17,389 results match your criteria Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment[Journal]


[New tobacco products, a threat for tobacco control and public health of Mexico].

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):598-604

Departamento de Investigación sobre Tabaco, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Cuernavaca, Morelos. México.

The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. Read More

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Neuronal cell adhesion molecule regulating neural systems underlying addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey.

Aims: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Can Your DNA Influence Your Bet-Placing? The Impact of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene on Gambling Tasks.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:458. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Sino-Britain Centre for Cognition and Ageing Research, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Are we placing a bet by ourselves or has our DNA already made the decision for us? Previous research has suggested that some genes related to dopamine or serotonin can influence our non-bet-placing decision-making, but little is known about whether cannabinoid-related genes can impact how much people bet. To investigate this issue, we focused on rs1049353, a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (), because it is related to addictive behavior and reward processing. In this study ( = 377), we used a modified Cambridge gambling task to test the effect of polymorphism on how much people bet. Read More

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November 2018

Intermittent blockade of OGFr and treatment of autoimmune disorders.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2018 Dec 12:1535370218817746. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neural & Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

Impact Statement: This mini-review presents information on the intermittent blockade of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis by low-dose naltrexone (LDN), and the role of enkephalin (i.e. OGF) in autoimmune disorders, specifically multiple sclerosis, Crohn's, and fibromyalgia. Read More

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December 2018

Work addiction: An organizational behavior as well as an addictive behavior?

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Department of Behavioral Science and Integrative Brain and Cognition Center, University of Ariel , Ariel, Israel.

In their critical review, Griffiths et al. (2018) discussed 10 myths in the study of work addiction, and addressed the need to conceptualize and investigate this area of research more carefully. In this commentary, we expand their arguments, suggesting that indeed some of the popular myths have solid evidence-based results in the organizational literature. Read More

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December 2018

Diphenhydramine dependence via Port-A-Cath in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Beitou Branch, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Diphenhydramine is a potentially addictive medication. Because the route of administration significantly affects drug delivery to the brain, intramuscular injection of diphenhydramine can trigger more euphoric and rewarding effect, facilitating dependence liability. Like narcotics, diphenhydramine is used in a variety of medical conditions, and an underlying disorder may mask the dependence. Read More

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December 2018

Drug Addiction: From Neuroscience to Ethics.

Front Psychiatry 2018 19;9:595. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Collège de France and Institut Pasteur CNRS, Paris, France.

In the present paper, we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processing in the brain. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processing provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction. Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System's neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. Read More

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November 2018

Cryo-EM structure of the native butyrylcholinesterase tetramer reveals a dimer of dimers stabilized by a superhelical assembly.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands;

The quaternary structures of the cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), are essential for their localization and function. Of practical importance, BChE is a promising therapeutic candidate for intoxication by organophosphate nerve agents and insecticides, and for detoxification of addictive substances. Efficacy of the recombinant enzyme hinges on its having a long circulatory half-life; this, in turn, depends strongly on its ability to tetramerize. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Invasive and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation Interventions for Addiction.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PA3.227, PO box 22660, 1100DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes. Read More

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December 2018
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Nicotine and Cotinine Inhibit Catalase and Glutathione Reductase Activity Contributing to the Impaired Osteogenesis of SCP-1 Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 6;2018:3172480. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Traumatology, University of Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstraße 95, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Cigarette smoking has been identified as a major risk factor for osteoporosis decades ago. Several studies have shown a direct relationship between cigarette smoking, decreased bone mineral density, and impaired fracture healing. However, the mechanisms behind impaired fracture healing and cigarette smoking are yet to be elucidated. Read More

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November 2018

Efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants in patients with ischemic heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health and Service Evaluation, Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona.

To assess the efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants in adults with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We gathered all available randomized-controlled trials comparing antidepressants versus placebo or other antidepressants in adults with IHD. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms at the study endpoint, as measured by validated rating scales. Read More

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December 2018

A complete national cohort study of prescriptions of analgesics and benzodiazepines to cancer survivors in Norway 10 years after diagnosis.

