1,945,908 results match your criteria Adolescent Psychiatry [Journal]


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sickness in early adolescence alters the behavioral effects of the short-chain fatty acid, propionic acid, in late adolescence and adulthood: Examining anxiety and startle reactivity.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Early life immune challenges are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In adolescence, they elicit behavioral symptoms that resemble clinical disorders. Stressors during this time may alter signaling from the gut microbiome, which increases the risk for psychiatric disorders. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Mechanistic role of the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 in cardiac hypertrophy.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Cardiovascular Research Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Hamburg, Kiel, Lübeck, Germany; Institute of Pharmacy, University of Hamburg, Bundesstr. 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The sympathetic nervous system is the main stimulator of cardiac function. While acute activation of the β-adrenoceptors exerts positive inotropic and lusitropic effects by increasing cAMP and Ca, chronically enhanced sympathetic tone with changed β-adrenergic signaling leads to alterations of gene expression and remodeling. The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) is activated by cAMP and Ca. Read More

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December 2018
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[Quantification of changes in the external morphology of the back by means of surface topography based on structured light in idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents after a year of treatment with orthopedic corse].

Acta Ortop Mex 2018 May-Jun;32(3):145-156

Servicio de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología. Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia. Valencia, España.

Background: To quantify the morphological changes in the surface of the back of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis as a result of treatment with braces and to correlate them with radiographic changes.

Material And Methods: An analytical, cohort, prospective study on a sample of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. We divided them into two groups: eleven treated with braces and twenty without them. Read More

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December 2018

Chinese adolescents' power distance value and prosocial behavior toward powerful people: A longitudinal study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208473. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, School of Sociology and Psychology, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing, China.

We were interested in how specific cultural value and adolescent social behavior would influence each other over time. Thus the present study explored the longitudinal and bidirectional relations between adolescents' power distance value and prosocial behavior toward powerful people over a year. A sample of 434 Chinese adolescents participated in the investigation (initial mean age = 11. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Alpha7 acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies are rare in sera of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208412. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

The α7 acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has been linked with the onset of psychotic symptoms and we hypothesized therefore that it might also be an autoimmune target. Here, we describe a new radioimmunoassay (RIA) using iodine 125-labelled α-bungarotoxin and membrane extract from transfected HEK293 cells expressing human α7 AChR. This RIA was used to analyze sera pertaining to a cohort of 711 subjects, comprising 368 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 140 with bipolar disorder, 58 individuals diagnosed of other mental disorders, and 118 healthy comparison subjects. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Unexplained cytopenias in an adolescent? You GATA think about it.

J Assoc Genet Technol 2018 ;44(4):135-136

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, VT.

Objectives: The GATA family of DNA binding proteins consists of six different transcription factors (GATA1-6), each with a diverse biologic function. The transcription factors GATA1-3 function primarily to orchestrate hematopoiesis; however, they have roles in non-hematopoietic cells as well. Much of our current knowledge of the GATA transcription factors has come through observation of disease states with known GATA mutations. Read More

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January 2018

Prediction of major depressive disorder onset in college students.

Depress Anxiety 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) in college students is associated with substantial burden.

Aims: To assess 1-year incidence of MDD among incoming freshmen and predictors of MDD-incidence in a representative sample of students.

Method: Prospective cohort study of first-year college students (baseline: n = 2,519, 1-year follow-up: n = 958) RESULTS: The incidence of MDD within the first year of college was 6. Read More

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December 2018

Is Sexting Associated with Sexual Behaviors During Adolescence? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Midwifery Womens Health 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Introduction: A growing body of research has addressed adolescent use of mobile devices to exchange sexually explicit images and messages (sexting). Although there are legal consequences in some states for sexting among adolescents, research findings have also demonstrated associations between sexting and sexual activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize research examining the association between adolescent sexting and sexual activity. Read More

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December 2018

The Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria are Associated with Parental Socioeconomic Status in Adolescents in China.

Acta Derm Venereol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, 410008 Changsha, China.

