Section of Dermatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal phenomenon among adolescents in the western world and continues to remain problematic for a significant proportion of adults. During adolescence, emotional and physical changes must be successfully integrated into the emerging sense of self, and skin disorders such as acne, which alter that self-image, may engender distressing feelings of embarrassment, shame, and disgust. While most patients eventually achieve spontaneous remission, approximately one quarter of teenagers will show evidence of permanent acne scarring by 18 years of age. Read More

    Bariatric surgery in adolescents: an update.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):589-612; abstract x
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, ML 2010, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
    Bariatric surgery, although not a cure for obesity, can help selected extremely obese adolescents achieve significant weight loss and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, in conjunction with continued dietary and behavioral interventions. This article summarizes the current guidelines for selection of adolescent candidates for bariatric surgery and discusses the types of bariatric procedures presently available for this age group. Data on the complications and outcomes of bariatric surgery in this special population are reviewed. Read More

    Supersize teens: the metabolic syndrome.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):565-87; abstract x
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital, New Hyde Park, NY 11040, USA.
    With obesity and type 2 diabetes on the rise in children and adolescents, there has been recent interest in the study of the metabolic (insulin resistance) syndrome in this population. Characteristics of the syndrome include impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity. These features are known to cluster and convey increased cardiovascular risk over time. Read More

    Immunization update: pertussis, meningoccocus, and human papillomavirus.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):547-63; abstract ix-x
    Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine Section, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030-2399, USA.
    New vaccines are being recommended for adolescents at a brisk pace. Immunization is an effective preventive measure, and by bringing adolescents in for a medical intervention, the new vaccines promise not only to protect adolescents from the specific diseases they address, but also to enhance other health care services, including screening for other health risk behaviors. This article discusses the newest vaccination recommendations for adolescents pertaining to the meningococcal and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccines and reviews the human papillomavirus vaccines developed for use in the United States. Read More

    Alternative and complementary therapies.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):521-46; abstract ix
    Adolescent Medicine Section, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.
    The field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is broad and diverse, comprising numerous therapeutic modalities. CAM therapies are viewed as either an adjunct or a complement to conventional treatment. As of 1997, 64% of United States medical schools included elective or required CAM courses. Read More

    Body art: piercing, tattooing, and scarification.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Oct;17(3):505-19; abstract ix
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
    Body art, particularly piercings and tattoos, is becoming more common. Many patients get their first piercing or tattoo during adolescence or young adulthood. Clinicians should understand the potential complications of these procedures and their management. Read More

    Cultural differences in adolescent drug abuse.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):469-98
    Center for Family Studies, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 1425 NW 10th Avenue, Room 215, FL 33136, USA.
    This chapter describes the epidemiology of drug use among adolescents from different racial and ethnic groups. Second, it addresses the cultural variables prevalent in each of these groups and their relevance in the delivery of clinical care. Third, it describes the risks and protective factors for adolescent drug use and their interface with culture and the screening tools available for the pediatrician. Read More

    Co-occurring disorders of adolescents in primary care: closing the gaps.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):453-67
    American Institutes for Research, 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street, Washington, DC 20007, USA.
    The increasing prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in adolescents is a serious challenge for the primary care system. The needs of these youth continue to be underrecognized, poorly diagnosed, and inappropriately treated in primary care settings, which are often the first point of contact with the health provider system. This article highlights the need for changes at the clinical, organizational, and policy levels to create a system of care that can effectively identify, refer, treat, and coordinate the care for these adolescents and their families. Read More

    Adolescents with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in primary care.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):427-52
    Department of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Science, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, 79423, USA.
    Co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (COD) among children and adolescents present special challenges for family members and primary care clinicians. A broad understanding of prevalence rates, etiology, risk and protective factors, and intervention strategies is important in promoting evidence-based practices. The authors present a synopsis of important issues in this area and provide support for integrating behavioral health into primary care practice. Read More

    Advances in diagnosis of adolescent substance abuse.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):411-25
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, PO Box 250861, Charleston, 29425, USA.
    Screening and diagnosis of adolescent substance abuse is a challenging but achievable component of primary care practice. Successful integration of these procedures into office visits requires an understanding of prevalence, risk factors, and strategies for prevention and treatment. The authors provide a synopsis of recent advances and important issues in this area and propose a stepwise, evidence-based approach to evaluation of substance abuse in adolescents. Read More