Pain 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Chronic pain due to either surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy is prevalent in long-term cancer survivors. Chronic pain due to successful cancer treatment should be treated as chronic non-malignant pain, primarily with non-pharmacological strategies. Based on complete national data from the Cancer registry of Norway and the Norwegian prescription database the aim of this study was to compare the use of non-opioid analgesics, opioids and benzodiazepines ten years after cancer diagnosis in long-term cancer survivors and the age and gender adjusted general population. Read More

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December 2018
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Acute effect of ambient air pollution on hospitalization in patients with hypertension: A time-series study in Shijiazhuang, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 7;170:286-292. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China; Henan International Collaborative Laboratory for Air Pollution Health Effects and Intervention, Xinxiang 453003, China.

Although numerous studies have investigated the association between air pollution and hospitalization, few studies have focused on the health effect of air pollution on populations with hypertension. In this study, we conducted a time-series study to investigate the acute adverse effect of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM], inhalable particulate matter [PM], nitrogen dioxide [NO], sulfur dioxide [SO], ozone [O], and carbon monoxide [CO]) on hospitalization of patients for hypertension in Shijiazhuang, China, from 2013 to 2016. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized addictive model adjusting for weather conditions, day of the week, and long-term and seasonal trends was used. Read More

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December 2018
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Response to Campbell et al., (2018) - Health risk perceptions and reasons for use of tobacco products among clients in addictions treatment.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 2;90:378-379. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Addictions Research Group, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Time perception and impulsivity: A proposed relationship in addictive disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

INSERM 1114, Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France; Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France; Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), 67000, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:

Addictive disorders are characterized by impulsive behavior that leads to difficulties in preventing certain behaviors despite negative consequences. This symptom predisposes to a vulnerability in developing addictive disorders and is also aggravated by the addiction process itself. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of impulsivity is a challenge for understanding the pathophysiology of addiction. Read More

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December 2018
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α4β2 Nicotinic receptor desensitizing compounds can decrease self-administration of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Drug Discovery Program and Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist. Sazetidine-A has been shown in our previous studies to significantly reduce nicotine and alcohol self-administration in rats. The question arises whether sazetidine-A would reduce self-administration of other addictive drugs as well. Read More

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December 2018

[Affective temperaments in drug addicts: A case-control study].

Encephale 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Service de psychiatrie C, CHU Hédi-Chaker de Sfax, faculté de médecine de Sfax, Tunisie.

Introduction: The study of affective temperaments is a dimensional approach to personality that would provide a better understanding of the emergence of psychopathological disorders including addictive behaviors. However, in the literature, there is a lack of studies focusing on the links between this type of disorder and affective temperaments. Our objectives were to study the distribution of the five known affective temperaments in a group of drug addicts compared to a control group, and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with emotional traits. Read More

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December 2018

Bibliometric analysis of global Lassa fever research (1970-2017): a 47 - year study.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 10;18(1):639. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University Camilo José Cela, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Lassa fever has been a public health concern in the West African sub-region where it is endemic and a latent threat to the world at large. We investigated the trend in Lassa fever research using bibliometric approach.

Methods: We used the SCOPUS database employing "Lassa fever" as search descriptor. Read More

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December 2018

Non-nociceptive roles of opioids in the CNS: opioids' effects on neurogenesis, learning, memory and affect.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Shirley and Stefan Hatos Center for Neuropharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mortality due to opioid use has grown to the point where, for the first time in history, opioid-related deaths exceed those caused by car accidents in many states in the United States. Changes in the prescribing of opioids for pain and the illicit use of fentanyl (and derivatives) have contributed to the current epidemic. Less known is the impact of opioids on hippocampal neurogenesis, the functional manipulation of which may improve the deleterious effects of opioid use. Read More

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December 2018
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Symptoms of 'food addiction' in binge eating disorder using the Yale Food Addiction Scale version 2.0.

Appetite 2018 Nov 30;133:362-369. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada.