The association of atopic dermatitis and chronic spontaneous urticaria with socioeconomic status has been little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of skin diseases and their association with socioeconomic status in adolescents in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a comprehensive university. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Practice patterns of surgery for advanced ovarian cancer: analysis from international surveys.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: We investigated the practice patterns of surgery for advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) through relevant international surveys.

Methods: After searching for 878 studies on surgery for AOC till 2017, we extracted 18 questions with similar query and answer formats from eight studies. Among them, 5 and 13 were classified as comprehensive and procedure information. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Concurrent Developmental Course of Sleep Problems and Emotional/behavioral Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Reflected by the Dysregulation Profile.

Sleep 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Objectives: Longitudinal data on the course and relationship of concurrent psychopathology in youth are scarce but are of need for better practical patient care and prevention. This study explores the course of (and relationships over time) between sleep problems and concurrent dimensional difficulties relating to anxiety/depression, attention deficiency and aggressive behaviors in childhood and adolescence. The latter three may jointly form a broad syndrome, the dysregulation profile. Read More

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December 2018

Deriving an Adolescent Executive Behavior Screener from the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Objective: Typical executive functioning (EF) measurements do not reflect the complexity of daily life. We derived an executive behavior screener from the BASC-2-PRS-A using a previously derived four-component model of EF and provided support for the use of the screener in adolescent populations.

Methods: A total of 2,722 census-matched American adolescents were sampled. Read More

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December 2018

Biallelic loss of function variants in PPP1R21 cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with impaired endocytic function.

Hum Mutat 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Genome Research Division, Human Genetics department, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c. Read More

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December 2018

Family-based treatment: Where are we and where should we be going to improve recovery in child and adolescent eating disorders.

Int J Eat Disord 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry and UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: Family therapy has long been advocated as an effective intervention for eating disorders. A specific form of family therapy, one that utilizes family resources, has proven especially effective for adolescents with anorexia or bulimia nervosa (AN and BN). First developed in London, a behaviorally focused adaptation, called family-based treatment (FBT), has been manualized and systematically studied in six randomized clinical trials for adolescent AN and two for adolescent BN. Read More

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December 2018
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The QTc interval and risk of cardiac events in bulimia nervosa: A long-term follow-up study.

Int J Eat Disord 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: An association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) in the electrocardiogram has been suggested, but results of previous studies are conflicting, and the risk of cardiac events in patients with BN has yet to be investigated.

Method: We estimated mean QTc interval and relative risk of borderline (QTc >440 ms) and prolonged QTc (QTc >460 ms) between adult women with BN (N = 531) and healthy controls (N = 123). In follow-up analyses, we investigated the risk of a primary endpoint (syncope, ventricular tachycardia, and cardiac arrest) and all-cause mortality in patients with BN (N = 702) compared with a population-based cohort derived from the Danish Civil Register (N = 7,020). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Role of adolescent exposure to rockets in the links between personality vulnerability and psychopathology.

Dev Psychopathol 2018 Dec 6:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology,Georgia State University,Atlanta,GA,USA.

The aim of this study is to examine the role of repeated exposure to rocket attacks in the links between personality vulnerability (dependency and self-criticism) and internalizing/externalizing psychopathology. A main-effect vulnerability model (personality leads to psychopathology) was compared with a main-effect scarring model (psychopathology leads to personality vulnerability). Also, a stress-diathesis pattern (personality vulnerability is activated under stress) was compared to a dual-vulnerability pattern (either personality vulnerability or stress, but not both, lead to psychopathology). Read More

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December 2018

Safety of Sports for Young Patients With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018 Nov;11(11):e006305

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (J.D., C.B., L.S., F.L., R.J.L.).

Background: Despite safety concerns, many young patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) participate in sports. We undertook a prospective, multinational registry to determine the incidence of serious adverse events because of sports participation. The primary end points were death or resuscitated arrest during sports or injury during sports because of arrhythmia or shock. Read More

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November 2018

2-hr vs. 1-hr Glucose Tolerance Testing: Predicting prediabetes in adolescent girls with obesity.

