50,321 results match your criteria Addiction Research & Theory[Journal]


Cortical astrocytes regulate ethanol consumption and intoxication in mice.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712-01095, USA.

Astrocytes are fundamental building blocks of the central nervous system. Their dysfunction has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders, including alcohol use disorder, yet our understanding of their functional role in ethanol intoxication and consumption is very limited. Astrocytes regulate behavior through multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR)-mediated calcium signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0721-0DOI Listing

Drug treatment of SARS-Cov2: Potential effects in patients with substance use disorders (SUD).

J Psychosom Res 2020 May 22;135:110159. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110159DOI Listing

Item Response Theory analyses of DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria in French outpatient addiction clinic participants. How much is craving special?

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 May 12;212:108036. Epub 2020 May 12.

University of Bordeaux, Phenomenology and Determinants of Appetitive Behaviors (Addiction Team), Sleep, Addiction and Neuropsychiatry Laboratory (SANPSY), USR CNRS 3413, 146 Bis Rue Léo Saignat, 33076, Bordeaux, France; Pôle Addictologie, CH Ch. Perrens and CHU de Bordeaux, 121 Rue De La Béchade, 33076, Bordeaux, France; Center for Studies of Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market St, Suite 4000, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Background: To evaluate the dimensionality and psychometric validity of the 11 DSM-5 criteria for 5 substance use disorders, with a focus on craving, and taking into account age, gender and psychiatric comorbidities in a French sample of subjects seeking addiction treatment.

Methods: This cross-sectional study, included participants with DSM-5 substance use disorders that sought treatment for at least one addiction from outpatient clinics. Diagnostic criteria were evaluated with the Mini international Neuropsychiatric Interview. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108036DOI Listing

Mediating Effect of Internet Addiction on the Relationship Between Individualism and Cyberbullying: Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 May 28;22(5):e16210. Epub 2020 May 28.

College of Engineering and Technology, American University of the Middle East, Kuwait.

Background: Among a variety of dynamics that may have effects on internet-related behaviors, cultural orientation is particularly important. Previous studies suggest that individualism is a strong determinant of certain behaviors. In addition, findings suggest that vertical individualism may lead to the development of more tolerance for addiction and aggression on the internet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/16210DOI Listing

Integrative analysis of large-scale loss-of-function screens identifies robust cancer-associated genetic interactions.

Elife 2020 May 28;9. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Computer Science and Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Genetic interactions, including synthetic lethal effects, can now be systematically identified in cancer cell lines using high-throughput genetic perturbation screens. Despite this advance, few genetic interactions have been reproduced across multiple studies and many appear highly context-specific. Here, by developing a new computational approach, we identified 220 robust driver-gene associated genetic interactions that can be reproduced across independent experiments and across non-overlapping cell line panels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58925DOI Listing

Seasonality of plasma tryptophan and kynurenine in pregnant mothers with a history of seasonal affective disorder: Vulnerability or adaptation?

World J Biol Psychiatry 2020 May 28:1-10. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Maternal-foetal tryptophan metabolism plays multiple roles in neurodevelopment and immunomodulation across pregnancy. Tryptophan and the immune system are both influenced by the seasons of the year. We thus compared tryptophan and kynurenine levels in subgroups of pregnant women defined by maternal seasonality and season-of-conception (SoC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15622975.2020.1769189DOI Listing

Reinforcer Pathology: Implications for Substance Abuse Intervention.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Addiction Recovery Research Center, Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, Roanoke, VA, USA.

The rate at which individuals discount future rewards (i.e., discounting rate) is strongly associated with their propensity for substance abuse as well as myriad other negative health behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2020_145DOI Listing

Comparison of Treatment Options for Refractory Opioid Use Disorder in the United States and Canada: a Narrative Review.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Grayken Center for Addiction, Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Amidst the opioid overdose crisis, there are increased efforts to expand access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Hospitalization for the complications of substance use in the United States (US) provides an opportunity to initiate methadone, buprenorphine, and extended release naltrexone and link high-risk, not otherwise engaged, patients into outpatient care. However, treatment options for patients are quickly exhausted when these medications are not desired, tolerated, or beneficial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05920-0DOI Listing

Cocaine has some effect on neuromedin U expressing neurons related to the brain reward system.

