68,290 results match your criteria Addiction Research and Theory[Journal]


Pricing of tobacco products during, and after, the introduction of standardized packaging: an observational study of retail price data from independent and convenience (small) retailers in the United Kingdom.

Addiction 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Institute for Social Marketing, and UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK.

Background And Aims: Tobacco companies claimed that standardized packaging, phased in/introduced May 2016-May 2017, would reduce prices and increase consumption. We: (1) describe changes in price-per-cigarette and price-per-gram during, and after, the introduction of standardized packaging; (2) describe price changes by cigarette price segment; and (3) analyse price changes by stage of implementation.

Design: An observational study, using electronic point-of-sale data, monitored price trends in three periods: (1) May-September 2016, start of transition period; (2) October 2016-May 2017, when fully branded and standardized products were sold and duty escalators implemented; and (3) June-October 2017, when standardized packaging was mandatory. Read More

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December 2018

Health status, diseases and vaccinations of the homeless in the city of Palermo, Italy.

Ann Ig 2019 Jan-Feb;31(1):21-34

Department of Science for Health Promotion and Mother-Child Care "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Introduction: In Italy, as in the rest of the world, the number of homeless people is increasing considerably. Many of them suffer from chronic conditions, mental health problems and addiction to alcohol, drugs or smoking, and need complex medical care. Their health status is often exacerbated by greater difficulty in accessing primary care. Read More

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December 2018

Exposure to tobacco smoke during the early postnatal period modifies receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system in the brainstem and striatum in mice.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, bloco 13B, 05508-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during brain development has been associated with several disorders, such as depression, anxiety, sudden infant death syndrome, and the predisposition to addiction. The endocannabinoid system plays an essential role in neuronal development. We investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on the endocannabinoid system in different brain regions. Read More

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December 2018

NMDA receptors of blood lymphocytes anticipate cognitive performance variations in healthy volunteers.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Working memory (WM) system, temporarily stores information and uses this information for complex cognitive tasks. WM connects memory, emotional feelings and perception. Evidence compelling that N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) expression relatively affect WM performance in animal models. Read More

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December 2018

Dissociating the effect of flavor and nicotine in smokeless tobacco products using electroencephalography: The case of wintergreen flavors.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Behavioral and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 4200 Valley Road, Suite 1242, MD 20742, USA.

The increased consumption of tobacco products in recent years has been linked, among other factors, to the presence of added flavors. Although flavors are important in explaining consumption, their effects in the brain have until now been unexplored. In the present study, we investigated how electrophysiology can serve to dissociate the effects of nicotine and flavor. Read More

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November 2018

Relationship between anxiety, depression, sex, obesity, and internet addiction in Chinese adolescents: A short-term longitudinal study.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 7;90:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Associations between anxiety, depression and adolescent Internet addiction have been well documented in the literature; however, few published studies have examined these relationships considering the developmental trajectory courses of adolescent Internet addiction as well as the individual differences over time. Using a sample of 1545 Chinese adolescents and 3 waves of data over six months, we examined the longitudinal associations between anxiety and depression and Internet addiction, considering sex and obesity. We used latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) to examine the overall conditions of Internet addiction, and latent class growth modeling (LCGM) to determine adolescent developmental membership for Internet addiction. Read More

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December 2018

The association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders and subsequent physical activity status in young adults: A 30-year birth cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 6;109:173-177. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

Low physical activity is a major public health concern. There has been extensive research examining the role of physical activity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the onset of mental illness. However, fewer studies have reported how mental disorders affect future physical activity. Read More

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December 2018
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How does self-esteem affect mobile phone addiction? The mediating role of social anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:526-531. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Humanities, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, China.

Low self-esteem is an important factor influencing mobile phone addiction, which has been well documented. However, little research focused on the mechanism underlying the association between self-esteem and mobile phone addiction. We hypothesized that social anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity may mediate the relationship between self-esteem and mobile phone addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for veterans with chronic pain following traumatic brain injury: Rationale and study protocol for a randomized controlled trial study.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Box 356490, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6490, USA; VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, RCS-117, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and potentially disabling condition in Veterans who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and access to non-pharmacological pain treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy is limited and variable. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) for pain in Veterans with a history of TBI.