    Adolescent tobacco use and dependence: assessment and treatment strategies.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):381-410
    Division of Addiction Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 671 Hoes Lane, UBHC Room D-351A, Piscataway, 08854, USA.
    Tobacco use is common among children and adolescents, and about 50% who try smoking will progress to regular use and dependence. Tobacco dependence is best conceptualized as a pediatric disease that should be addressed in adolescence. This article focuses on tobacco dependence, assessment and treatment, including goals of abstinence and exposure reduction. Read More

    Medical management of adolescent drug overdoses.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):353-79
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, 79905, USA.
    This article outlines the current clinical approach to poisonings in the adolescent age group. Management issues are presented for several specific substances frequently abused by this population. The purpose of such a review is to stimulate self-education in the practitioner. Read More

    Risk factors and prevention in adolescent substance abuse: a biopsychosocial approach.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):335-52
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, 79905, USA.
    This article provides an overview of existing evidence regarding risk and prevention factors in adolescent substance abuse from a biopsychosocial viewpoint. It is believed that this approach offers a practical model for the integration of inherently complex factors into the clinical setting. These factors cannot be isolated from the influences of the greater society, such as the school system or homelessness. Read More

    Adolescent abuse of other drugs.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):283-318
    Adolescent Medicine Section, San Antonio Military Pediatric Center, Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA.
    This article provides a general overview of other drugs of abuse within the adolescent population. Stimulants, hallucinogens, club drugs, inhalants, sedative-hypnotics, tranquilizers, opiates, and ergogenic drugs are included. Epidemiology, pharmacology, clinical aspects, laboratory, and treatment issues are addressed. Read More

    Alcohol use disorders: a clinical update.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Jun;17(2):259-82
    Department of Pediatrics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, 79905, USA.
    Alcohol use disorders are a significant public health problem. All providers who work with teenagers are likely to encounter youth for whom this is a relevant concern. Routine screening for alcohol use disorders has become the standard of care, and a number of validated, concise screening measures are now available. Read More

    Treatment settings for adolescent psychiatric conditions.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):233-50
    University of Rochester, 300 Crittenden Boulevard, Box Psych, Rochester 14642, and Division of Medical Education, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY 14222, USA.
    The intensive psychiatric treatment settings, including inpatient hospitalization, day programs and residential care, are valuable options for clinicians caring for adolescents with serious mental health problems. The availability of these setting may be limited by geographic, insurance, or financial restraints, but providers should stay informed about the treatment settings available in their area and be prepared to advocate for their adolescent patients' psychiatric needs. Although little evidence-based practice is available to guide clinicians taking care of adolescents in need of the most intensive psychiatric treatment settings, certain elements of care have proven most essential, including especially the successful engagement of families in treatment. Read More

    Individual, family, and group therapy for adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):217-31
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 300 Crittenden Boulevard, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
    The three main psychotherapeutic treatment modalities include individual,family, and group therapies. Many theoretic orientations guide psychotherapists as they try to help adolescents with mental health problems. PCPs play a critical role in initial assessment of mental health symptoms, in addition to coordinating treatment needs. Read More

    Adolescents' use of the Internet: a controversial, coming-of-age resource.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):205-16
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
    Emerging research on adolescents and the Internet should be thoughtfully considered, especially with respect to the influence of Internet activities on mental health and psychiatric conditions. A given Internet site may have content that would be helpful to one, have no effect on another, and be harmful to yet an-other adolescent. The effect on the adolescent would in part be determined by the site itself and the way in which it provides information and interactivity, and in part on the characteristics of the particular adolescent. Read More

    Psychiatric emergencies in adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):183-204
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Thomas Jefferson University, 833 Chestnut Street, Suite 210-D, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
    The spectrum of psychiatric emergencies in adolescents may be best appreciated using the broad framework of urgency. ED physicians and staff using such a framework will be in a better position to triage and to tailor the evaluation assessment and target the intervention and disposition. Understanding the range of urgency can minimize frustration, enhance the clinician's ability to accurately assess complex situations, and make a tremendous difference in the patient's receipt of future services. Read More

    Psychopharmacology in adolescent medicine.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):165-81
    University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, and Easter Seals Diagnostic and Treatment Center, Southview Commons, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
    Psychopharmacology is a challenge for health care providers treating adolescents. A detailed and accurate assessment, including developmental issues relevant to adolescence in general and to the individual adolescent, guides clinicians in formulating thoughtful and effective treatment plans to meet the needs of each patient. Parents play an important role in providing family history regarding psychiatric diagnoses and the response to various drugs, in making decisions to initiate medication and to change a medication regimen, and in monitoring an adolescent's adherence to a prescribed regimen. Read More

