Introduction: Adolescent substance use disorders often involve a recurring cycle of treatment and relapse. The academic and practical definition of addition recovery for adults has been debated; yet, elements determining a successful adolescent recovery aside from abstinence have not been delineated. Thus, we sought to explore how practitioners and administrators define "success" in recovery and how they foster youth progress towards success. Read More
Brief motivational intervention (MI) is an efficacious approach to reduce heavy drinking and associated sexual risk behavior among Emergency Department (ED) patients, but the intensity of demands placed on ED staff makes the implementation of in-person MIs logistically challenging. This proof-of-concept pilot study examined the acceptability and logistic feasibility of using video-conferencing technology to deliver an MI targeting heavy drinking and risky sexual behavior to patients in an ED setting. Rigorous screening procedures were employed to ensure that the pilot sample represents the target portion of ED patients who would benefit from this multi-target MI. Read More
Background: Homeless young adults are more likely than their never-homeless counterparts to abuse alcohol and engage in risky sexual behaviors, yet no interventions to simultaneously reduce both these behaviors among this vulnerable population have been systematically designed and evaluated. We therefore developed a brief intervention (BI) to reduce both alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among homeless young adults. The results of a randomized trial testing the BI against an education comparison (EC) are presented. Read More
Background: Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) are significant problems on college campuses. College women are at particularly high risk for negative consequences associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy.
Methods: The current study (n = 160) examined the effect of a brief, web-based alcohol intervention (n = 53) for college women on reducing SRBs compared to an assessment only control (n = 107) with a randomized controlled trial. Read More
Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Read More
Background: Emerging adults have the highest prevalence of heavy drinking as compared to all other age groups. Given the negative consequences associated with such drinking, additional research efforts focused on at-risk consumption are warranted. The current study sought to identify patterns of situational antecedents to drinking and to examine their associations with drinking motivations, alcohol involvement, and mental health functioning in a sample of heavy drinking college students. Read More
The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Read More
Male-female variations in health-behavior continue to be of national and international significance with men generally being more likely to be engaged in behaviors that enhance risk across an array of preventable diseases and injuries as well as premature deaths. The literature has identified non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) as a developing and particularly dangerous substance use behavior among college students. The literature has reported sex differences (male; female) in NMUPD but has yet to explain how gender-orientation (e. Read More
Alcohol consumption is a significant public health concern among Latino men and Latina transgender women who have sex with men. However, characteristics and behaviors associated with alcohol consumption in this population, particularly in regard to the complex influence of syndemic factors, remain understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption (i. Read More
Background: Research examining relationships between social support and smoking cessation has paid little attention to non-treatment seeking smokers and not considered the role of autonomy support for fostering quitting motivation. This study examined if autonomy support received from family and friends was associated with quitting motivation and making a quit attempt among diverse smokers with varying levels of quitting motivation. Demographic characteristics associated with autonomy support were explored. Read More
Addict Res Theory 2016 23;24(4):313-321. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
Background: There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. Read More
Addict Res Theory 2016 29;24(4):330-340. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Oakland, California; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania.
Drinking in bars contributes to numerous public health problems, including violence and motor vehicle crashes. In order to formulate effective preventive interventions it is essential to identify which specific features of bar environments are related to increased risks. Unobtrusive ethnographic observations are one approach that has been used to characterize these features; however no studies have assessed reliability in a representative sample of bars. Read More
Background: Individuals who report more depressive symptoms consistently demonstrate higher rates of nicotine dependence and less successful smoking cessation than do individuals who report fewer depressive symptoms. Nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges are two potential factors that may account for the differences observed between these two groups. This study assessed whether elevated depression symptoms among nicotine dependent smokers are associated with changes in withdrawal and urges to smoke when undergoing smoking cessation treatment. Read More
Introduction And Aims: People who inject drugs (PWID) engage in practices that put them at risk for various infections and overdose. The primary aim of this study was to examine common barriers to engaging in two risk reduction practices - cleaning one's skin at the injection site and always using new needles to inject - among heroin injectors in Denver, CO.
Method: In 2010, 48 PWIDs were recruited through street outreach and completed a structured interview that included questions on the frequency of specific risk reduction practices (skin cleaning and using new needles) and barriers associated with these practices. Read More
Some individuals "change" more dramatically than others when intoxicated, and the nature and magnitude of these changes can result in harmful outcomes. This study utilized reports (N¼374) of participants' "typical" five-factor model (FFM) characteristics across sober and intoxicated states and assessed the degree to which these reports could be grouped into meaningful clusters, as well as the association of cluster membership with negative alcoholrelated consequences. Results from finite mixture model clustering revealed a four cluster solution. Read More
Background: Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions.