Heliyon 2020 May 19;6(5):e03947. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan.

Neuromedin U (NMU) is a bioactive neuropeptide, highly distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. NMU has various physiological functions related to feeding behavior, energy metabolism, stress responses, circadian rhythmicity and inflammation. Recently, several reports indicate that the central NMU system plays an important role in the reward systems in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240118PMC

Does childhood trauma influence cognitive functioning in schizophrenia? The association of childhood trauma and cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2020 Sep 19;21:100179. Epub 2020 May 19.

NORMENT Centre of Excellence and Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Lies vei 65, 5021 Bergen, Norway.

Childhood trauma (CT) is a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs), and cognitive impairment is a core feature and a vulnerability marker of SSDs. Studies of the relationship between CT and cognitive impairment in SSDs are inconclusive. In addition, few studies have examined differential effects of CT subtypes, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scog.2020.100179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240182PMC
September 2020

'Team capital' in quality improvement teams: findings from an ethnographic study of front-line quality improvement in the NHS.

BMJ Open Qual 2020 May;9(2)

Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Teamwork is important in the design and delivery of initiatives in complex healthcare systems but the specifics of quality improvement (QI) teams are not well studied.

Objective: To explain the functioning of front-line healthcare teams working on patient-centred QI using Bourdieu's sociological construct of capital.

Methods: One medical ward from each of six NHS Trusts in England participated in the study, purposively selected for a range of performance levels on patient experience metrics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-000948DOI Listing

Testing the efficacy of a minimal-guidance online self-help intervention for alcohol misuse in Estonia: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 27;20(1):790. Epub 2020 May 27.

Estonian National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.

Background: Despite an initial steep decrease in alcohol misuse among Estonians through structural intervention means and the scaling up of alcohol counselling in the mid-2000's, most of the country's alcohol misuse indicators remain clearly higher than European averages. Consequently, an online self-help program was launched as part of an initial behavioral intervention initiative to foster progress in alcohol prevention on a population level.

Methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been designed to compare the efficacy of a culturally-adapted minimal-guidance online self-help program, the 8-week "Selge" online program against a control condition that consists of a self-administered test of alcohol use and advice regarding usual treatment in Estonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08791-6DOI Listing

Mentalexo approach for diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.

Med Hypotheses 2020 May 12;143:109823. Epub 2020 May 12.

Histology and Embriology, Public Health Residency, Marmara University School of Medicine Department of Public Health, Turkey.

Introduction: Psychiatric disorders cause a high burden of disease and disability for the society. Liquid biopsies provide potent opportunities for screening programs, diagnosis, prognostic stratification and treatment monitorization. Previously, the liquid biopsy studies were mainly focused on the several malignancies without proper screen methods, but this approach has also a strong potential for decreasing disease burden in CNS pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109823DOI Listing

Leptin and ghrelin concentrations and eating behaviors during the early and late luteal phase in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 May 19;118:104713. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Research Center for Substance Addiction and Behavior Addiction, Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations, eating behavior, depression, and impulsivity and their correlations within the luteal phase among women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Methods: In 63 women with PMDD and 53 healthy controls, we prospectively evaluated serum levels of leptin and ghrelin, Body Mass Index(BMI), and self-reported sweet cravings, cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, depression, and impulsivity during the early luteal (EL) and late luteal (LL) phases.

Results: Compared with the controls, the women with PMDD had higher BMI, higher leptin concentrations in the EL and LL phase, and leptin concentrations increased from the EL to the LL phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104713DOI Listing

Current cannabis-related situation in the Asia-Pacific region.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 Jul;33(4):352-359

Drug Dependence Research Center, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Drug Dependence, Health and Social Science and Addiction Research Unit, College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Purpose Of Review: We present information on cannabis policy, demand, and supply in the Asia-Pacific region.

Method: A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using PubMed, MEDLINE, and reliable sources was conducted. We classified the policy implemented in each country into conducting research, legalization of medical and recreational use, decriminalization, cultivation, and others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000616DOI Listing

Adherence to Smoking Cessation Treatment and predictors of adherence: Comparing Blended Treatment with Face-To-Face Treatment.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Centre for eHealth and Well-being Research, University of Twente, PO Box 217, Enschede, NL.

