44 results match your criteria Administrative Science Quarterly[Journal]

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Dismantling Knowledge Boundaries at NASA: The Critical Role of Professional Identity in Open Innovation.

Adm Sci Q 2018 Dec 14;63(4):746-782. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Stern School of Business, New York University.

Using a longitudinal in-depth field study at NASA, I investigate how the open, or peer-production, innovation model affects R&D professionals, their work, and the locus of innovation. R&D professionals are known for keeping their knowledge work within clearly defined boundaries, protecting it from individuals outside those boundaries, and rejecting meritorious innovation that is created outside disciplinary boundaries. The open innovation model challenges these boundaries and opens the knowledge work to be conducted by anyone who chooses to contribute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001839217747876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201168PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

The Radical Flank Effect and Cross-occupational Collaboration for Technology Development during a Power Shift.

Adm Sci Q 2016 12 22;61(4):662-701. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

MIT Sloan School of Management.

This 12-month ethnographic study of an early entrant into the U.S. car-sharing industry demonstrates that when an organization shifts its focus from developing radical new technology to incrementally improving this technology, the shift may spark an internal power struggle between the dominant engineering group and a challenger occupational group such as the marketing group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001839216647679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5367553PMC
December 2016
1 Read

The Best of Both Worlds: The Benefits of Open-specialized and Closed-diverse Syndication Networks for New Ventures' Success.

Adm Sci Q 2016 Sep 2;61(3):393-432. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Frankfurt School of Finance & Management and TUM School of Management, Technische Universität München.

Open networks give actors non-redundant information that is diverse, while closed networks offer redundant information that is easier to interpret. Integrating arguments about network structure and the similarity of actors' knowledge, we propose two types of network configurations that combine diversity and ease of interpretation. Closed-diverse networks offer diversity in actors' knowledge domains and shared third-party ties to help in interpreting that knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001839216637849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4959036PMC
September 2016

Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups.

Authors:
Vaughn Tan

Adm Sci Q 2015 Mar;60(1):103-132

University College London.

This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members' roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001839214557638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514818PMC

Interpretations of stress in institutions: the cultural production of ambiguity and burnout.

Authors:
D E Meyerson

Adm Sci Q 1994 Dec;39(4):628-53

University of Michigan, USA.

This ethnographic study of interpretations of stress among hospital social workers reveals concrete ways in which institutional systems take form in the mundane actions and interpretations of individuals embedded in these systems. It also reveals how organizational cultures reflect and reinforce institutional conditions that have been negotiated in the interactions of individuals. Here, the institutional systems of medicine and social work come together in the everyday work of the social workers and result in two patterns of cultural dominance. Read More

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December 1994

Leadership instability in hospitals: the influence of Board-CEO relations and organizational growth and decline.

Adm Sci Q 1993 Mar;38(1):74-99

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

This study tested whether leadership instability--a systemic pattern of frequent succession in the top management position of an organization--was associated with sociopolitical structures that define the relationship between the board and chief executive officer (CEO), controlling for temporal patterns of the organizational life-cycle stage. In organizations that are not profit maximizing and subject to considerable uncertainty, such governance properties were hypothesized to affect leadership instability independent of organizational growth or decline. Results of regression analyses demonstrate strong main effects of board-CEO relations, net of the impact of organizational life cycle, on leadership instability. Read More

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March 1993
2 Reads

The alignment of technology and structure through roles and networks.

Authors:
S R Barley

Adm Sci Q 1990 Mar;35(1):61-103

Cornell University.

This paper outlines a role-based approach for conceptualizing and investigating the contention in some previous research that technologies change organizational and occupational structures by transforming patterns of action and interaction. Building on Nadel's theory of social structure, the paper argues that the microsocial dynamics occasioned by new technologies reverberate up levels of analysis in an orderly manner. Specifically, a technology's material attributes are said to have an immediate impact on the nonrelational elements of one or more work roles. Read More

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In search of rationality: the purposes behind the use of formal analysis in organizations.

Authors:
A Langley

Adm Sci Q 1989 Dec;34(4):598-631

This paper describes the results of a study that examines how formal analysis is actually used in practice in three different organizations. Four main groups of purposes for formal analysis--information, communication, direction and control, and symbolic purposes--are identified and related to the nature of the social and hierarchical relationships between those who initiate analysis, those who do it, and those who receive it. It is concluded that, far from being antithetical as often assumed, formal analysis and social interaction are inextricably linked in organizational decision making and that different structural configurations may generate different patterns of use of analysis. Read More

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December 1989

Matrix management in hospitals: testing theories of matrix structure and development.