Methods: We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. Read More
30-60% of patients receiving methadone for opioid use disorder (OUD) actively use cocaine. Cocaine use disorder (CUD) has no FDA-approved pharmacological treatment; existing psychosocial treatments are inadequate. Oxytocin, a social neuropeptide, has preclinical promise as an adjunctive treatment for both OUD and CUD. Read More
Objective: Given the widespread potential for disseminating Motivational Interviewing (MI) through technology, the question of whether MI active ingredients are present when not delivered in person is critical to assure high treatment quality. The Participant Rating Form (PRF) was developed and used to evaluate therapist-delivered active ingredients in phone-delivered MI with hazardous drinking Emergency Department patients.
Method: A factor analysis of all PRFs completed after receiving one call (n=256) was conducted. Read More
Sibling substance use is a known correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet, not all siblings are equally influential. Sibling influence has been found to vary by age gap, sex, and birth order. Read More
Mindfulness has received an abundance of research attention in recent years, largely due to mindfulness-based interventions demonstrating positive mental and physical health outcomes. However, less research has examined individual's trait levels of mindfulness and how it is related to mental health, particularly among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas (EMS), which are dysfunctional cognitive and behavioural patterns that theoretically underlie the development of mental health problems, among women seeking residential substance use treatment. Read More
Background: Nicotine withdrawal produces increased craving for cigarettes and deficits in response inhibition, and these withdrawal symptoms are predictive of relapse. Although it is well-established that these symptoms emerge early during abstinence, there is mixed evidence regarding whether they occur simultaneously. Given the importance of the early withdrawal period, this study examined craving and response inhibition at 24h and 72h abstinence. Read More
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519 USA ; Women's Health Research at Yale, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 USA ; Cancer Prevention and Control Research Program, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
Introduction: Even treatments showing proven efficacy leave the majority of female smokers unable to quit. In response, there has been a special call for novel behavioral treatments, particularly those that target barriers to quitting faced by women. Significant barriers for women who smoke include perceived "risks" associated with cessation (e. Read More
Cigarette smoking is endemic among many populations, but is especially prevalent among people living with HIV, and is consequently associated with a variety of types of morbidity as well as mortality. Despite this knowledge, relatively little research has been conducted among smokers living with HIV. Extant research has focused on examining individual-level characteristics associated with smoking behaviors, to the neglect of examining social-level factors. Read More
Social anxiety nearly quintuples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Although accumulating data suggest that socially anxious persons drink to manage negative effect, socially anxious persons suffer from elevations in both anxiety and depression. Thus, the present study sought to determine whether social anxiety was related to drinking to cope with anxiety or depression and whether drinking motives accounted for the relation of social anxiety to drinking problems among 461 (74% female, 48% with clinically elevated social anxiety) undergraduate drinkers. Read More
Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) is a biobehavioural clinical intervention that is gaining growing empirical support for the treatment of a number of psychological disorders, several of which are highly comorbid with substance use disorders (SUDs). The present article reviews the autonomic nervous system bases of two key processes implicated in the formation and maintenance of addictive pathology-affect dysregulation and craving-and asks if HRV BFB may be an effective intervention to ameliorate autonomic nervous system dysregulation in these processes, and as such, prove to be an effective intervention for SUDs. A detailed description of HRV BFB and its delivery is provided. Read More
In an effort to increase engagement in effective treatment, we offered a choice of alternate evidence-based treatments to 137 alcohol- or cocaine-dependent adults (110 males, 27 females) who entered an intensive outpatient program (IOP) but disengaged within the first 8 weeks. We hypothesized that disengaged patients would choose and subsequently attend alternatives to IOP when given the chance, that their choices would be consistent with their previously-stated preferences, and that demographic and clinical characteristics would be predictive of alternatives chosen. Of 96 participants reached by phone, 19% chose no treatment; 49% chose to return to IOP; 24% chose individual psychotherapy; 6% chose telephone counseling; 2% chose naltrexone with medication management. Read More
Background: It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Read More
Numerous studies have examined early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and their relationship to psychological disorders, including eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs). However, to date, there are no empirical investigations that have examined the relationship between EMS and EDs among individuals seeking treatment for substance use. In an attempt to further elucidate this relationship, the purpose of the current, exploratory study was to examine the relationship between EMS, ED symptomatology (i. Read More
This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Read More
The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Read More
Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration. Read More
The present study sought to further examine the role of peers on alcohol use and problems among young adults. In particular, we focused on a specific subset of peers in one's social network mostly for activities related to alcohol use called "drinking buddies." The presence of drinking buddies in one's social network has been shown to predict heavy drinking uniquely over but few studies have focused on potential factors moderating the relationship. Read More
The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010-3/2011. Read More
Introduction And Aims: Increasing the frequency with which injecting drug users (IDUs) engage in self-initiated harm reduction strategies could improve their health, but few investigations have examined IDUs' perceived barriers to engaging in these behaviors.