Background: Blended face-to-face and web-based treatment is a promising way to deliver smoking cessation treatment. Since adherence has been shown to be an indicator for treatment acceptability and a determinant for effectiveness, we explored and compared adherence and predictors of adherence to a blended and a face-to-face smoking cessation treatment, both similar in content and intensity.

Objective: The objectives of this study were (1) to compare adherence to a blended smoking cessation treatment (BSCT) with adherence to a face-to-face treatment (F2F); (2) to compare adherence within the blended treatment to its F2F-mode and Web-mode; and (3) to determine baseline predictors of adherence to both treatments as well as (4) the predictors to both modes of the blended treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17207DOI Listing

Association of High-Potency Cannabis Use With Mental Health and Substance Use in Adolescence.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Population Health Science, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Importance: Cannabis use is consistently linked to poorer mental health outcomes, and there is evidence that use of higher-potency cannabis increases these risks. To date, no studies have described the association between cannabis potency and concurrent mental health in a general population sample or addressed confounding using longitudinal data.

Objective: To explore the association between cannabis potency and substance use and mental health outcomes, accounting for preceding mental health and frequency of cannabis use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1035DOI Listing

Health Service Use among Individuals with Depression and Psychological Distress: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

Can J Psychiatry 2020 May 27:706743720927826. Epub 2020 May 27.

ICES, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: Relatively little is known about how health-care utilization differs among individuals with psychological distress compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: Ontario participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (2002) were linked to health administrative data to follow their health-care utilization patterns for up to 15 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0706743720927826DOI Listing

Communicating risks to drinkers: testing alcohol labels with a cancer warning and national drinking guidelines in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To test whether alcohol labels with a cancer warning and national drinking guidelines are an effective tool for supporting more informed and safer alcohol consumption among drinkers.

Methods: Using a quasi-experimental design, pre-post surveys were conducted with 1647 cohort participants systematically selected in liquor stores in two matched sites in Canada in 2017-2018. Enhanced labels designed according to best practices for effective product labels were applied to alcohol containers in the liquor store in the intervention site for one month, and usual practice continued in the comparison site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00320-7DOI Listing

Detection of Rare Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 Gene Missense Mutations in Patients With Schizophrenia.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:476. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Deleterious mutations of MECP2 are responsible for Rett syndrome, a severe X-linked childhood neurodevelopmental disorder predominates in females, male patients are considered fatal. However, increasing reports indicate that some MECP2 mutations may also present various neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, depression, cocaine addiction, and schizophrenia in both males and females, suggesting varied clinical expressivity in some MECP2 mutations. Most of the MECP2 mutations are private mutations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227600PMC

Mitragynine Attenuates Morphine Withdrawal Effects in Rats-A Comparison With Methadone and Buprenorphine.

Front Psychiatry 2020 7;11:411. Epub 2020 May 7.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia.

Background: Opiate addiction is a major health problem in many countries. A crucial component of the medical treatment is the management of highly aversive opiate withdrawal signs, which may otherwise lead to resumption of drug taking. In a medication-assisted treatment (MAT), methadone and buprenorphine have been implemented as substitution drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221179PMC

Under the bridge in Tehran: Addiction, Poverty and Capital.

Authors:
Maziyar Ghiabi

Ethnography 2020 Jun 2;21(2):151-175. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

University of Oxford, UK.

The article provides an ethnographic study of the lives of the 'dangerous class' of drug users based on fieldwork carried out among different drug using 'communities' in Tehran between 2012 and 2016. The primary objective is to articulate the presence of this category within modern Iran, its uses and its abuses in relation to the political. What drives the narration is not only the account of this lumpen, plebeian group vis á vis the state, but also the way power has affected their agency, their capacity to be present in the city, and how capital/power and the dangerous/lumpen life come to terms, to conflict, and to the production of new situations which affect urban life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1466138118787534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250651PMC

Single cell transcriptomics reveals opioid usage evokes widespread suppression of antiviral gene program.

Nat Commun 2020 May 26;11(1):2611. Epub 2020 May 26.

Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, 24 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Chronic opioid usage not only causes addiction behavior through the central nervous system, but also modulates the peripheral immune system. However, how opioid impacts the immune system is still barely characterized systematically. In order to understand the immune modulatory effect of opioids in an unbiased way, here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from opioid-dependent individuals and controls to show that chronic opioid usage evokes widespread suppression of antiviral gene program in naive monocytes, as well as in multiple immune cell types upon stimulation with the pathogen component lipopolysaccharide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16159-yDOI Listing

Genetic Architecture and Molecular Neuropathology of Human Cocaine Addiction.

J Neurosci 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado.

We integrated genomic and bioinformatic analyses, utilizing data from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cocaine dependence (CD; n=6,546; 82.37% with CD; 57.39% male) and the largest post-mortem gene-expression sample of individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD; n=36; 51. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2879-19.2020DOI Listing

Effectiveness of a therapeutic multiple-lifestyle intervention taking into account the periconceptional environment in the management of infertile couples: study design of a randomized controlled trial - the PEPCI study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 May 26;20(1):322. Epub 2020 May 26.

Saint Antoine Research Center, INSERM équipe Lipodystrophies génétiques et acquises, Service de biologie de la reproduction-CECOS, AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, Sorbonne Université, 4 rue de la Chine, F-75020, Paris, France.

Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse. It affects approximately one in six couples seeking pregnancy in France or western countries. Many lifestyle factors of the couples' pre and peri-conceptional environment (weight, diet, alcohol, tobacco, coffee, drugs, physical activity, stress, sleep…) have been identified as risk factors for infertility in both males and females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2855-9DOI Listing

Problematic internet use in children and adolescents: associations with psychiatric disorders and impairment.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 May 27;20(1):252. Epub 2020 May 27.

Healthy Brain Network, Child Mind Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Problematic internet use (PIU) is an increasingly worrisome issue, as youth population studies are establishing links with internalizing and externalizing problems. There is a need for a better understanding of psychiatric diagnostic profiles associated with this issue, as well as its unique contributions to impairment. Here, we leveraged the ongoing, large-scale Child Mind Institute Healthy Brain Network, a transdiagnostic self-referred, community sample of children and adolescents (ages 5-21), to examine the associations between PIU and psychopathology, general impairment, physical health and sleep disturbances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02640-xDOI Listing

Food Addiction in a Group of Italian Adolescents Diagnosed for Eating Disorder.

Nutrients 2020 May 23;12(5). Epub 2020 May 23.

Anorexia Nervosa and Eating Disorder Unit, Child Neuropsychiatry, Dept. of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Research in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs) showed high rates of Food Addiction (FA) even in restrictive subtypes. The majority of studies were conducted on adult population. The present work aimed to describe and compared FA in adolescents diagnosed for different EDs and to evaluate its association with patients' psychopathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051524DOI Listing

Substance Abuse Profiles of Patients Admitted to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Research, Treatment, and Education Center in Turkey.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2017 Dec 20;14(3):294-303. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Üsküdar University, Advanced Toxicology Analysis Laboratory, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: To determine the substance abuse profiles of patients treated a Drug Addiction Research, Treatment, and Education Center (AMATEM) in association with the percentage of substance use distribution and multiple substance use in their urine samples. For this, we retrospectively evaluated the urine sample analysis reports of 600 male and female patients aged 13 to 65 years who were treated at the AMATEM unit of İstanbul Neuropsychiatry Hospital between January 1, 2015, and December 12, 2015.

Materials And Methods: The urine samples were sent to Üsküdar University Advanced Toxicology Analysis Laboratory and were analyzed using a UPLC tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.50470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227934PMC
December 2017

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling in cellular and behavioral responses to psychostimulant drugs.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2020 May 23:118746. Epub 2020 May 23.

