65,988 results match your criteria Administrative Eyecare[Journal]


Reasons for admission in asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre.

Swiss Med Wkly 2020 May 27;150:w20252. Epub 2020 May 27.

Migrant Health Service, University of Basel Children's Hospital, Basel, Switzerland / Paediatric Infectious Disease and Vaccinology, University of Basel Children's Hospital, Basel, Switzerland / Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Background: In the last decade an increasing number of asylum-seeking children arrived in Europe and local healthcare systems have been challenged to adapt to their health needs. The aim of this study was to compare the spectrum of disease and management of asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children requiring hospital admission.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including health data from recently arrived asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking children admitted between January 2016 and December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20252DOI Listing

Socioeconomic Disparities in Colon Cancer Survival: Revisiting Neighborhood Poverty using Residential Histories.

Epidemiology 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Geography and Urban Studies, Temple University.

Background: Residential histories linked to cancer registry data provide new opportunities to examine cancer outcomes by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). We examined differences in regional-stage colon cancer survival estimates comparing models using a single neighborhood SES at diagnosis to models using neighborhood SES from residential histories.

Methods: We linked regional-stage colon cancers from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry diagnosed from 2006-2011 to LexisNexis administrative data to obtain residential histories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001216DOI Listing

Utility and perceived value of a provincial digital diagnostic imaging repository: a multi-methods study.

JMIR Form Res 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Institute for Health Systems Solutions and Virtual Care, Women's College Hospital, 76 Grenville Street, Toronto, CA.

Background: Timely and comprehensive diagnostic image sharing across institutional and regional boundaries can produce multiple benefits while supporting integrated models of care. In Ontario, Canada, the Diagnostic Imaging Common Service (DICS) was created as a centralized imaging repository to enable the sharing and viewing of diagnostic images and associated reports across hospital and community-based clinicians throughout the province.

Objective: (1) To explore real-world utilization and perceived clinical value of the DICS following the provision of system-wide access, and (2) identify strategies to optimize the technology platform functionality and encourage adoption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17220DOI Listing

Incidence of Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder Following Nonfatal Overdose in Commercially Insured Patients.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 May 1;3(5):e205852. Epub 2020 May 1.

Center for Emergency Care Policy and Research, Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Timely initiation and referral to treatment for patients with opioid use disorder seen in the emergency department is associated with reduced mortality. It is not known how often commercially insured adults obtain follow-up treatment after nonfatal opioid overdose.

Objective: To investigate the incidence of follow-up treatment following emergency department discharge after nonfatal opioid overdose and patient characteristics associated with receipt of follow-up treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.5852DOI Listing

Evaluating the use of posterior oropharyngeal saliva in a point-of-care assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 May 27:1-14. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, logistic problems associated with specimen collection limited the SARS-CoV-2 testing especially in the community. In this study, we assessed the use of posterior oropharyngeal saliva as specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in an automated point-of-care molecular assay. Archived nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and posterior oropharyngeal saliva specimens of 58 COVID-19 patients were tested with the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1775133DOI Listing

Sustainability of high flow in a Peruvian PICU: A qualitative analysis.

Int Nurs Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Aim: To describe nurse and physician perspectives on enabling factors that promote sustainability of high flow use in resource-limited settings.

Background: Over 650 000 children died from respiratory infections in 2016 globally. Many deaths could be prevented with access to advanced paediatric respiratory support, but sustainability of technology in resource-limited settings remains challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/inr.12589DOI Listing

Health Service Use among Individuals with Depression and Psychological Distress: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

Can J Psychiatry 2020 May 27:706743720927826. Epub 2020 May 27.

ICES, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: Relatively little is known about how health-care utilization differs among individuals with psychological distress compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: Ontario participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (2002) were linked to health administrative data to follow their health-care utilization patterns for up to 15 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0706743720927826DOI Listing

Tourist arrivals in four major economies: another side of economic policy uncertainty and fear.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Administrative and Social Sciences, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey.