Method: We interviewed 90 IDUs recruited from needle exchanges to assess: a) perceived obstacles to their use of two specific harm reduction strategies (i.e. Read More
Objective: Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. Read More
Background: Descriptions of and recommendations for meeting the challenges of training research staff for multisite studies are limited despite the recognized importance of training on trial outcomes. The STRIDE (STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that was conducted at nine addiction treatment programs across the United States within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and evaluated the addition of exercise to addiction treatment as usual (TAU), compared to health education added to TAU, for individuals with stimulant abuse or dependence. Research staff administered a variety of measures that required a range of interviewing, technical, and clinical skills. Read More
Objective: The present study examined how effort to regulate alcohol use may interact with anxiety and affective disorders to influence long-term remission from alcohol dependence.
Method: Using participants (n= 96; 73% male; 66% children of alcoholics; 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian; 26% Hispanic) from a high-risk community study who showed evidence of recovered alcohol dependence at baseline, the present study examined whether effort to regulate alcohol use at the baseline assessment significantly influenced the likelihood of maintaining remission from alcohol dependence at the 10 year follow-up. This study also examined whether having an anxiety or affective disorder interacted with effort to regulate alcohol use. Read More
Objective: The study examined factors in the risk trajectory for Substance Use Disorder (SUD) over a 10-12 year period in children with ADHD.
Method: N=145 children between the ages of 7 and 16 with ADHD and healthy controls were assessed every 2 years for 10-12 years as part of a larger, longitudinal investigation. Onset of substance use disorder was examined using Cox proportional hazards modeling, and included child and parent psychopathology, and parental warmth as well as other key factors. Read More
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore social representations of alcohol use among women, with a focus on possible differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women.
Methods: This qualitative study was part of a larger study examining mediators of heavier drinking among sexual minority women (lesbian identified, bisexual identified, and heterosexual identified with same sex partners) compared to heterosexual women based on the National Alcohol Survey. Qualitative in-depth life history interviews were conducted over the telephone with 48 women who had participated in the 2009-2010 National Alcohol Survey, including respondents representing different sexual orientation groups. Read More
Gutka and tambaku paan (smokeless tobacco products used by South Asian immigrants) are carcinogenic to humans (and perceived as such), yet, one-fourth of South Asian immigrants report current use. This study examined disengagement beliefs that perpetuate gutka/tambaku paan use among South Asians despite awareness of health risks. Six focus groups were conducted with immigrant South Asian adult gutka/tambaku paan users, in Gujarati, Bengali and Urdu languages in New York, USA. Read More
The neural reward circuit and cognitive distortion play an important role in addiction; however, the relationship between the two has not yet been addressed. In this article, we review recent findings on nicotine dependence and propose a novel hypothesis. Previous research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that while activation of the reward circuit (ventral striatum) appears in response to tobacco-related rewards in nicotine dependence, responses to rewards other than tobacco (e. Read More
Research examining the relationship between readiness to change and alcohol consumption among college students is inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to extend these findings, using two different measures of readiness to change. We hypothesized a curvilinear effect would occur such that the relationship between readiness to change and alcohol use would be relatively low for students low and high on readiness to change, whereas the relationship would be relatively high for those with moderate levels of readiness to change. Read More
The impending shift in DSM-5 from categorical to a hybrid categorical-dimensional diagnosis scheme has generated considerable interest in the relative merits of these respective approaches. This is particularly true for the diagnostically complex category of personality disorders (PDs). The present study assessed whether categorical or dimensional measures better predicted alcohol consumption in a sample of 102 women enrolled in a clinical trial comparing individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to conjoint CBT for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Read More
Much of the existing risk factor literature focuses on identifying predictors of low-levels of substance use versus higher-levels of substance use. In this paper, we explore more nuanced patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use during late adolescence. Our aims were to: 1) identify subgroups of youth with qualitatively different patterns of ATOD use; and 2) explore whether membership among qualitatively distinct, high-risk classes could be predicted based on early adolescent risk factors. Read More
The success or failure of programs designed to address alcohol and drug problems can be profoundly influenced by the communities where they are located. Support from the community is vital for long term stability and conflict with the community can harm a program's reputation or even result in closure. This study examined the community context of sober living houses (SLHs) in one Northern California community by interviewing key stakeholder groups. Read More
Background: Binge drug use has been associated with increased risk of HIV infection and other serious health-related harms among adult drug user populations. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of binge drug use among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting.
Methods: From Sept 2005 to May 2012, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14 - 26 who use illicit drugs. Read More
The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of the relationship between affect-related dispositions to rash action, negative urgency (NU: the tendency to act rashly when in a negative mood), positive urgency (PU: the tendency to act rashly when in a positive mood) and level of nicotine dependence symptoms by examining how the two traits transact with affect-related smoking expectancies. Based on the Acquired Preparedness model of addictive behaviors, we hypothesized that the relationship between PU and level of nicotine dependence would be mediated by positive affect smoking expectancies. We also hypothesized that the relationship between NU and level of nicotine dependence would be mediated by negative affect reduction expectancies. Read More