'Food addiction' refers to the idea that certain highly palatable foods can trigger an addictive-like process in susceptible individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of 'food addiction' symptoms in binge eating disorder (BED) using the second version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS 2.0). Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

What matters is when you play: Investigating the relationship between online video games addiction and time spent playing over specific day phases.

Addict Behav Rep 2018 Dec 22;8:185-188. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy.

Online video gaming is now widely considered an activity possibly related to addictive behaviors, so that the diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is now included both in DSM-5 and ICD-11; however, there is still debate about some specific features of such disorder. One debated aspect is time spent playing: IGD gamers certainly play a high amount of time, but, on the other hand, also highly-engaged individuals or people working with video games (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Wealth Acquisition and Hoarding Addictive Disorder: A Proposed Diagnostic Classification.

Explore (NY) 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Private practice, Baltimore, Maryland.

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November 2018

Novel complication of Flakka: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap.

Am J Emerg Med 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Bakırköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.

Flakka, as the newest member of the synthetic cathinone group, is a substance with serious cardiovascular, neurological, psychiatric, infectious effects and addictive potential. There are only a few case reports and laboratory studies in the literature and there is no dermatological side effects reported yet. We present the first Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) overlap case after Flakka use. Read More

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November 2018

Changes over time in Lithuanian schoolchildren's attitudes toward addictive behaviors: Promoting and preventing factors.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208481. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background: Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed.

Aim: To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors.

Methods: The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period. Read More

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December 2018

Prevention and Treatment of Opioid Misuse and Addiction: A Review.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland.

Importance: More than 42 000 Americans died of opioid overdoses in 2016, and the fatalities continue to increase. This review analyzes the factors that triggered the opioid crisis and its further evolution, along with the interventions to manage and prevent opioid use disorder (OUD), which are fundamental for curtailing the opioid crisis.

Observations: Opioid drugs are among the most powerful analgesics but also among the most addictive. Read More

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December 2018
11 Reads

Hemodynamic and neuronal responses to cocaine differ in awake versus anesthetized animals: Optical brain imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Gambling and money games disorder

Rev Prat 2017 12;67(10):1107-1110

Département de psychiatrieaddictologie, hôpital Beaujon, France.

Gambling and money games disorder. Pathological gambling was recently re-categorized, in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), into the group of substance-related and addictive disorders and renamed « gambling disorder ». This change confirms the conceptualization of gambling disorder as an addiction. Read More

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December 2017

Manifesto for a European research network into Problematic Usage of the Internet.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Nov 10;28(11):1232-1246. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Cambridge & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

The Internet is now all-pervasive across much of the globe. While it has positive uses (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Brain hyperserotonemia causes autism-relevant social deficits in mice.

Mol Autism 2018 26;9:60. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Addictive Substance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8506 Japan.

Background: Hyperserotonemia in the brain is suspected to be an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reducing serotonin levels in the brain through modulation of serotonin transporter function may improve ASD symptoms.

Methods: We analyzed behavior and gene expression to unveil the causal mechanism of ASD-relevant social deficits using serotonin transporter () knockout mice. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of social exclusion and physical pain in chronic opioid maintenance treatment: fMRI correlates.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Square J5, D-68159 Mannheim, Germany.

Opioids interact with systems processing pain and social stimuli. Both systems are crucial for responding to strains of everyday life and both are linked to relapse risk in opioid-dependent patients. The investigation of those systems seems essential to better understand opioid addiction as a whole. Read More

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November 2018

Association between social media use (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook) and depressive symptoms: Are Twitter users at higher risk?

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2018 Nov 30:20764018814270. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Perú.

Background:: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between social media dependence and depressive symptoms and also, to characterize the level of dependence. It was a transversal, analytical research.

Subjects And Methods:: The stratified sample was 212 students from a private university that used Facebook, Instagram and/or Twitter. Read More

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November 2018

Body mass index and craving predict 24-month hospital readmissions of alcohol-dependent in-patients following withdrawal.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany.

Objective: Addictive alcohol drinking, craving, and overeating share common etiopathological mechanisms. We investigated whether body mass index (BMI) and craving predict outcome of alcohol-dependent in-patients.