Pediatr Diabetes 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Section on Ethnicity and Health, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

Background: During an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), morphological features of the glucose curve (monophasic curve, glucose peak >30mins and 1-hr glucose ≥155mg/dL) maybe associated with higher prediabetes risk, but their reproducibility and predictive ability in adolescents with obesity are unknown.

Design/methods: Nondiabetic adolescent girls with obesity underwent a multiple-sample OGTT at baseline (n=93), 6-weeks (n=83), and 1-year (n=72). Short-term reproducibility (baseline to 6-weeks) and the predictive ability for prediabetes (baseline to 1-year) for each feature were compared to standard fasting and 2-hr OGTT diagnostic criteria. Read More

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December 2018

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in teens: A guide for behavior change to manage symptoms.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

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December 2018

Examining HPV Vaccination Practices and Differences Among Providers in Virginia.

J Cancer Educ 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Virginia has some of the lowest HPV vaccination rates, despite being one of the few states in the USA requiring adolescent girls receive the vaccine. Provider characteristics may be an important factor in HPV vaccination. Thus, the present study assessed provider vaccination, practices, knowledge about the vaccine, and confidence in performing behaviors related to the vaccine. Read More

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December 2018
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The weight-specific adolescent instrument for economic evaluation (WAItE): psychometric evaluation using a Rasch model approach.

Qual Life Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Purpose: The Weight-specific Adolescent Instrument for Economic evaluation (WAItE) is a 7-item condition-specific tool assessing the impact of weight status on seven dimensions of quality of life. The content of the WAItE was developed with both treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking adolescents aged 11-18 years. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the WAItE in adolescent and adult populations. Read More

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December 2018

Reconstruction and positional accuracy of 3D ultrasound on vertebral phantoms for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis spinal surgery.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1098 Research Transition Facility, 8308-114 Street, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2V2, Canada.

Purpose: Determine the positional, rotational and reconstruction accuracy of a 3D ultrasound system to be used for image registration in navigation surgery.

Methods: A custom 3D ultrasound for spinal surgery image registration was developed using Optitrack Prime 13-W motion capture cameras and a SonixTablet Ultrasound System. Temporal and spatial calibration was completed to account for time latencies between the two systems and to ensure accurate motion tracking of the ultrasound transducer. Read More

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December 2018
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Altered Global mRNA Expressions of Pain and Aggression Related Genes in the Blood of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical Genetics, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by repetitive stereotypic behaviors, restricted interests, social withdrawal, and communication deficits. Aggression and insensitivity to pain are largely unexplained in these cases. We analyzed nine mRNA expressions of the candidate genes related to aggression and insensitivity to pain in the peripheral blood of patients with ASD. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Adolescent social isolation affects parvalbumin expression in the medial prefrontal cortex in the MAM-E17 model of schizophrenia.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Brain Biostructure, Smętna Street 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

Altered parvalbumin (PV) expression is observed in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Environmental context, particularly during adolescence, might regulate PV expression. In the present study, we investigated the effect of adolescent social isolation (SI) on PV expression in the medial prefrontal cortex in a neurodevelopmental model (MAM-E17) of schizophrenia. Read More

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December 2018
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Exploration of Shared Genetic Architecture Between Subcortical Brain Volumes and Anorexia Nervosa.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

In MRI scans of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), reductions in brain volume are often apparent. However, it is unknown whether such brain abnormalities are influenced by genetic determinants that partially overlap with those underlying AN. Here, we used a battery of methods (LD score regression, genetic risk scores, sign test, SNP effect concordance analysis, and Mendelian randomization) to investigate the genetic covariation between subcortical brain volumes and risk for AN based on summary measures retrieved from genome-wide association studies of regional brain volumes (ENIGMA consortium, n = 13,170) and genetic risk for AN (PGC-ED consortium, n = 14,477). Read More

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December 2018
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Predicting posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms among adolescents in the extended postpartum period.

Heliyon 2018 Nov 27;4(11):e00965. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Office of Information Technology, University of Texas at Arlington, P.O.B 19407, Arlington, Texas, 76019, USA.