Methods: Veterans with a history of TBI and chronic pain of at least six months duration (N = 160) will be randomized to either T-CBT or a telephone-delivered pain psychoeducational active control condition (T-Ed). Read More

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December 2018
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Young Cohorts of Russians Drink Less: Age-Period-Cohort Modelling of Alcohol Use Prevalence 1994-2016.

Addiction 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 11 Myasnitskaya, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

Background and aims Young Russians have been drinking less alcohol, and less strong spirits in particular, in recent years. This study aimed to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects for the first time in Russia to improve our understanding of these trends. Design Age, period and cohort analysis of annual nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys (RLMS-HSE) using separate logistic models for each gender. Read More

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December 2018

Patterns of altered regional brain glucose metabolism in borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.

Objective: The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar II disorder (BIP-II) is disputed but understudied. Here, we investigated brain glucose metabolism in these patient groups and healthy control subjects (HCs).

Methods: Sixty-five subjects, 22 BPD (19 females); 22 BIP-II (17 females); 21 HC (14 females) were examined using 2-deoxy-2[18F]-fluoro-d-glucose Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) scanning. Read More

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December 2018

In Schizophrenia, Increased Plasma IgM/IgA Responses to Gut Commensal Bacteria Are Associated with Negative Symptoms, Neurocognitive Impairments, and the Deficit Phenotype.

Neurotox Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) with increased translocation of Gram-negative bacteria plays a role in the gut-brain axis through effects on systemic immune-inflammatory processes. Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by an immune-inflammatory response combined with a deficit in natural IgM antibodies to oxidative-specific epitopes (OSEs), which are a first-line defense against bacterial infections. This study measured plasma IgA/IgM responses to 5 Gram-negative bacteria in association with IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA) and azelaic acid in 80 schizophrenia patients (40 with the deficit syndrome and 40 without) and in 38 healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018

Transcription Factor Motif Density Can Confer Transcriptional Addiction.

Authors:

Cancer Discov 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

ZFP64 binds to the promoter and is essential for the growth of -rearranged leukemia cells. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of the Family Environment on Juvenile Mental Health: eSports Online Game Addiction and Delinquency.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 13;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Sports Taekwondo, Graduate School of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Korea.

Family types in Asian countries are rapidly changing as the society is changing. Thus, in this study, we analyzed and compared how the newly evolving family types (multicultural/dual-income) affect adolescents' online game addiction, delinquency, and online gaming (eSports) participation motivation. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the causal relationships between the variables, and multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variance were performed for comparative analyses. Read More

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December 2018

Abolishment of fear memory-disruptive effects REM sleep deprivation by harmane.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 14;109:1563-1568. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Harmane, as a neuromodulator, implicates in the learning and memory processes. However, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation negatively affects these processes. Here, we investigated the effects of harmane (2. Read More

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January 2019

Short abstinence from online social networking sites reduces perceived stress, especially in excessive users.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 9;270:947-953. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Michigan State University, 293 Farm Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States.

Online social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, provide frequent and copious social reinforcers (e.g., "likes") delivered at variable time intervals. Read More

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December 2018

The relationship between coping style and Internet addiction among mainland Chinese students: A meta-analysis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 31;270:831-841. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Special Education Department, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The matter of whether different coping styles are correlated with increased Internet addiction or not remains a topic of debate. Most researchers have argued that Internet addiction is linked to low positive coping and high negative coping; however, others have rejected this opinion. Consequently, this meta-analysis examined the link between coping style and Internet addiction to address this controversy. Read More

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December 2018

Looking through autistic features in schizophrenia using the PANSS Autism Severity Score (PAUSS).

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 29;270:764-768. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, ASST-Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia share several features. However, the assessment of ASD in schizophrenia is difficult. Aim of this study is to investigate the possibility to use the PANSS Autism Severity Score (PAUSS) to recognize autistic features in schizophrenia. Read More

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December 2018

Unpacking the mechanisms underlying the relation between ostracism and Internet addiction.