Method: The prospective study included 101 male and 72 female early-abstinent alcohol-dependent in-patients. Read More

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November 2018
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Spiritual belief and its link with potentially addictive behaviors in a youth sample in Switzerland.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Route de la Corniche 10, Lausanne 1010, Switzerland, Phone: +41 213 147 375, Fax: +41 213 147 373.

Background Earlier studies suggested a positive impact of spirituality on addictive disorders, but this effect has rarely been studied in a large adolescent and young adult population. Aim To examine the association between spiritual beliefs (general belief, the supporting role of spiritual belief, the critical role of spiritual belief) and potentially addictive behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drugs, excessive Internet use and gambling). Methods Data were collected using online self-report questionnaires among a sample of 5179 adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years in post-mandatory education in Switzerland. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Vaping as an alternative to smoking relapse following brief lapse.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

New Nicotine Alliance, London, UK.

Background And Aims: E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking in the UK. Although many smokers quit, relapse is common. Historically, the literature has reported strong associations between tobacco smoking lapse and relapse following a quit attempt. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads

Effect of Abstinence from Social Media on Time Perception: Differences between Low- and At-Risk for Social Media "Addiction" Groups.

Psychiatr Q 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Information Systems and Decision Sciences, California State University, 800 N. State College Blvd., Fullerton, CA, 92834, USA.

Time distortion is a hallmark feature of addictive behaviors including excessive technology use. It has clinically significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Additional information on such distortions after prolonged abstinence from technology use is needed. Read More

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November 2018

Polydrug use trajectories and differences in impulsivity among adolescents.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2018 Sep-Dec;18(3):235-244. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Psychology, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Spain.

: Although alcohol, tobacco and cannabis are the most widely consumed drugs, sparse data exist regarding polydrug use in adolescents and its relationship with impulsivity. This study aims to identify trajectories of polydrug use and analyze differences in impulsivity between them. : A total of 1,565 adolescents (54. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Rates and Impact of Adherence to Recommended Care for Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

J Gen Intern Med 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Background: Unhealthy alcohol use is a major worldwide health problem. Yet few studies have assessed provider adherence to the alcohol-related care recommended in clinical practice guidelines, nor links between adherence to recommended care and outcomes.

Objectives: To describe quality of care for unhealthy alcohol use and its impacts on drinking behavior RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of quality of alcohol care for the population of patients screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use in a large Veterans Affairs health system. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Problematic Gaming and Internet Use but Not Gambling May Be Overrepresented in Sexual Minorities - A Pilot Population Web Survey Study.

Front Psychol 2018 13;9:2184. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Malmö Addiction Center, Malmö, Sweden.

Substance-related addictive disorders are known to be overrepresented in non-heterosexual individuals, but it is largely unknown whether this is also the case for behavioral addictions such as problem gaming and gambling. This study aimed, in a pilot web survey design, to assess whether problematic gambling, gaming and internet use may be more common in individuals with a non-heterosexual orientation. An online survey was distributed through media and social media, and answered by 605 individuals (51% women and 11% non-heterosexual). Read More

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November 2018

Transancestral GWAS of alcohol dependence reveals common genetic underpinnings with psychiatric disorders.