Authors:
L R Burns

Adm Sci Q 1989 Sep;34(3):349-68

A study of 315 hospitals with matrix management programs was used to test several hypotheses concerning matrix management advanced by earlier theorists. The study verifies that matrix management involves several distinctive elements that can be scaled to form increasingly complex types of lateral coordinative devices. The scalability of these elements is evident only cross-sectionally. Read More

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September 1989

Costs, commitment, and rewards: factors influencing the design and implementation of internal labor markets.

Authors:
D B Bills

Adm Sci Q 1987 Jun;32(2):202-21

Much research on internal labor markets has been hampered by the failure to differentiate the wide variety of ILMs, by accounts of their determinants that too heavily emphasize isolated causal factors, by the lack of detailed material describing the economic and organizational dimensions of their design and implementation, and by the neglect of managerial perceptions of and motivations for constructing ILMs. This paper presents detailed case studies of three organizations that have constructed very different ILMs. Based on this material, a model of the determinants of ILMs is developed that centers around the concepts of costs, commitment, and rewards and that attempts to assess the interactions of effects of markets and hierarchies on ILMs. Read More

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Technology as an occasion for structuring: evidence from observations of CT scanners and the social order of radiology departments.

Authors:
S R Barley

Adm Sci Q 1986 Mar;31(1):78-108

New medical imaging devices, such as the CT scanner, have begun to challenge traditional role relations among radiologists and radiological technologists. Under some conditions, these technologies may actually alter the organizational and occupational structure of radiological work. However, current theories of technology and organizational form are insensitive to the potential number of structural variations implicit in role-based change. Read More

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Structural characteristics of medical group practices.

Adm Sci Q 1985 Mar;30(1):34-45

This study of 247 medical group practices explores the structural characteristics of these emerging organizational forms. As size and complexity of services increase, group practices tend to increase the number of hierarchical levels of authority and become more formal and bureaucratic. Complexity of services was found to have more influence on the formation of subdivisions, while size was more influential in terms of levels of administration. Read More

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March 1985
1 Read

The dynamics of interorganizational coordination.

Adm Sci Q 1984 Dec;29(4):598-621

A theory was developed on the creation, growth, and decline of relationships among organizations and was tested, using a longitudinal study of 95 dyadic relationships among child care and health organizations in Texas. Using LISREL V, the test of the theory showed that substantial revision of the model was required to explain the data adequately. When the model was revised, important new patterns were revealed in the development of interorganizational relationships over time: (1) Perceptions of dependence on others for resources spurs the development of interorganizational relationships. Read More

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December 1984

Types of organizational decision processes.

Authors:
P C Nutt

Adm Sci Q 1984 Sep;29(3):414-50

Seventy-eight case studies of decision making were profiled to identify the nature of the process. Analysis revealed evaluative, historical model, off-the-shelf, search, and nova process types. These processes differ in their approach to idea generation, the guarantors applied, and process-management rationale. Read More

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September 1984

The organizational context of human factors engineering.

Authors:
C Perrow

Adm Sci Q 1983 Dec;28(4):521-41

Human factors engineering concerns the design of equipment in accordance with the mental and physical characteristics of operators. Human factors engineers advise design engineers, but the organizational context limits their influence and restricts their perspective. The discussion of organizational context in this paper explains why military and industrial top management personnel are indifferent to good human factors design and shows how the social structure favors the choice of technologies that centralize authority and deskill operators and how it encourages unwarranted attributions of operator error. Read More

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December 1983

Adapting to environmental jolts.

Authors:
A D Meyer

Adm Sci Q 1982 Dec;27(4):515-37

This paper examines organizational adaptations to an environmental jolt--a sudden and unprecedented event (in this case, a doctors' strike)-- that created a natural experiment within a group of hospitals. Although adaptations were diverse and appeared anomalous, they are elucidated by considering the hospitals' antecedent strategies, structures, ideologies, and stockpiles of slack resources. Assessments of the primacy of the antecedents suggest that ideological and strategic variables are better predictors of adaptations to jolts than are structural variables or measures of organizational slack. Read More

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December 1982

Empowering nets of participation.

Authors:
J R Blau R D Alba

Adm Sci Q 1982 Sep;27(3):363-79

To test the implications of field work in a psychiatric hospital for children, this study focuses on the effects of network properties of organizational units, personal network position, and other individual attributes, on individual power. The contextual analysis is carried out by two linked regression equations, one at the individual and one at the contextual level, a procedure that has methodological advantages over a single regression model. The results suggest that sheer complexity can undermine inequalities among bureaucratic units and occupational groups, and that organizational democracy is fostered when complex role relations promote extensive interunit communication. Read More

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September 1982

Input uncertainty and organizational coordination in hospital emergency units.