    Psychological testing in adolescent medicine.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):147-64
    School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, and Strong Neurology ADHD Program, Monroe Community Hospital, 919 Westfall Road, Bldg. C Suite 220, Rochester, NY 14618, USA.
    Psychological and neuropsychological assessment remains an important aspect of clinical evaluation in adolescents with psychiatric and neurologic disorders. The primary care practitioner can refer for psychological and neuropsychological assessment when cognitive, behavioral, or psychiatric problems appear to be affecting the adolescent's learning, psychosocial development, or overall functioning. The most appropriate assessment depends upon the diagnostic issue at hand. Read More

    Psychosis in adolescence.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):131-45
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Box 690, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Crittenden Blvd, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
    Psychotic behavior in adolescent patients is uncommon but occasionally encountered in adolescent medicine practice. Although a physician may not be able to distinguish the precise diagnosis initially, immediate symptomatic management of acute psychotic symptoms is indicated to allay the patient's anxiety and tQ begin treatment. In chronic and more subtle conditions, their recognition is the essential first step. Read More

    Adolescent personality disorders in adolescent medicine.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):115-30
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Suite 2-010h, Shuter Wing, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8, Canada.
    Both BPD and ASPD are disorders whose complex presentations pose numerous clinical challenges to all health care professionals. However, early careful diagnosis and management can diminish the long-term morbidity of these illnesses and offer the hope of a better outcome. As data emerge regarding the long-term prognosis and effective treatment of PDs, clinicians are cautioned to avoid the traditional teaching that the dysfunctional patterns will necessarily continue into adulthood. Read More

    Disruptive behaviors: conduct and oppositional disorders in adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):97-114
    Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    CD and ODD present unique challenges in both the diagnostic and treatment arenas. The complex network of causes leading to disruptive disorders makes it necessary to structure treatment in a multifaceted manner. The earlier that adolescents are identified as exhibiting disruptive behavior disorders, the better the opportunity to intervene. Read More

    Disorders of mood and anxiety in adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):79-95
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, 1001 East Marshall Street, Box 980151, and Virginia Treatment Center for Children, Richmond, VA 23298-0151, USA.
    Mood disorders and anxiety disorders contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality during adolescence. These disorders often persist or recur in adulthood. Clinical presentations in the primary care setting are myriad and often confusing. Read More

    Medical conditions with psychiatric manifestations.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):49-77
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Floating Hospital for Children, Tufts-New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Box 479, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
    A variety of medical conditions can present, or be associated, with psychiatric symptoms. At times, these may be so prominent that they can overshadow the underlying pathophysiologic process that accounts for them. Thus, it is equally important for mental health providers to be alert to the possibility that adolescents whom they are treating may have symptoms related to a treatable medical condition as it is for primary care providers to conduct a targeted history and physical examination with their adolescent patients exhibiting psychiatric symptoms. Read More

    Consent, competence, and confidentiality related to psychiatric conditions in adolescent medicine practice.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):25-47
    Office for Human Subject Protection, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 628, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
    Health care for adolescents with psychiatric conditions plays out on a complex stage with considerable state variation, based on a mix of statutory and case law. Added to this are less defined factors such as level of trust in community providers, level of cooperation between generalists and specialists, and local regulatory stances toward adolescent health care and mental health care. And, of course, there is the great diversity in diagnosis and maturity level, as well as family cohesion, from patient to patient (and even within a given patient across time). Read More

    The biopsychosocial approach to adolescents with somatoform disorders.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2006 Feb;17(1):1-24
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 690, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
    Somatoform disorders are presented in the first article in this issue of Adolescent Medicine Clinics because the physical symptoms that cause the adolescent to present for diagnosis and treatment reflect the interaction of the psyche and the soma in ways that are poorly understood. Because of dualistic conceptualizations that are encouraged by technology such as MRI, CT scans and other technologically advanced tools, patients who have these conditions often suffer. As noted by Cassell [35], "suffering is experienced by persons, not merely by bodies, and has its source in challenges that threaten the intactness of the person as a complex social and psychological entity. Read More

    Practical approaches to prescribing contraception in the office setting.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):665-74
    Atlanta Gyn Associates, 2550 Windy Hill Road, Suite 115, Marietta, GA 30067, USA.
    Caring for the contraceptive needs of an adolescent young woman can be a challenge on many levels. Adolescents are often called young adults, but they are not adults developmentally. Therefore, adult strategies for contraceptive teaching, decision-making, and compliance are often inappropriate and unsuccessful. Read More