In this paper, we examine the direction of causal relationships among migration-related fear, economic policy uncertainty, tourism, and economic growth in the panel economies of France, Germany, the UK, and the USA. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the interaction and interrelationship between these variables in a multivariate causality study, using a quarterly data over the period 1985Q1-2017Q4 via time-series causality approach as advanced by Emirmahmutoglu and Kose (Econ Model 28:870-876, 2011) that produces country-specific causality statistic and also captures slope heterogeneity in panel data. Empirical results show that migration-related fear is linked with EPU, tourism arrivals, and real income. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09219-9DOI Listing

Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 903-0213 Okinawa, Japan.

A major research question concerning global pelagic biodiversity remains unanswered: when did the apparent tropical biodiversity depression (i.e., bimodality of latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) begin? The bimodal LDG may be a consequence of recent ocean warming or of deep-time evolutionary speciation and extinction processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1916923117DOI Listing

Exploring whether teaching activity is a way to improve GPs' satisfaction and wellbeing: a cross-sectional study.

BJGP Open 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center of General Medicine and Public Health, Department of Family Medicine, Medecin Associé, Lausanne, Switzerland

Background: GP dissatisfaction and stress at work have been a growing domain of interest for several decades. However, few studies have focused on positive predictors of GPs' satisfaction and wellbeing. The diversity of activities could be one area that could be explored to aid job satisfaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgpopen20X101038DOI Listing

Can video consultations replace face-to-face interviews? Palliative medicine and the Covid-19 pandemic: rapid review.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Palliative Medicine, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

During the Covid-19 pandemic, a strategy to minimise face-to-face (FtF) visits and limit viral spread is essential. Video consultations offer clinical assessment despite restricted movement of people.We undertook a rapid literature review to identify the highest currently available level of evidence to inform this major change in clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2020-002326DOI Listing

Mapping tuberculosis prevalence in Ethiopia: protocol for a geospatial meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2020 May 25;10(5):e034704. Epub 2020 May 25.

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB), a major public health concern in Ethiopia, is distributed heterogeneously across the country. Mapping TB prevalence at national and subnational levels can provide information for designing and implementing control strategies. Data for spatial analysis can be obtained through systematic review of the literature, and spatial prediction can be done by meta-analysis of published data (geospatial meta-analysis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034704DOI Listing

Mitral Valve Surgical Volume and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair Outcomes: Impact of a Proposed Volume Requirement on Geographic Access.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 May 27:e016140. Epub 2020 May 27.

Smith Center for Outcomes Research Institute Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston MA.

Background There is an open Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services National Coverage Decision for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair (TMVr) and a recent multisociety consensus document suggesting that TMVr centers should achieve prespecified mitral valve replacement or repair (MVRr). Yet, little is known about the MVRr volume-TMVr outcome relationship. Methods and Results Using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services administrative claims from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018, we computed the Pearson correlation coefficient and performed multivariable hierarchical modeling to estimate the MVRr volume to TMVr outcome relationship for mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.016140DOI Listing

Out-of-School Vision Screening in North India: Estimating the Magnitude of Need.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2020 May 27:1-4. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of British Columbia and Program Director, SEVA Canada.

: Few studies have examined the extent to which school-based vision screening is sufficient to achieve universal coverage among school-aged children in India.: A rural administrative region ('Block') was examined. Government records provided the total population of the rural Block, the proportion of school-aged children, and school authorities in the Block provided the number of enrolled students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2020.1766513DOI Listing

Conducting and Reporting a Clinical Research Using Korean Healthcare Claims Database.

Korean J Fam Med 2020 May 20;41(3):146-152. Epub 2020 May 20.

College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.

An increasing number of studies are using healthcare claims databases to assess healthcare intervention utilization patterns or outcomes in real-world clinical settings. However, methodological issues affecting study design or data analysis can make conducting and reporting these types of studies difficult. This review presents an overview of the types of information contained in claims data, describes some advantages and limitations of using claims data for research purposes, and outlines steps for utilizing the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment and National Health Insurance Service databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.20.0062DOI Listing

Impact of hospital geographic remoteness on short-term outcomes after colorectal cancer resection using state-wide administrative data.