Authors:
L Argote

Adm Sci Q 1982 Sep;27(3):420-34

The relationships among input uncertainty, means of coordination, and criteria of the organizational effectiveness of hospital emergency units were explored using data from 30 emergency units in six midwestern states. Input uncertainty generally was not associated with the use of various means of coordination. However, input uncertainty affected relationships between the means of coordination and the effectiveness criteria. Read More

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September 1982

Occupational role development: the changing determinants of outcomes for the individual.

Authors:
B L Toffler

Adm Sci Q 1981 Sep;26(3):396-418

This research examined the development of an occupational role from one month before the role incumbent's graduation from training to five months into the first job. Kahn et al.'s (1964) theory of "expectation-generated role stress" provided a conceptual framework for the development of a causal model of role development. Read More

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September 1981

Problems with contingency theory: testing assumptions hidden within the language of contingency "theory.".

Authors:
C B Schoonhoven

Adm Sci Q 1981 Sep;26(3):349-77

This paper suggests that there are five problems with contingency theory, ranging from a simple lack of clarity in its theoretical statements to more subtle issues such as the embedding of symmetrical and nonmonotonic assumptions in the theoretical arguments. Starting from Galbraith's (1973) contingency theory about organizing for effectiveness, several traditional contingency hypothesis were tested along with more precise hypotheses developed from knowledge of the five problems with contingency theory. Data were drawn from a study of organizational effectiveness in acute care hospital operating room suites. Read More

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September 1981

Environment, strategy, and power within top management teams.

Authors:
D C Hambrick

Adm Sci Q 1981 Jun;26(2):253-75

This study distinguishes two sources of critical contingencies for organizations: environment and strategy. In turn, it explores how coping with each type of contingency is related to power within top management teams. Executives had high power if, by virtue either of their functional area of scanning behavior, they coped with the dominant requirement imposed by their industry's environment. Read More

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Nursing subunit technology: a replication.

Authors:
P Leatt R Schneck

Adm Sci Q 1981 Jun;26(2):225-36

Overton, Schneck, and Hazlett's (1977) measurement of nursing subunit technology was replicated using 157 subunits of 9 types located in 24 hospitals in Alberta. A 21-item questionnaire was given to nurses, and the answers were subjected to factor analyses. Results indicated three dimensions of technology: instability, uncertainty, and variability. Read More

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The effects of environmental characteristics on the structure of hospital clusters.

Authors:
M L Fennell

Adm Sci Q 1980 Sep;25(3):485-510

The population ecology view that variation in sets or clusters of organizations should be isomorphic with variation in cluster environment was used here to explain structural variation among hospital clusters. The structural characteristics studied were range of services offered within the cluster, average size of hospitals in the cluster, and cluster differentiation. In the causal model that was developed and evaluated, variation in the patient environment and variation in the supplier environment were compared. Read More

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September 1980

The effects of group decision-making process and problem-situation complexity on implementation attempts.

Adm Sci Q 1980 Sep;25(3):428-40

The effects of group problem-solving method and problem-situation complexity on attempts at implementing group solutions were investigated in a laboratory-field setting. Group members were supervisory nurses from various organizations, who were randomly assigned to three groups in a balanced research design which included three group decision-making processes and three levels of problem-situation complexity in implementation. The dependent variable was the number of attempts at implementing group-derived solutions in home organizations. Read More

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September 1980

Influences on the rise of new organizations: the formation of women's medical societies.

Authors:
C B Marrett

Adm Sci Q 1980 Jun;25(2):185-99

This study examined the organizational context in which medical societies composed of women physicians were formed in the last decade of the nineteenth century in America. The inquiry was centered on the relationship between the number of existing organizations and the formation of a particular category of association. Two explanations for a relationship between the number of organizations and the establishment of women's medical societies were investigated: (1) the opportunities existing organizations allow for individuals to acquire skills they can use to start other organizations; and (2) the importance of social networks built within existing organizations. Read More

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Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings.

Authors:
M R Louis

Adm Sci Q 1980 Jun;25(2):226-51

Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Read More

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June 1980
4 Reads

Surface data and deep structure: observing the organization of professional training.

Authors:
D Light

Adm Sci Q 1979 Dec;24(4):551-9

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December 1979

Member and leader satisfaction with a professional association: an exchange perspective.