Authors:
Kai-Tak Poon

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 25;270:724-730. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychology and Centre for Psychosocial Health, The Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Prior studies have mainly focused on the psychological correlates of Internet addiction, but scant research has tested how actual interpersonal experience can influence people's tendency to spend an excessive amount of time online. The present research aimed to fill the research gap by investigating the potential relationship between ostracism and Internet usage as well as the mechanisms underlying such a linkage. Participants completed a series of well-validated measures assessing their ostracism experience in school, solitude seeking, self-control, and Internet addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in an old adult sample with substance use disorder: A 6 months follow-up study.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 16;270:1157-1165. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Addiction and Dual Diagnosis Unit, Vall Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Psychiatry Service, CIBERSAM, Vall Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a worldwide concern that has its own particularities regarding age and sex. This study aims to assess the differences between old SUD women and men regarding socio-demographics, clinical factors and outcomes. A 6-months follow-up longitudinal study was conducted in an outpatient center, on a convenience sample of 115 SUD old adults (≥65 years old, average age of 71. Read More

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December 2018

4-Fluoramphetamine in the Netherlands: Text-mining and sentiment analysis of internet forums.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:34-39. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Trimbos Institute, The Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Da Costakade 45, 3521VS, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Users of new psychoactive substances including 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA/4-FMP) frequently share their experiences or opinions in online drug forums. We have tested the potential of computerised analysis of drug users' forum posts for monitoring and early detection of trends. Specifically, we tested whether changes in the volume of 4-FA related posts and sentiments expressed in those posts can be observed around the time 4-FA was increasingly reported by Dutch drug monitoring sources (2012-2017). Read More

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December 2018
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Promoting opioid overdose prevention and recovery: An exploratory study of an innovative intervention model to address opioid abuse.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:21-29. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

NJ Division of Mental Health and Addiction Services, Office of Planning, Research, Evaluation and Prevention, 222 South Warren Street, Trenton, NJ 08625-0700, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Fatal opioid overdose is a national public health concern in the United States and a critical problem confronting New Jersey's addiction treatment system. New Jersey developed an innovative program, the Opioid Overdose Recovery Program (OORP), to address the epidemic and the issue of low treatment admissions following a non-fatal overdose. The OORP utilizes an intervention model with peer recovery specialists (RSs) and patient navigators (PNs) to engage individuals within emergency departments (EDs) immediately following an opioid overdose reversal. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of locomotor response to psychostimulants in the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis): A promising model for studying the neural and molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, and Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA.

Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system. Read More

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December 2018

Toll-like receptor 3 activation increases voluntary alcohol intake in C57BL/6J male mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Waggoner Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Many genes differentially expressed in brain tissue from human alcoholics and animals that have consumed large amounts of alcohol are components of the innate immune toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. TLRs initiate inflammatory responses via two branches: [1] MyD88-dependent or [2] TRIF-dependent. All TLRs signal through MyD88 except TLR3. Read More

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December 2018
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Toll-like receptor 3 dynamics in female C57BL/6J mice: Regulation of alcohol intake.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Waggoner Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Although there are sex differences in the effects of alcohol on immune responses, it is unclear if sex differences in immune response can influence drinking behavior. Activation of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) produced a rapid proinflammatory response in males that increased alcohol intake over time (Warden et al., 2019). Read More

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December 2018

Oncogene addiction as a foundation of targeted cancer therapy: the paradigm of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

Cancer Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland; Department for BioMedical Research, Radiation Oncology, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Following nearly two decades of its conception, the phenomenon of oncogene addiction still represents a key concept of how progresses in basic research can translate to unprecedented translational breakthroughs. Coined by Bernard Weinstein, this term refers to the phenomenon by which cancer cells can exhibit dependence on a single oncogenic protein or signaling pathway for sustaining proliferation and survival, despite the wide burden of genetic lesions characterizing their genomic background, revealing thus a promising Achilles' heel of cancer. Importantly, this concept aided the design and clinical implementation of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies, further supporting the paradigm shift witnessed in clinical oncology towards an individual-based, personalized era. Read More

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December 2018
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Nicotine enhances responding for conditioned reinforcement via α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area, but not the nucleus accumbens or the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Biopsychology and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., M5S 3G3, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Nicotine enhances the conditioned reinforcing properties of reward-paired cues. We investigated the role of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices in mediating this enhancement. Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with a bilateral guide cannula aimed at either the VTA, NAcc, PrL or IL cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Oxycodone Exposure: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Response to Acute and Chronic Oxycodone Treatment in Rats.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Northeastern Univ., Center for Translational NeuroImaging, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to use blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging to "fingerprint" the change in activity in response to oxycodone (OXY) in drug naïve rats before and after repeated exposure to OXY. It was hypothesized that repeated exposure to OXY would initiate adaptive changes in brain organization that would be reflected in an altered response to opioid exposure. Male rats exposed to OXY repeatedly showed conditioned place preference, evidence of drug-seeking behavior and putative neuroadaptation. Read More

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December 2018

Use of Buprenorphine-Naloxone in the Treatment of Tianeptine Use Disorder.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spectrum Health, Center for Integrative Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (PT); Boston University Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, School of Medicine & Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (AYW).

: Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant which exerts an opioid-like effect on the μ-opioid receptor. There is well documented intentional misuse and addiction to tianeptine in Europe, and this is increasingly being seen in the United States. We presented a case of buprenorphine/naloxone successfully being used to aid in cessation and subsequent abstinence from tianeptine after years of use. Read More

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December 2018

What Should a Psychiatrist Know About Genetics? Review and Recommendations From the Residency Education Committee of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 27;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG) created a Residency Education Committee with the purpose of identifying key genetic knowledge that should be taught in psychiatric training programs. Thirteen committee members were appointed by the ISPG Board of Directors, based on varied training, expertise, gender, and national origin. The Committee has met quarterly for the past 2 years, with periodic reports to the Board and to the members of the Society. Read More

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November 2018

Early Placebo Improvement Is a Marker for Subsequent Placebo Response in Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotic Trials for Schizophrenia: Combined Analysis of 4 RCTs.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;80(1). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Objective: Placebo effects remain largely unexplored in clinical trials of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for schizophrenia. This study aims to characterize patients showing improvements after placebo injections and to search for criteria for the prediction of subsequent response based on the magnitude of score changes after the first week of treatment.

Methods: Data from 450 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) who received placebo injections in 4 double-blind randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy of LAI paliperidone palmitate obtained through the Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) project were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule regulating neural systems underlying addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey.

Aims: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of smoking status in the Census is needed, but what about the healthcare system?

Aust N Z J Public Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Addiction Medicine, The Sydney Central Clinical School, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales.

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December 2018

Cognitive behavioural therapy can be effective in treating anxiety and depression in persons with dementia: a systematic review.

Psychogeriatrics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that affects a person's abilities in daily functioning. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common among persons with dementia. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been tested to manage their depression and anxiety symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

A Modeling Approach to Gauging the Effects of Nicotine Vaping Product Use on Cessation from Cigarettes: What Do We Know, What Do We Need to Know?

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Background And Aims: The long term population health impact of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) use among smokers is unknown and subject to a range of plausible assumptions about the use and health consequences of NVPs. While NVPs use may substitute for cigarette smoking and thereby aid in quitting cigarette use, it is also possible that smokers who would have otherwise quit would instead delay quitting cigarettes. We aimed to develop a cohort-specific simulation model of the impact of NVPs on smoking cessation by adult smokers and resulting premature deaths (PD) and life-years lost (LYL). Read More

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December 2018

Uptake of direct acting antiviral therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs in a universal health-care system.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Key performance indicators and administrative data in an early psychosis service.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Rehabilitation Academic Clinical Unit, Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: This study aimed to introduce a set of administrative key performance indicators (KPIs) for Early Psychosis Services.

Methods: The study design was longitudinal with data retrieved from a 4-year period between January 2009 and December 2013 included in the study. Descriptive statistics and t tests were used to evaluate the KPIs. Read More

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December 2018

Discussions between health professionals and smokers about nicotine vaping products: Results from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background And Aims: Debate exists about whether health professionals (HPs) should advise smokers to use nicotine vaping products (NVPs) to quit smoking. The objectives were to examine in four countries: (1) prevalence of HP discussions and recommendation to use an NVP; (2) who initiated NVP discussions; (3) the type of HP advice received about NVPs; and (4) smoker's characteristics related to receiving advice about NVPs.

Design: Cross-sectional study using multivariable logistic regression analyses on weighted data from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (ITC 4CV1). Read More

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December 2018

Tramadol dispensing patterns and trends in Canada, 2007-2016.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.

Purpose: Opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity have substantially increased in Canada, which recent interventions have aimed to reduce. Tramadol is an atypical prescription-only (but unscheduled under Canada's narcotics law) opioid analgesic and not subject to controls for other (eg, strong) opioids. Given experiences in different jurisdictions, tramadol may have been increasingly dispensed as a "substitute" drug during a period with increasingly restrictive controls for other (scheduled) opioids. Read More

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December 2018
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News and Notes.