ANZ J Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Colorectal Surgical Unit, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: This study aimed to use validated coding algorithms, applied to a central repository of administrative data (AD), to report on short-term outcomes following resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) comparing regional to metropolitan Victorian hospitals.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study using prospectively gathered AD. The primary outcome was prolonged length of stay (LOS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.15992DOI Listing

Argonaute proteins: Structural features, functions and emerging roles.

J Adv Res 2020 Jul 29;24:317-324. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, Lanzhou 730046, China.

Argonaute proteins are highly conserved in almost all organisms. They not only involve in the biogenesis of small regulatory RNAs, but also regulate gene expression and defend against foreign pathogen invasion via small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways. As a key player in these pathways, the abnormal expression and/or mis-modifications of Argonaute proteins lead to the disorder of small RNA biogenesis and functions, thus influencing multiply biological processes and disease development, especially cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235612PMC

Possible Effects of Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water on Thyroid Health.

J Thyroid Res 2020 13;2020:5208657. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Community Medicine, Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala 680005, India.

Background: Perchlorate is an anion that occurs as a contaminant in groundwater. It originates from the improper disposal of ammonium perchlorate, a component of rocket fuel. The objective of this study was to explore whether the exposure to perchlorate in drinking water had an impact on the thyroid function of the population residing near an ammonium perchlorate plant in Kerala. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5208657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243002PMC

Prediction of mortality in Intensive Care Units: a multivariate feature selection.

J Biomed Inform 2020 May 23:103456. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Languages at Ribeirao Preto (FFCLRP), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

Context: The critical nature of patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) demands intensive monitoring of their vital signs as well as highly qualified professional assistance. The combination of these needs makes ICUs very expensive, which requires investment to be prioritized. Administrative issues emerge, and health institutions face dilemmas such as: "How many beds should an ICU provide to serve the population, at the lowest costs" and "Which is the most critical body information to monitor in an ICU?". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103456DOI Listing

VMAT2 inhibitors for the treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders.

Pharmacol Ther 2020 May 23:107580. Epub 2020 May 23.

Neurology and Basic Sciences, Division of Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Faculty Medical Offices, 11370 Anderson, Suite B-100, Loma Linda, CA 92350, United States of America. Electronic address:

Hyperkinetic movement disorders comprise a variety of conditions characterized by involuntary movements, which include but are not limited to tardive dyskinesia, chorea associated with Huntington's Disease, and tic disorders. The class of medications that have been used to treat these conditions includes Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitors. In 2008, the FDA approved tetrabenazine as a treatment for chorea associated with Huntington's Disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107580DOI Listing

Cancer classification from microarray data for genomic disorder research using optimal Discriminant Independent Component Analysis and Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2020 May 26:e3372. Epub 2020 May 26.

Lecturer Assistant, Department of Economic and Administrative Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Vietnam.

One of the challenging tasks in the medicinal field is genomic disorder investigation and its classification from the microarray dataset. The microarray dataset reorganization and its classification is more complex and expensive in the biomedical research area due to the larger number of features in the microarray dataset. In this paper, we construct a hybrid feature selection method such as T-test, Fisher ration, and Bayesian logistic regression to select genes and that reduce the time cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnm.3372DOI Listing

Effects of a Workplace Wellness Program on Employee Health, Health Beliefs, and Medical Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Finance, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Importance: Many employers use workplace wellness programs to improve employee health and reduce medical costs, but randomized evaluations of their efficacy are rare.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a comprehensive workplace wellness program on employee health, health beliefs, and medical use after 12 and 24 months.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This randomized clinical trial of 4834 employees of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was conducted from August 9, 2016, to April 26, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1321DOI Listing

The Evolving Role of the Professional Case Manager: A National Study From the Commission for Case Manager Certification: Part 2.