Authors:
Raymond K Walters Renato Polimanti Emma C Johnson Jeanette N McClintick Mark J Adams Amy E Adkins Fazil Aliev Silviu-Alin Bacanu Anthony Batzler Sarah Bertelsen Joanna M Biernacka Tim B Bigdeli Li-Shiun Chen Toni-Kim Clarke Yi-Ling Chou Franziska Degenhardt Anna R Docherty Alexis C Edwards Pierre Fontanillas Jerome C Foo Louis Fox Josef Frank Ina Giegling Scott Gordon Laura M Hack Annette M Hartmann Sarah M Hartz Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach Stefan Herms Colin Hodgkinson Per Hoffmann Jouke Jan Hottenga Martin A Kennedy Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen Bettina Konte Jari Lahti Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen Dongbing Lai Lannie Ligthart Anu Loukola Brion S Maher Hamdi Mbarek Andrew M McIntosh Matthew B McQueen Jacquelyn L Meyers Yuri Milaneschi Teemu Palviainen John F Pearson Roseann E Peterson Samuli Ripatti Euijung Ryu Nancy L Saccone Jessica E Salvatore Sandra Sanchez-Roige Melanie Schwandt Richard Sherva Fabian Streit Jana Strohmaier Nathaniel Thomas Jen-Chyong Wang Bradley T Webb Robbee Wedow Leah Wetherill Amanda G Wills Jason D Boardman Danfeng Chen Doo-Sup Choi William E Copeland Robert C Culverhouse Norbert Dahmen Louisa Degenhardt Benjamin W Domingue Sarah L Elson Mark A Frye Wolfgang Gäbel Caroline Hayward Marcus Ising Margaret Keyes Falk Kiefer John Kramer Samuel Kuperman Susanne Lucae Michael T Lynskey Wolfgang Maier Karl Mann Satu Männistö Bertram Müller-Myhsok Alison D Murray John I Nurnberger Aarno Palotie Ulrich Preuss Katri Räikkönen Maureen D Reynolds Monika Ridinger Norbert Scherbaum Marc A Schuckit Michael Soyka Jens Treutlein Stephanie Witt Norbert Wodarz Peter Zill Daniel E Adkins Joseph M Boden Dorret I Boomsma Laura J Bierut Sandra A Brown Kathleen K Bucholz Sven Cichon E Jane Costello Harriet de Wit Nancy Diazgranados Danielle M Dick Johan G Eriksson Lindsay A Farrer Tatiana M Foroud Nathan A Gillespie Alison M Goate David Goldman Richard A Grucza Dana B Hancock Kathleen Mullan Harris Andrew C Heath Victor Hesselbrock John K Hewitt Christian J Hopfer John Horwood William Iacono Eric O Johnson Jaakko A Kaprio Victor M Karpyak Kenneth S Kendler Henry R Kranzler Kenneth Krauter Paul Lichtenstein Penelope A Lind Matt McGue James MacKillop Pamela A F Madden Hermine H Maes Patrik Magnusson Nicholas G Martin Sarah E Medland Grant W Montgomery Elliot C Nelson Markus M Nöthen Abraham A Palmer Nancy L Pedersen Brenda W J H Penninx Bernice Porjesz John P Rice Marcella Rietschel Brien P Riley Richard Rose Dan Rujescu Pei-Hong Shen Judy Silberg Michael C Stallings Ralph E Tarter Michael M Vanyukov Scott Vrieze Tamara L Wall John B Whitfield Hongyu Zhao Benjamin M Neale Joel Gelernter Howard J Edenberg Arpana Agrawal

Nat Neurosci 2018 Dec 26;21(12):1656-1669. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Liability to alcohol dependence (AD) is heritable, but little is known about its complex polygenic architecture or its genetic relationship with other disorders. To discover loci associated with AD and characterize the relationship between AD and other psychiatric and behavioral outcomes, we carried out the largest genome-wide association study to date of DSM-IV-diagnosed AD. Genome-wide data on 14,904 individuals with AD and 37,944 controls from 28 case-control and family-based studies were meta-analyzed, stratified by genetic ancestry (European, n = 46,568; African, n = 6,280). Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Reduces the Reinstatement of Methamphetamine-Seeking and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Methamphetamine Self-Administered Rats.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant with reinforcing properties. Our laboratory previously found that Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol, an exogenous cannabinoid, suppressed the reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the elevation of endocannabinoids modulates the reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior and emotional changes in methamphetamine self-administered rats. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Cardiovascular complications and related risk factors underlying opium consumption.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Opium is considered as the second most abused addictive compound in worldwide. It seems that one of the causes for common consumption of opium in many countries is a traditional belief, even among medical personnel, through which opium might have advantageous influences on cardiovascular events and be beneficial in controlling hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. According to several investigations, it is thought that opium not only has no beneficial effects on cardiovascular events, but it might have deleterious influences on these settings. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

The potential role of the orexin reward system in future treatments for opioid drug abuse.