Authors:
G L Cafferata

Adm Sci Q 1979 Sep;24(3):472-83

The theories of exchange and of collective action were used to guide a study of the sources of satisfaction of the participants in a medical specialty society. This survey of two groups of participants, leaders and members, showed that the leaders of this nationally recognized professional association were more satisfied than were the regular members; that even though leaders and members have similar professional interests, the two groups evaluated the association differently; and that the involvement of leaders in the activities of other professional associations affected their satisfaction with this association. These results indicate empirical support for exchange theory and for the distinction among kinds of rewards made by the theory of collective action. Read More

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September 1979

The acquisition and utilization of technical information by administrative agencies.

Authors:
P Sabatier

Adm Sci Q 1978 Sep;23(3):396-417

Through a review and integration of the heretofore rather distinct literatures dealing with (1) policy making in administrative agencies, (2) the use of scientific and technical information in public policy, and (3) the utilization of policy research, this paper develops preliminary conceptual frameworks of the variables affecting the acquisition and the utilization of technical information by administrative agencies. Although previous research, based largely upon case studies of a few decisions within a single agency, has resulted in numerous bivariate hypotheses, the number of variables involved and recognized problems of generalizing the results suggest that future research be oriented toward a number of strategies capable of simultaneously examining the effect of numerous variables over large numbers of cases. Read More

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September 1978
1 Read

Dependence of technological routinization on structural variables in human service organizations.

Authors:
C A Glisson

Adm Sci Q 1978 Sep;23(3):383-95

The traditional explanation of the relationship between structure and technology in the design of an organization is developed to include the implementation phase. A model of the implementation phase uses worker discretion as a linking mechanism to explain the impact of structure on human service technologies. A path analysis of data from 30 human service organizations supports the specification of technological routinization in a dependent relationship with four structural variables. Read More

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September 1978

A social-justice approach to organizational evaluation.

Authors:
M Keeley

Adm Sci Q 1978 Jun;23(2):272-92

Contemporary conceptualizations of organizational effectiveness are selectively reviewed. Dominant goal-based models are found deficient in providing evaluative criteria that apply to the organization as a whole, that permit comparison across organizations, and that point to an appropriate direction for organizational change. It is argued that Barnardian participant-satisfaction model, augmented by a principle of social justice, provides a more useful framework for assessing organizational value. Read More

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A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design.

Adm Sci Q 1978 Jun;23(2):224-53

This article outlines a social information processing approach to explain job attitudes. In comparison with need-satisfaction and expectancy models to job attitudes and motivation, the social information processing perspective emphasizes the effects of context and the consequences of past choices, rather than individual predispositions and rational decision-making processes. When an individual develops statements about attitude or needs, he or she uses social information--information about past behavior and about what others think. Read More

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Job longevity as a situational factor in job satisfaction.

Authors:
R Katz

Adm Sci Q 1978 Jun;23(2):204-23

This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. Read More

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Size, technology, complexity, and structural differentiation: toward a theoretical synthesis.

Authors:
R Dewar J Hage

Adm Sci Q 1978 Mar;23(1):111-36

This paper proposes a theoretical synthesis of the concepts of organizational size, technology, complexity, and structural differentiation. It suggests and finds that the most important determinant of differentiation in the division of labor is the scope of an organization's task, a technological dimension, and not organizational size. Neither horizontal nor vertical differentiation is thought to be determined by size while the scope of the task is proposed as a determinant of horizontal differentiation. Read More

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Conceptual dimensions and boundaries of participation in organizations: a critical evaluation.

Adm Sci Q 1978 Mar;23(1):1-39

This paper outlines a broad conceptual framework for participation in organizations, which provides an overview of four defining dimensions of participatory social arrangements in organizations and their often complex interdependencies. The dimensions of participation discussed in this paper include the social theories underlying participatory social systems and the values and goals each of them implies for participation, the major properties of participatory systems, the outcomes of participation in organizations, and the contextual characteristics of participatory systems which limit or enhance their potential. The view of participation presented in this paper is of a multidimensional, dynamic social phenomenon, the study of which transcends questions unique to any given discipline paradigm and which requires an integration of micro and macro questions. Read More

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Designs for crisis decision units.

Authors:
C Smart I Vertinsky

Adm Sci Q 1977 Dec;22(4):640-57

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December 1977

Regulation of medical devices and organizational behavior in hospitals.

Authors:
K McNeil E Minihan

Adm Sci Q 1977 Sep;22(3):475-86

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September 1977

An empirical study of the technology of nursing subunits.

Adm Sci Q 1977 Jun;22(2):203-19

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Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment.

Authors:
R M Steers

Adm Sci Q 1977 Mar;22(1):46-56

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Structure and organizational resource allocation.

Authors:
M K Moch

Adm Sci Q 1976 Dec;21(4):661-74

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December 1976

Socialization in professional schools: a comparative study.

Authors:
D A Ondrack

Adm Sci Q 1975 Mar;20(1):97-103

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