Prof Case Manag 2020 Jul/Aug;25(4):188-212

Hussein M. Tahan, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a case management consultant, expert, author, and researcher. Dr. Tahan has nearly 30 years of experience in hospital management and operations and professional case management practice; is a member of the editorial advisory board of Professional Case Management; author of multiple textbooks, including the CMSA's Core Curriculum for Case Management and Case Management: A Practical Guide for Education and Practice; chief knowledge editor of the Case Management Body of Knowledge online portal sponsored by the Commission for Case Manager Certification; and the recipient of CMSA's 2016 Lifetime Achievement Award for his contributions to the field of case management. MaryBeth Kurland, CAE, is CEO of the Commission for Case Manager Certification, the first and largest nationally accredited organization that certifies more than 48,000 professional case managers and nearly 2,300 disability management specialists. The commission is a nonprofit, volunteer organization that oversees the process of case manager certification with its CCM credential and the process of disability management specialist certification with its CDMS credential. Michelle Baker, BS, RN, CRRN, CCM, is the 2019-2020 chair of the Commission for Case Manager Certification. Michelle is also Associate Director, Network Services, for Paradigm Catastrophic Care Management. Her primary areas of focus include administrative management of workers' compensation catastrophic nurse case managers and program development/implementation and training of the clinical network. Michelle serves as a subject matter expert of relevant applications and leads preceptors in preparation of new case managers.

Purpose: The purpose of the national role and function study was to identify the essential activities and necessary knowledge areas for effective professional case management practice from the perspective of those directly involved. The study also aimed to inform the relevance and currency of the blueprint for the case management certification examination.

Primary Practice Settings: The national study covered the diverse case management practices and/or work settings across the full continuum of health and human services and numerous professional disciplines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NCM.0000000000000439DOI Listing

Serial Hurricanes The 2017 Hurricane Public Health Responses: Case Studies Illustrating the Role of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Emergency Preparedness Program.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 May 26:1-5. Epub 2020 May 26.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of State and Local Readiness (DSLR), Public Health Emergency Preparedness(PHEP) program funds 62 recipients to strengthen capability standards to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. Recipients use these PHEP resources in addition to CDC's administrative and scientific guidance to support preparedness and response program planning and requirements. It is expected that public health agencies develop and maintain comprehensive emergency preparedness and response plans in preparation for disasters such as hurricanes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.75DOI Listing

A spatial analysis of childhood cancer and industrial air pollution in a metropolitan area of Colombia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 May 26:e28353. Epub 2020 May 26.

Public Health Observatory of Santander, Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Background: Air pollutants are considered carcinogenic to humans. In some European countries, an association between industrial air pollution and childhood cancer has been established. This relationship has not been addressed in Latin America, despite the spatial variability of air pollutants that may limit the extrapolation of the results to other geographical areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28353DOI Listing

A wavelet coherence analysis: nexus between urbanization and environmental sustainability.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, European University of Lefke, Lefke, Northern Cyprus, TR-10, Mersin, Turkey.

The present study aims to explore the co-movement between urbanization and environmental sustainability for the period 1950 to 2014 using the wavelet coherence technique within the global framework. The wavelet coherence technique allows us to investigate both the long-run and short-term causal relationships between urbanization and environmental sustainability within the global framework. The findings reveal that (i) wavelet correlation from the global perspectives indicates a significant wavelet relationship between urbanization and environmental sustainability for medium- and long-term horizons; however, the correlations are not significant for the short-term horizons; (ii) significant vulnerabilities in urbanization and environmental sustainability are observed at different periods and different frequency levels; (iii) urbanization has reliable power for explaining environmental sustainability at different periods between 1970 and 2000. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09305-yDOI Listing

Revisiting the causal nexus between coal energy consumption, economic growth, and pollutant emission: sorting out the causality.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Faculty of Economics Administrative and Social sciences, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Anthropogenic activities in search of livelihood come with its environmental implications. This is in line with the current crusade of the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) target 7 and 13 for effective clean energy access and mitigating the adverse effect of climate change issues. Since the seminal study of Kraft and Kraft (1978) on the nexus between energy and gross national product, there has been no consensus in the extant literature in the last four decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09265-3DOI Listing

Implementation of a Physician Incentive Program for 18-Month Developmental Screening in Ontario, Canada.