Background: Adolescent childbirth continues as a public health concern, and investigation of postpartum posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression is important to inform future research and practice. Longitudinal studies exploring PTSS alone or in combination with depression are non-existent for postpartum adolescent populations. This study aimed to identify stress/PTSS and depression symptoms at 72 hours and three, six, and nine months postpartum, and determine if symptoms at each time point predicted later symptoms. Read More

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November 2018
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The role of knowledge in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescent depression: Results from a randomised controlled study.

Internet Interv 2019 Mar 2;15:10-17. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background And Objectives: Clients' knowledge about their condition and treatment is considered crucial for general health improvement, and knowledge acquisition is an essential part in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT). Yet, little is known about the role of knowledge and how it influences treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine if explicit knowledge increased following ICBT for adolescent depression, if knowledge gain would be associated with symptom reduction, and if pre-existing knowledge predicted changes in depressive symptoms. Read More

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Clival Chondroid Chordoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2018 Sep 28;10(9):e3381. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Teodoro Maldonado Carbo / Universidad Catolica De Santiago De Guayaquil, Guayaquil, ECU.

Chordomas are rare, slow-growing, and locally aggressive malignant neoplasms derived from primitive notochord remnants. The chondroid variety represents 14% of all chordomas mainly developing in the spheno-occipital region and presenting between the third and fifth decades of life. When developing intracranially, symptoms can range from headaches and neck pain to cranial nerve neuropathies and facial numbness. Read More

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September 2018

Environmental Enrichment Attenuates Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference and Locomotor Sensitization in Maternally Separated Rat Pups.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):241-250. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Animal Addiction Models, Physiology Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of the environmental enrichment during adolescence on morphine-induced Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) and locomotor sensitization in maternally separated male and female rat pups.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were allowed to mate with female virgin Wistar rats. Pups were separated from them 3 hours per day during 2-14 days postnatal. Read More

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Surgery in nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease.

Breathe (Sheff) 2018 Dec;14(4):288-301

Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Medical treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease has highly variable outcomes. Despite the use of multiple antibiotics, sputum clearance is often difficult to achieve, especially in cases with macrolide resistant NTM infection. Immunocompromised patients and those with structural lung disease are at increased risk, although occurrence in immunocompetent patients without structural lung disease is well recognised. Read More

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December 2018
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Weight Bias Internalization Among Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss: Implications for Eating Behaviors and Parental Communication.

Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2271. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Mary Himmelstein, Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, Hartford, CT, United States.

Emerging evidence has demonstrated a high prevalence of weight bias internalization (WBI) among adults, as well as consistent links between internalization and adverse psychological and physical health. However, research examining WBI in youth and its impact on their health is scarce, especially among youth seeking weight loss treatment who may be particularly vulnerable to weight stigma from peers and parents. To address this research gap, the present study assessed WBI in a weight loss treatment-seeking sample of adolescents, examining associations between internalization and adolescents' eating behaviors and parental weight-related communication. Read More

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November 2018
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Postpartum family-planning barriers and catalysts in Burkina Faso and the Democratic Republic of Congo: a multiperspective study.

Open Access J Contracept 2018 9;9:63-74. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Purpose: To address the high unmet need for postpartum family planning (PPFP) in resource-limited settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, this study aimed to identify PPFP-related barriers and catalysts to inform policies and programs to increase access to postpartum contraception.

Methods: Using qualitative methodology, we explored the perspectives of women, adolescent girls, men, religious and community leaders, service providers, and decision makers from three rural communities in Burkina Faso and three rural-urban communities in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both countries have high unmet need for PPFP and are priority countries of the French Muskoka Fund for Maternal and Child Health. Read More

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November 2018

Prevalence of autism traits and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain.