Authors:

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

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December 2018

Alcohol consumption and hospitalization burden in an adult Italian population: prospective results from the Moli-sani study.

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, Italy.

Background And Aims: Epidemiological evidence on the impact of different alcohol drinking patterns on health-care systems or hospitalizations is sparse. We investigated how the different average volumes of alcohol consumed relate to all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations.

Design: Prospective cohort study (baseline 2005-10) linked to a registry of hospital discharge records to identify hospitalizations at follow-up (December 2013). Read More

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December 2018

Methods of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, Wave 1 (2016).

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Aim: To describe the methods of the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping (4CV) Survey, conducted in 2016 in Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN), and the United States (US).

Methods: The respondents were cigarette smokers, former smokers (quit within the previous two years), and at-least-weekly vapers, aged 18 and older. Eligible cohort members from the ITC Four Country Survey (4C) were retained. Read More

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December 2018

Income trajectories prior to alcohol-attributable death in Finland and Sweden.

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Professor of Social Gerontology, Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Gävlegatan 16, 113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Aims: Mortality from alcohol-attributable causes is patterned by income. We study analysed the income trajectories 17-19 years prior to death in order to determine: 1) whether income levels and trajectories differ between those who die of alcohol-attributable causes, survivors with similar sociodemographic characteristics, all survivors and those dying of other causes; 2) whether the income trajectories of these groups differ by education; and 3) whether there are differences in income trajectories between Finland and Sweden - two countries with differing levels of alcohol-attributable mortality but similar welfare-provision systems.

Design: Retrospective cohort study using individual-level longitudinal register data including information on income, cause of death and socioeconomic position. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Dec 14;18(1):494. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a of the major public health issues in Asia. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for GDM in Asia via a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid, Scopus and ScienceDirect for observational studies in Asia from inception to August 2017. Read More

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December 2018
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Metabolite profiling and identification of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of mitragynine, the major alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom).

Xenobiotica 2018 Dec 14:1-31. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Department of Pharmaceutics , University of Florida , Gainesville , USA.

1. Mitragynine is the major indole-based alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom). Decoctions (teas) of the plant leaves have been used traditionally for cough, diarrhoea, pain, hypertension, and for the treatment of opioid addiction. Read More

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December 2018
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Gender Variance and the Autism Spectrum: An Examination of Children Ages 6-12 Years.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Deerfield Hall, 3359 Mississauga Road, Office 4098, Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6, Canada.

Gender variance (GV) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently co-occur in clinical populations. We investigated GV in association with ASD characteristics in nonclinical children and in children with developmental/mental health diagnoses. In 6-12-year-olds (N = 2445; 51% birth-assigned boys), the Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children measured GV and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire measured six subdomains of ASD characteristics. Read More

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December 2018
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Can Your DNA Influence Your Bet-Placing? The Impact of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene on Gambling Tasks.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:458. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Sino-Britain Centre for Cognition and Ageing Research, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Are we placing a bet by ourselves or has our DNA already made the decision for us? Previous research has suggested that some genes related to dopamine or serotonin can influence our non-bet-placing decision-making, but little is known about whether cannabinoid-related genes can impact how much people bet. To investigate this issue, we focused on rs1049353, a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (), because it is related to addictive behavior and reward processing. In this study ( = 377), we used a modified Cambridge gambling task to test the effect of polymorphism on how much people bet. Read More

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November 2018

Analysis of differentially methylated regions in great apes and extinct hominids provides support for the evolutionary hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

NORMENT - K.G. Jebsen Center for Psychosis Research, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Department of Medical Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

Introduction: The persistence of schizophrenia in human populations separated by geography and time led to the evolutionary hypothesis that proposes schizophrenia as a by-product of the higher cognitive abilities of modern humans. To explore this hypothesis, we used here an evolutionary epigenetics approach building on differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the genome.

Methods: We implemented a polygenic enrichment testing pipeline using the summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia and 12 other phenotypes. Read More

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December 2018

Advancing pharmacological treatments for opioid use disorder (ADaPT-OUD): protocol for testing a novel strategy to improve implementation of medication-assisted treatment for veterans with opioid use disorders in low-performing facilities.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2018 Dec 13;13(1):25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Innovation to Implementation, Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Rd, MC152, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Background: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. Read More

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December 2018