J Pediatr 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

ICES, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: To evaluate factors associated with uptake of a financial incentive for developmental screening at an enhanced 18-month well-child visit (EWCV) in Ontario, Canada.

Study Design: Population-based cohort study using linked administrative data of children (17-24 months of age) eligible for EWCV between 2009 and 2017. Logistic regression modeled associations of EWCV receipt by provider and patient characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.016DOI Listing

The impact of extending nurse working hours on staff sickness absence: Evidence from a large mental health hospital in England.

Int J Nurs Stud 2020 May 11:103611. Epub 2020 May 11.

The York Management School, University of York, Freboys Lane, Heslington, York, YO10 5GD, United Kingdom.

Background: A pressing international concern is the issue of mental health workforce capacity, which is also of concern in England where staff attrition rates are significantly higher than in physical health services. Increasing demand for mental health services has led to severe financial pressures resulting in staff shortages, increased workloads, and work-related stress, with health care providers testing new models of care to reduce cost. Previous evidence suggests shift work can negatively affect health and wellbeing (increased accidents, fatigue, absenteeism) but can be perceived as beneficial by both employers and employees (fewer handovers, less overtime, cost savings). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103611DOI Listing

Tuberculosis infection prevention and control: why we need a whole systems approach.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 May 25;9(1):56. Epub 2020 May 25.

TB Centre, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures to reduce transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) in health facilities are well described but poorly implemented. The implementation of TB IPC has been assessed primarily through quantitative and structured approaches that treat administrative, environmental, and personal protective measures as discrete entities. We present an on-going project entitled Umoya omuhle ("good air"), conducted in two provinces of South Africa, that adopts an interdisciplinary, 'whole systems' approach to problem analysis and intervention development for reducing nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through improved IPC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00667-6DOI Listing

Acute lower respiratory infections in Indigenous infants in Australia's Northern Territory across three eras of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use (2006-15): a population-based cohort study.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020 Jun;4(6):425-434

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia; Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children's Hospital, Centre for Children's Health Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: The burden of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in Indigenous children of Australia's Northern Territory is among the highest globally. No published data exists on the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction on ALRIs in this population beyond 2005. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of ALRI admissions to hospital in Indigenous infants in the Northern Territory from 2006 to 2015, across three periods of different PCV use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30090-0DOI Listing

Population-based stroke surveillance using big data: state-wide epidemiological trends in admissions and mortality in New South Wales, Australia.

Neurol Res 2020 May 25:1-10. Epub 2020 May 25.

Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research , Liverpool (Sydney), Australia.

Objectives: Epidemiological trends for major causes of death and disability, such as stroke, may be monitored using administrative data to guide public health initiatives and service delivery.

Methods: We calculated admissions rates for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage between 1 January 2005 and December 31, 2013 and rates of 30-day mortality and 365-day mortality in 30-day survivors to 31 December 2014 for patients aged 15 years or older from New South Wales, Australia. Annual Average Percentage Change in rates was estimated using negative binomial regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2020.1766860DOI Listing

How Will Artificial Intelligence Affect Patient-Clinician Relationships?

AMA J Ethics 2020 May 1;22(5):E395-400. Epub 2020 May 1.

Third-year clinical fellow in pediatric hematology and oncology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, Missouri.

Artificial intelligence (AI) could improve the efficiency and accuracy of health care delivery, but how will AI influence the patient-clinician relationship? While many suggest that AI might improve the patient-clinician relationship, various underlying assumptions will need to be addressed to bring these potential benefits to fruition. Will off-loading tedious work result in less time spent on administrative burden during patient visits? If so, will clinicians use this extra time to engage relationally with their patients? Moreover, given the desire and opportunity, will clinicians have the ability to engage in effective relationship building with their patients? In order for the best-case scenario to become a reality, clinicians and technology developers must recognize and address these assumptions during the development of AI and its implementation in health care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2020.395DOI Listing

A Novel X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Deficient Variant Showing Attenuated Epstein-Barr Virus Response.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Khoo Teck Puat National University Children's Medical Institute, National University Health System, Singapore.