J Pain Res 2018 8;11:2827-2836. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Functional Area Medical Psychology/Functional Unit Behavior Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden,

Purpose: Recent research has suggested that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be comorbid to pediatric chronic pain, but the empirical support is yet scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of traits and symptoms consistent with clinically significant ASD and ADHD in a group of children and adolescents with chronic debilitating pain and examine potential differences in pain and demographic variables between children with and without clinically significant traits and symptoms of ASD and ADHD.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 146 parent-child dyads (102 girls, 111 mothers, children 8-17 years) consecutively referred to a tertiary pain clinic. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Therapists' techniques in the treatment of adolescent depression.

J Psychother Integr 2018 Dec;28(4):413-428

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

When comparing the relative effectiveness of different psychological treatment approaches using clinical trials, it is essential to establish fidelity to each manualized therapy, and differentiation between the treatment arms. Yet few psychological therapy trials include details about the assessment of treatment integrity and little is known about the specific techniques used by therapists, or to what degree these techniques are shared or distinct across different therapeutic approaches. The aims of this study were: to establish the fidelity of two established psychological therapies - cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (STPP) - in the treatment of adolescent depression; and to examine whether they were delivered with adherence to their respective treatment modalities, and if they could be differentiated from each other and from a reference treatment (a brief psychosocial intervention; BPI). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and offspring white matter microstructure: results from three birth cohorts.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, 3000 CB, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Prepregnancy maternal obesity is a global health problem and has been associated with offspring metabolic and mental ill-health. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding potential neurobiological factors related to these associations. This study explored the relation between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and offspring brain white matter microstructure at the age of 6, 10, and 26 years in three independent cohorts. Read More

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December 2018
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Results from a cross-sectional sexual and reproductive health study among school girls in Tanzania: high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.

Sex Transm Infect 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV and may partly explain the high incidence of STI/HIV among girls and young women in East and southern Africa. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between BV and sexual debut, to investigate other potential risk factors of BV and to estimate associations between BV and STIs.

Methods: Secondary school girls in Mwanza, aged 17 and 18 years, were invited to join a cross-sectional study. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding and evaluating new models of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in South-East England: a study protocol for an observational mixed-methods study.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 4;8(12):e024230. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Nuffield Department of Population Health, Health Economics Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Increased demand for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), alongside concerns that services should be better commissioned to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, has contributed to a requirement to transform services to improve accessibility, quality of care and health outcomes. Following the submission of government-mandated transformation plans for CAMHS, services in England are changing in how, where and by whom they are delivered. This protocol describes the research methods to be applied to understand CAMHS transformations and evaluate the impact on the use of mental health services, patient care, satisfaction, health outcomes and health resource utilisation costs. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive function in adolescence and the risk for premature diabetes and cardiovascular mortality in adulthood.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018 Dec 5;17(1):154. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between cognitive function in youth and the future risk of death. Less is known regarding the relationship with diabetes related death. This study assessed the relationship between cognitive function in late adolescence and the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular- (CVD) and all-cause mortality in adulthood. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanisms associated with maternal adverse childhood experiences on offspring's mental health in Nairobi informal settlements: a mediational model testing approach.

BMC Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5;18(1):381. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant public health and social welfare problem in low-and middle income countries (LMICs). However, most ACEs research is based on developed countries, and little is known about mechanisms of early ACEs on adulthood health and offspring's wellbeing for populations in LMICs. This area is needed to guide social welfare policy and intervention service planning. Read More

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December 2018

The Relationship of Clinical Symptoms with Social Cognition in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder or Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Psychiatry Investig 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey.

Objective: One of the areas of social cognition is Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the capacity to interpret, infer and explain mental states underlying the behavior of others. When social cognition studies on neurodevelopmental disorders are examined, it can be seen that this skill has not been studied sufficiently in children with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD).

Methods: In this study, social cognition skills in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), SLD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) evaluated before puberty and compared with controls. Read More

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December 2018

[Honest, Open, Proud: Concept and Efficacy of a peer-led Program to Provide Support with Disclosure Decisions and Coping with Stigma].

Psychiatr Prax 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Freiberufliche Peer Support Specialist, Zürich, Schweiz.