Center for Substance Abuse Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Electronic address:

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in numerous physiological processes and cellular functions through its ability to regulate the function of many proteins, including transcription factors and structural proteins. GSK-3β has been demonstrated to function as a regulator of multiple behavioral processes induced by drugs of abuse, particularly psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we provide an overview of the regulation of GSK-3β activity produced by psychostimulants, and the role of GSK-3β signaling in psychostimulant-induced behaviors including drug reward, associative learning and memory which play a role in the maintenance of drug-seeking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2020.118746DOI Listing

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): worldwide issues.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 Jul;33(4):312-318

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To inform readers about the increasingly popular Western dietary supplement, kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and how the products are available in the Western world compared with traditional Southeast Asian use. Kratom has been traditionally used for increasing stamina of outdoor laborers (farmers), mood enhancement, pain, and opium addiction. Interestingly, kratom has been reported to have a paradoxical effect in that stimulant feelings, and sedative feelings can be obtained depending on the amount utilized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000621DOI Listing

Assessment of the Efficacy of a Mobile Phone-Delivered Just-in-Time Planning Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents: Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 May 26;8(5):e16937. Epub 2020 May 26.

Health, Work & Organizational Psychology, School of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten/Herdecke, Germany.

Background: Interventions to reduce alcohol use typically include several elements, such as information on the risks of alcohol consumption, planning for sensible drinking, and training of protective behavioral strategies. However, the effectiveness of these individual intervention elements within comprehensive programs has not been addressed so far, but it could provide valuable insights for the development of future interventions. Just-in-time interventions provided via mobile devices are intended to help people make healthy decisions in the moment and thus could influence health behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/16937DOI Listing

Functional connectome contractions in temporal lobe epilepsy: Microstructural underpinnings and predictors of surgical outcome.

Epilepsia 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Multimodal Imaging and Connectome Analysis Laboratory, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-resistant epilepsy in adults. Although it is commonly related to hippocampal pathology, increasing evidence suggests structural changes beyond the mesiotemporal lobe. Functional anomalies and their link to underlying structural alterations, however, remain incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16540DOI Listing

Effect of alcohol prohibition on liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Canada from 1901 to 1956: A time-series analysis.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.

Introduction And Aims: The extent to which alcohol consumption in Canada was affected by alcohol prohibition in the early 20th century remains unclear. Since there is a dearth of data on consumption during this time, we estimated the effect of alcohol prohibition on alcohol consumption, as measured by changes in liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Canada.

Design And Methods: Annual liver cirrhosis mortality data were obtained for 1901 to 1956 for the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Saskatchewan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.13089DOI Listing

Bptf determines oncogenic addiction in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

Oncogene 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Molecular Oncology Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre-CNIO, 28029, Madrid, Spain.

Chromatin remodeling factors contribute to establish aberrant gene expression programs in cancer cells and therefore represent valuable targets for therapeutic intervention. BPTF (Bromodomain PhD Transcription Factor), a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), modulates c-MYC oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer. Here, we analyze the role of BPTF in c-MYC-driven B-cell lymphomagenesis using the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-1331-3DOI Listing

Behavioral Conditioning, the Placebo Effect, and Emergency Department Pain Management.

Authors:
Kenneth Frumkin

J Emerg Med 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Emergency Medicine Department, Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, Virginia.

Animals and humans can be readily conditioned to associate a novel stimulus (often a unique taste) by pairing it with the effects of a drug or other agent. When later presented with the stimulus alone, their body's systems respond as if the drug or agent were given. The earliest clinical applications demonstrated both conditioned suppression and enhancement of immune processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.04.025DOI Listing

Psychiatric Management of Bariatric Surgery Patients: A Review of Psychopharmacological and Psychological Treatments and Their Impact on Postoperative Mental Health and Weight Outcomes.

Psychosomatics 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Centre for Mental Health, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; Bariatric Surgery Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity; however, high rates of psychiatric comorbidity complicate bariatric surgery care. As a result, importance has been placed on the need for ongoing psychiatric support in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Given the lack of conclusive presurgery psychosocial predictors of postoperative mental health outcomes, studies have now shifted their focus to understand the long-term psychosocial sequalae that arise after surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2020.04.011DOI Listing

The influence of stress and early life adversity on addiction: Psychobiological mechanisms of risk and resilience.

Authors:
Mustafa al'Absi

Int Rev Neurobiol 2020 4;152:71-100. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Family Medicine and Biobehavioral Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Preclinical, clinical, and population research demonstrates that stress and early life adversity (ELA) increase vulnerability to initiate, maintain, and relapse in addiction. Individuals with addiction problems have higher prevalence of trauma exposure than nondrug users; and this association extends to young populations (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2020.03.012DOI Listing

Primary outcome reporting in adolescent depression clinical trials needs standardization.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 May 25;20(1):129. Epub 2020 May 25.

Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, 686 Bay Street, Room 11.9712, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Background: Evidence-based health care is informed by results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and their syntheses in meta-analyses. When the trial outcomes measured are not clearly described in trial publications, knowledge synthesis, translation, and decision-making may be impeded. While heterogeneity in outcomes measured in adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) RCTs has been described, the comprehensiveness of outcome reporting is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-01019-6DOI Listing

Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Exercise in the Management of Major Depressive Disorder: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 May 25;9(5):e14309. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Despite evidence in scientific literature indicating the effectiveness of both cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical exercise in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), few studies have directly compared them.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of group CBT, physical exercise, and only wait-listing to receive treatment-as-usual (TAU) in the management of MDD. The investigators hypothesize that participants with MDD assigned to the group CBT or exercise arms of the study will achieve superior outcomes compared with participants wait-listed to receive TAU only. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14309DOI Listing

Challenges and Opportunities in Insomnia Disorder.

Int J Neurosci 2020 May 23:1-12. Epub 2020 May 23.

Ursinus College, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Insomnia disorder is a prevalent, often unrecognized condition that affects millions. This clinical disorder is characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep over a sustained period. In fact, insomnia disorder affects much more than sleep; it increases the risk for developing serious medical and psychiatric comorbidities and can exacerbate existing conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1773460DOI Listing

Long-term effectiveness of web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with eating disorders.

Eat Weight Disord 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a web-based therapist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for patients with eating disorders (ED).

Methods: We used follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial that evaluated a web-based CBT on ED psychopathology and related health, compared to a waiting list control (WL) condition. As participants of the WL condition started the intervention after their waiting period, follow-up data included participants from both groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-00929-0DOI Listing

Improving insight to facilitate antipsychotic medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia.

Clin Neurophysiol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Multimodal Imaging Group, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Prisoners should not be left behind in HCV research and policies.

Harm Reduct J 2020 May 24;17(1):33. Epub 2020 May 24.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University, Bergheimer Str. 20, Zimmer 317, 69115, Heidelberg, Germany.

With a worldwide prevalence of 15.4%, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been estimated to be the most prevalent major infectious disease in prisons. The exceptionally high prevalence of HCV in prisons is attributable to common risk behaviors including sharing contaminated tattooing equipment and drug paraphernalia, as well as lack of HCV control interventions including needle and syringe programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00379-yDOI Listing

Cognitive behavioral group therapy for panic disorder in a general clinical setting: a prospective cohort study with 12 to 31-years follow-up.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 May 24;20(1):259. Epub 2020 May 24.

Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The long-term prognosis after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in outpatient groups for panic disorder and agoraphobia is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term outcomes in terms of psychological health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction after CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia.

Methods: The sample consisted of 68 patients (61% response rate), who were assessed at pretreatment; at the start and end of treatment; and after 3 months, after 1 year, and over the long term (M = 24 years; SD = 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02679-wDOI Listing

Immediate versus wait-and-gradual discontinuation in antipsychotic switching: A meta-analysis.

J Psychopharmacol 2020 May 25:269881120922964. Epub 2020 May 25.

Schizophrenia Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.

Introduction: In two previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining antipsychotic switching strategies in patients with schizophrenia, we showed no significant differences in any clinical outcomes between immediate versus gradual and gradual versus wait-and-gradual discontinuation of the pre-switch antipsychotic. In this report, we compared immediate versus wait-and-gradual antipsychotic discontinuation.

Methods: We identified five RCTs examining immediate versus wait-and-gradual discontinuation of the pre-switch antipsychotic in antipsychotic switching involving patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881120922964DOI Listing

Core competencies for Australian pharmacists when supplying prescribed opioids: a modified Delphi study.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, PO Box 199, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

Background In the past decade, there has been an increase in prescription opioid related harms. These include dependence, non-fatal and fatal overdose. Pharmacists play a an important role in safe opioid supply. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01060-xDOI Listing