We report on 2 Asian siblings with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency that arose from a novel deletion that presented with Epstein-Barr virus disease and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. This disease is ascribed to dysfunction in the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptor pathway, tested using a modified muramyl dipeptide-mediated assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa048DOI Listing

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intravenous remdesivir in adult patients with severe COVID-19: study protocol for a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.

Trials 2020 May 24;21(1):422. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel corinavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2 virus), was fistly reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China towards the end of 2019. Large-scale spread within China and internationally led the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 virus infection include asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory symptoms, severe viral pneumonia with respiratory failure, and even death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04352-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245636PMC

Preliminary study on HIV status disclosure to perinatal infected children: retrospective analysis of administrative records from a pediatric HIV clinic in the southern United States.

BMC Res Notes 2020 May 24;13(1):253. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Objective: The World Health Organization recommends disclosing HIV-status between 6 and 12 years; American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children are informed at "school age." Neither suggests an optimal age when children should learn of their status to improve viral load suppression. Considering that virally suppressed people do not transmit HIV and that interrupting the transmission cycle is critical to ending the HIV epidemic, our objective is to examine the relationship between age of disclosure and viral load suppression by evaluating data from a pediatric HIV clinic in the southern United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05097-zDOI Listing

Could venous thromboembolism and major bleeding be indicators of lung cancer mortality? A nationwide database study.

BMC Cancer 2020 May 24;20(1):461. Epub 2020 May 24.

Biostatistics and Bioinformatics (DIM), University Hospital, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Dijon, France.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly prevalent in cancer patients and can cause severe morbidity. VTE treatment is essential, but anticoagulation increases the risk of major bleeding. The purpose was to evaluate the impact of VTE and major bleeding on survival and to identify significant risk factors for these events in lung cancer patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06930-1DOI Listing

[Risk factors and their interaction on cognitive impairment in the elderly in China: case-control study].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 May;41(5):705-710

Division of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance, National Center for Chronic and Non- communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

To investigate the association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype, sleep problem, olfaction problems, chronic constipation and their interactions on cognitive impairment in the elderly aged 60 and above. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used in 6 provinces (autonomous administrative regions and municipalities) to select the sample. 1 300 cases with cognitive impairment and 2 600 controls without cognitive impairment were recruited and matched according to their age, gender and resident area in a 1∶2 case-control study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200105-00010DOI Listing

Characteristics of health care related to mental health and substance use disorders among Community Health Centre clients in Ontario: a population-based cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2020 Apr-Jun;8(2):E391-E399. Epub 2020 May 23.

Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing (Booth), Western University; ICES Western (Richard, Li, Shariff), London, Ont.; Alliance for Healthier Communities (Rayner), Toronto, Ont.

Background: Community Health Centre (CHC) client populations with a history of mental illness or substance use disorders, or both, are not described well in the literature. We identified CHC clients in Ontario with a history of health care related to mental health or substance use disorders, or both, and describe their demographic characteristics, health system use and related health risks in comparison to other people in the province with similar diagnoses who did not use CHC services.

Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study using provincial health administrative data among Ontario residents aged 21-105 years with a previously established medical history of a mental illness or substance use disorder, or both. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20190089DOI Listing

Prevalence and associated factors for carriage of Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBLs or carbapenemase and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hong Kong Community.

J Infect 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Departments of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Objectives: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong community to estimate the carriage prevalence, associated factors and genotypes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE).

Methods: Seemingly healthy subjects were asked to provide nasal, handprint and stool samples from March to April 2017. Isolates were characterized by molecular methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.033DOI Listing

Prevalence and incidence of various Cancer subtypes in patients with heart failure vs matched controls.