Brain Res 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Despite a history of more than a century of intense research in drug addiction, with currently available medication and behavioral therapy, the rate of relapse to drug use is 40-60 percent within a year after the cessation of treatment. The discovery of the neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin in 1998 and subsequent research during the past 20 years revealed an important role for the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in driving the reward pathway. The present review includes an overview of the orexinergic system and focuses on the role of LH orexin neurons targeting different components of the brain's reward pathway in addictive behaviors. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Elevated cannabis demand is associated with driving after cannabis use in a crowd-sourced sample of adults.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences.

Epidemiological and roadside studies suggest that driving after cannabis use (DACU) is prevalent in the United States, and rates have increased following legalization or decriminalization of cannabis in some U.S. states. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

The Association Between an Addictive Tendency Toward Food and Metabolic Characteristics in the General Newfoundland Population.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 9;9:661. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Complex Disease Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada.

Our previous study of 29 obese food addiction (FA) patients found that FA is associated with lipid profiles and hormones which may be a factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR). However, there is currently no data available regarding the relationship between FA symptoms and metabolic characteristics of CVD and IR in the general population. We designed this study to investigate the correlation between FA symptoms with lipid profiles and IR in men and women of the general Newfoundland population. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Nicotine pre-treatment reduces sensitivity to the interoceptive stimulus effects of commonly abused drugs as assessed with taste conditioning paradigms.

Authors:
G C Loney P J Meyer

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 13;194:341-350. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Psychology, Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, University at Buffalo, B72 Park Hall, 204 Park Hall, North Campus, Buffalo, NY, 14260-4110, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Drug pre-exposure attenuates sensitivity to the interoceptive stimulus properties of additional subsequently administered drugs in drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. Specifically, nicotine, commonly used in conjunction with other addictive substances, attenuates acquisition of ethanol and caffeine CTAs and morphine-induced CPP.

Methods: Because nicotine use is comorbid with a number of substance use disorders, we systematically examined the effects of nicotine pre-exposure on two different conditioning paradigms involving integration of the interoceptive stimulus properties of multiple commonly abused drugs, in male and female rats, designed to examine both the aversive and reinforcing properties of these drugs. Read More

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November 2018
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Patients' and clinicians' perspectives of co-use of cannabis and opioids for chronic non-cancer pain management in primary care.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Nov 22;63:23-28. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco CA, United States.

Background: The prevalence of opioid-associated morbidity and mortality underscores the need for research on non-opioid treatments for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Pain is the most common medical condition for which patients request medical cannabis. Limited research indicates that patients are interested in cannabis as a potential addition to or replacement for opioid medication. Read More

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November 2018

A case report SPECT study and theoretical rationale for the sequential administration of ibogaine and 5-MeO-DMT in the treatment of alcohol use disorder.

Prog Brain Res 2018 25;242:121-158. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Ibogaine is a plant-derived alkaloid and dissociative psychedelic that demonstrates anti-addictive properties with several substances of abuse, including alcohol. 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a naturally occurring psychedelic known to occasion potent mystical-type experiences and also demonstrates anti-addictive properties. The potential therapeutic effects of both compounds in treating alcohol use disorder require further investigation and there are no published human neuroimaging findings of either treatment to date. Read More

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October 2018
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Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of PT302, a sustained-release Exenatide formulation, in a murine model of mild traumatic brain injury.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Drug Design and Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA; Peptron Inc., Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective pharmacological treatment is available. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues such as Exenatide have previously demonstrated neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models of TBI. However, chronic or repeated administration was needed for efficacy. Read More

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November 2018
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The top-down regulation from the prefrontal cortex to insula via hypnotic aversion suggestions reduces smoking craving.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Hypnosis has been shown to have treatment effects on nicotine addiction. However, the neural basis of these effects is poorly understood. This preliminary study investigated the neural mechanisms of hypnosis-based treatment on cigarette smoking, specifically, whether the hypnosis involves a top-down or bottom-up mechanism. Read More

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November 2018
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