Background: Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, many people with mental illness face the difficult choice whether to disclose their illness to others. (Non-)Disclosure is a key reaction in coping with stigma. Disclosure as well as non-disclosure have risks and benefits, depending on the environment and the individual. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of metabolically healthy obese phenotype and associated factors in South American overweight adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

Nutrition 2018 Aug 27;60:19-24. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Physical Education, Center of Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil; Multidisciplinary Centre of Obesity Studies, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype and associated factors in South American adolescents who are overweight.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 340 overweight adolescent boys and girls between 10 and 18 y of age. The participants were classified as MHO according to two definitions: absence of any metabolic syndrome component and absence of insulin resistance (IR). Read More

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Exposure to Neighborhood Crime Is Associated with Lower Levels of Physical Activity and Higher Obesity Risk among Adolescent Girls, but Not Boys.

Child Obes 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University , New Orleans, LA.

Background: Neighborhood safety has been linked to physical activity and obesity among adolescents, but few studies have used objective measures of crime or examined associations by gender. The goal of this study was to investigate if exposure to objectively measured neighborhood crime was associated with physical activity and overweight/obesity among adolescents, and if this association varied by gender.

Methods: Georeferenced data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 were linked to census tract-level data on crime reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, focusing on a sample of adolescents 12-20 years of age (n = 15,261). Read More

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December 2018

Patient-level medication regimen complexity in an adolescent and adult population with autism spectrum disorders.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The Ohio State University, Center for Biostatistics, 320-43 Lincoln Tower, 1800 Cannon Drive, Columbus, OH, 43210.

Background: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently experience polypharmacy. However, there is limited understanding of how to quantify medication complexity in this vulnerable population.

Objective: This study examined medication administration difficulty using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) tool in adolescents and adults with ASD. Read More

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December 2018

Fetal size and eating behaviour in childhood: a prospective cohort study.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry & Psychology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Although studies showed that an adverse intrauterine environment increases the obesity risk in adulthood, little is known about consequences of fetal growth and birth size for eating behaviour. We examined whether fetal and birth size are associated with childhood eating behaviour.

Methods: Participants were 4350 mother-child dyads of the prospective cohort study Generation R. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Effects of COMT Polymorphism on Cortical Thickness and Surface Area Abnormalities in Children with ADHD.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan.

The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with frontal cortex development and the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, how the COMT gene impacts brain structure and behavior in ADHD remains unknown. In the present study, we identify the effect of COMT on cortical thickness and surface area in children with ADHD and children with typically developing (TD) using a machine learning approach. Read More

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December 2018

A qualitative exploration of menstruation-related restrictive practices in Fiji, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(12):e0208224. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Attitudes and beliefs about menstruation can place restrictions on menstruating women and girls, limiting their ability to fully participate in community life, education and employment. This paper presents evidence on menstruation-related beliefs contributing to restrictive practices in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Solomon Islands (SI) and Fiji. Focus group discussions and interviews were undertaken with 307 adolescent girls, women and men in a rural and urban site in each country. Read More

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December 2018

Youth Substance Use Prevention Using Disciplinary Literacy Strategies: A Pilot Study.

J Addict Nurs 2018 Oct/Dec;29(4):235-243

Eunhee Park, PhD, RN, APHN-BC, School of Nursing, University at Buffalo, New York. Bong Gee Jang, PhD, Department of Reading and Language Arts, School of Education, Syracuse University, New York.

Effective health education programs for adolescent substance use prevention need to be developed. However, the evidence supporting the use of specific instructional strategies for youth substance use prevention programs is insufficient. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a community-based program aiming for smoking, alcohol, and substance use prevention based on multiple disciplinary literacy strategies. Read More

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December 2018

New age technology and social media: adolescent psychosocial implications and the need for protective measures.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Northwell Health System, Lake Success, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, breakthroughs and advancements in new age technology have revolutionized the way children communicate and interact with the world around them. As social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat continue to grow in popularity, their usage has raised concerns about their role and impact on adolescent development and behavior. This review examines the psychosocial implications of social media usage on youth outcomes related to body image, socialization, and adolescent development. Read More

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November 2018
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