Int J Cardiol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Cardiology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University, Herlev, Denmark; Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) may be at increased risks of cancer, but the magnitude of risk for various cancer subtypes is insufficiently investigated.

Method: Using the Danish Nationwide administrative databases between 1997 and 2017, we estimated the prevalence, incidence and relative risk for all-cause cancer in new-diagnosed HF vs. age and sex-matched controls (up to 5 controls per HF case) before and after adjustment for comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.05.035DOI Listing

A Population-based Study of Immunotherapy-related Toxicities in Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Background: Population-level data regarding incidences of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are lacking. This study evaluated the frequencies of irAEs among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Patients And Methods: Administrative claims data from a large United States commercial insurance database (OptumLabs Data Warehouse) were used to retrospectively identify patients with NSCLC between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017 who received a programmed death-ligand 1/programmed cell death protein-1 (PD(L)-1) inhibitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.04.003DOI Listing

Inferring super-spreading from transmission clusters of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore.

J Hosp Infect 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom; Respiratory Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Super-spreading events in an outbreak can change the nature of an epidemic. Therefore, it is useful for public health teams to determine if an ongoing outbreak has any contribution from such events, which may be amenable to interventions. We estimated the basic reproductive number (R) and the dispersion factor (k) from empirical data on clusters of epidemiologically-linked COVID-19 cases in Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242928PMC

Safety in numbers as administrative data supports the use of endovascular aneurysm repair in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

J Vasc Surg 2020 Jun;71(6):1879-1880

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.07.071DOI Listing

Incidence Trends of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes in British Columbia, Canada.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun;221:165-173.e2

Divisions of Diabetes and Endocrinology, British Columbia Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: To estimate the 11-year incidence trend of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at and after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study using a population-based administrative cohort diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at <20 years of age from 2002 to 2012 in British Columbia, Canada. DKA at (1 episode per individual) and DKA after (multiple episodes per individual) the diagnosis of diabetes were defined as DKA occurring ≤14 days or >14 days, respectively, from diagnosis, identified using International Classification of Diseases,9th and 10theditions codes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.069DOI Listing

Time to spatialise epidemiology in China.

Lancet Glob Health 2020 Jun;8(6):e764-e765

International Initiative on Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology (ISLE), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30120-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241977PMC

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in human breastmilk.

Lancet 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm 89081, Germany. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31181-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241971PMC

Experimental nitrogen addition alters structure and function of a boreal poor fen: Implications for critical loads.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 5;733:138619. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Geography and the Environment, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA; Texas Tech University, Climate Science Center, Lubbock, TX 79409-3131, USA.

Bogs and fens cover 6 and 21%, respectively, of the 140,329 km Oil Sands Administrative Area in northern Alberta. Regional background atmospheric N deposition is low (<2 kg N ha yr), but oil sands development has led to increasing N deposition (as high as 17 kg N ha yr). To examine responses to N deposition, over five years, we experimentally applied N (as NHNO) to a poor fen near Mariana Lake, Alberta, unaffected by oil sands activities, at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha yr, plus controls (no water or N addition). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138619DOI Listing

Rare cancers in India: A road less travelled.

Indian J Cancer 2020 Apr-Jun;57(2):139-143

Department of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Globally, rare cancers as a group are commoner than any single common cancer. They represent an unmet medical need, and this issue gets further amplified in India due to various reasons, including the limited accessibility of healthcare system to the population at large. The scarce available data yet only represents the tip of the iceberg, due to poor registration and incomplete medical cover. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijc.IJC_384_19DOI Listing

Renewed evidence of environmental sustainability from globalization and energy consumption over economic growth in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Faculty of Economics Administrative and Social sciences, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey.

This study is primarily motivated by exploring the role of globalization, energy intensity over economic expansion, and its impact on environmental sustainability in China. To this end, a sequence of econometrics tests were conducted to address this hypothesized relationship. The choice of China is informed by intense industrial activities and being one of the leading world economies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08866-2DOI Listing