    Contraceptive issues of youth and adolescents in developing countries: highlights from the Philippines and other Asian countries.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):645-63
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine-Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines 1000.
    This article highlights contraceptive issues in Asia, home to some 700 million adolescents. It starts with a description of the socio-cultural milieu of adolescents in South and Southeast Asia, their knowledge and use of contraceptives, the myriad barriers to access, and the many innovative programs to broaden contraceptive availability. The reproductive health needs of adolescents in poor countries cannot be solved by merely supplying them with contraceptives--these needs can only be fully addressed in the context of gender equality, poverty alleviation and the conviction that investing in the reproductive health of adolescents is a most urgent priority. Read More

    Contraceptive choices for chronically ill adolescents.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):635-44
    University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, 2411 Holmes, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.
    Ten percent of teenagers have chronic medical illness and need effective contraception for pregnancy prevention. There are available safe and effective methods; however, the selection of a contraceptive may be challenging because of the complexity of the underlying medical illness. This article offers options for contraception for girls with various chronic medical conditions. Read More

    Current contraceptive research and development.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):617-33
    Clinical Operations, Duramed Research, Inc., a subsidiary of Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc., One Belmont Avenue, Suite 1100, Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004, USA.
    The approval of various new contraceptive products in recent years has resulted in broadening the options available to women. Trends in contraceptive research for hormonal products include variations in dose and dosing regimens, introduction of novel compounds, evaluation of products for noncontraceptive indications, and development of nonoral delivery systems and male contraceptives. Nonhormonal areas of research include microbicidal products, dual protection methods, and contraceptive vaccines. Read More

    Natural contraception.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):603-16
    Adolescent Medicine Section, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital and Medical Center, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.
    This article discusses some complementary and alternative medicine options for contraception, including natural family planning and plant-derived hormonal contraception. Primary care providers are crucial resources for advice and recommendations about these options. The discussion will include medical evidence to support or refute these methods, potential dangers of these interventions, and additional resources for those who want to learn more. Read More

    Emergency contraception.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):585-602
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    Emergency contraception is increasing in use and has become a universal standard of care in the United States. This article reviews available forms of emergency contraception, their indications, contraindications, adverse effects and efficacy at preventing pregnancy. This article describes the mechanism of action of different forms of emergency contraception and provides recommendations on when to start or restart an ongoing method of contraceptive after emergency contraception use. Read More

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate: implications for weight status and bone mineral density in the adolescent female.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):569-84
    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an effective and easy-to-use contraceptive method for adolescents. However, recent literature suggests that overweight teens may be at increased risk for weight gain while on this contraceptive method, and decreases in bone mineral density have been documented in adolescents on DMPA, particularly with longer duration of use. Consideration of this new literature on DMPA and its implications for clinical practice must be done in the context of the United States having the highest adolescent pregnancy rate in the industrialized world. Read More

    Progestin only contraceptives and their use in adolescents: clinical options and medical indications.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):553-67
    The Ohio State University College of Medicine and School of Public Health, 516 Means Hall, 1654 Upham Drive, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
    Some adolescents use progestin only contraceptive products because of an underlying medical condition; others simply prefer them. Current options include pills, a long -acting intramuscular injection, an implant, and a progestin-releasing intrauterine device. Also available is Plan B, a progestin only emergency contraceptive option. Read More

    Hormonal contraception: noncontraceptive benefits and medical contraindications.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):539-51
    Section of Adolescent Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, J 422 Kentucky Clinic, Lexington, KY 40536-0284, USA.
    This article delineates the noncontraceptive benefits of hormonal contraception, including combined and progestin-only methods. Contraindications to the use of these hormonal methods also are discussed. Knowledge of the noncontraceptive benefits of birth control methods can increase compliance and continuation of use, with the ultimate goal of decreasing unplanned pregnancy. Read More

    Combined hormonal contraception.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):517-37
    Section of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 111 East 210th Street, Bronx, NY 10467, USA.
    This article discusses the different combined hormonal contraception methods. Combined methods, delivering both estrogen and a progestin simultaneously, are among the most effective, widely used hormonal contraceptive options. They also have the best noncontraceptive benefit profile for young women of all hormonal contraceptive options. Read More

    Barrier and spermicidal contraceptives in adolescence.
    Adolesc Med Clin 2005 Oct;16(3):495-515
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen's University, Victory 4, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, Kingston, Ontario K7L 2V7, Canada.
    This article describes both barrier and spermicide methods of contraception including the male and female condom, diaphragm, contraceptive sponge, Lea Shield, cervical cap and multiple spermicide options. Their efficacy, differences and proper use are discussed with an emphasis on the adolescent user. Read More

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