44,698 results match your criteria Addiction Research & Theory[Journal]


Veterans with PTSD and comorbid substance use disorders: Does single versus poly-substance use disorder affect treatment outcomes?

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Apr 9;199:70-75. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Behavioral Sciences and Psychiatry, Division of Addiction Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 5 Charleston Center Dr., Suite 151, Charleston, SC, 29401 USA; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 109 Bee St., Charleston, SC, 29401 USA.

Introduction: Substance use disorders (SUD) frequently co-occur with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known, however, about how individuals with a single SUD diagnosis (relating to only one substance) compare to individuals with poly-SUD diagnoses (relating to more than one substance) on substance use and PTSD treatment outcomes. To address this gap in the literature, we utilized data from a larger study investigating a 12-week integrated, exposure-based treatment (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Differential effects of psychoactive substances on human wildtype and polymorphic T356M dopamine transporters (DAT).

Toxicology 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Neurotoxicology Research Group, Division Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Many psychoactive substances affect the human dopamine (DA) reuptake transporter (hDAT). Polymorphisms in the encoding gene could affect the functionality of the transporter and consequently alter effects of psychotropic and recreational drugs. Recently, a T356 M single nucleotide polymorphism in the human SLC6A3 gene was described, which resulted in functional impairments of DA uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Progress in agonist therapy for substance use disorders: Lessons learned from methadone and buprenorphine.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Molecular Targets and Medications Discovery Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Substance use disorders (SUD) are serious public health problems worldwide. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of drug reward and the transition to addiction, effective pharmacotherapies for SUD remain limited and a majority of drug users relapse even after a period of treatment. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several medications for opioid, nicotine, and alcohol use disorders, whereas none are approved for the treatment of cocaine or other psychostimulant use disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.04.015DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Multivariate analyses reveal biological components related to neuronal signaling and immunity mediating EEG abnormalities in alcohol-dependent individuals from the COGA cohort.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford Hospital/IOL, Hartford, CT, 06107.

Background: The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk have only been partially revealed using traditional approaches such as univariate GWAS and linkage-based analyses. We therefore aimed to identify gene clusters related to EEG neurobiological phenotypes distinctive to individuals with AUD using a multivariate approach.

Methods: The current project adopted a bi-multivariate data-driven approach, parallel independent component analysis (para-ICA) to derive and explore significant genotype-phenotype associations in a case-control subset of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14063DOI Listing

Diagnosis and treatment of patients with comorbid substance use disorder and adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a review of recent publications.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Amsterdam Institute of Addiction Research (AIAR), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often presents with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). Due to similarities in key symptoms of both disorders and suboptimal efficacy of the available treatments, clinicians are faced with difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients with both disorders. This review addresses recent publications between 2017 and 2019 on the etiology, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring ADHD and SUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000513DOI Listing

Medications to treat cocaine use disorders: current options.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Addiction Psychiatry Residency Program, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Director, Center of Excellence in Substance Abuse Treatment and Education (CESATE), VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cocaine is a highly addictive substance with serious medical and mental health consequences. Despite these concerns, there are no food and drug administration-approved medications for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD). Although many medication-assisted treatments (MATs) have been investigated, no clear guidelines exist for clinicians treating patients with CUDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000518DOI Listing

Trends in substance use and in the attributable burden of disease and mortality in the WHO European Region, 2010-16.

Eur J Public Health 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

WHO European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: This paper examines changes in substance use, and compares the resulting attributable burden of disease in the WHO European Region between 2010 and 2016.

Methods: Data for 2010 and 2016 on the number of deaths, years of life lost (YLL) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were obtained by sex and country from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Exposure data for all substances except alcohol were obtained from the same study, while alcohol data were obtained from the WHO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz064DOI Listing

Estimating the household drought driven food insecurity using system dynamics model: The case of afar national regional state of Ethiopia.

Hum Antibodies 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Building resilient communities has emerged as a dominant schema in the policy arena and in academia in the wake of recent disasters. Food insecurity is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that is not appropriately captured by conventional proxy indicators currently used to assess the problem in developing countries. Ethiopia like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, continues to experience high levels of drought driven food insecurity despite decades of implementing poverty alleviation and prevention programmes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-190376DOI Listing

Antipsychotic treatment and basal ganglia volumes: Exploring the role of receptor occupancy, dosage and remission status.

Schizophr Res 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatric Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Centre for Research on Mental Disorders, K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Antipsychotic treatment may affect brain morphology, and enlargement of the basal ganglia (BG) is a replicated finding. Here we investigated associations between antipsychotic treatment and BG volumes in patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders. We hypothesized that current treatment and, among those medicated, higher dosage, estimated D2R occupancy and being in remission would predict larger BG volumes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.04.002DOI Listing

[Sex addiction: losing its taboo].

Soins Psychiatr 2019 Mar - Apr;40(321):37-40

Centre d'enseignement, de recherche et de traitement des addictions, Hôpital universitaire Paul-Brousse, AP-HP, Université Paris-Sud, INSERM U1000, 12, avenue Paul-Vaillant-Couturier, 94800 Villejuif, France.

Sex addiction or dependency is a complex and debilitating pathology characterised by a disproportionate preoccupation with sex or sexual activity. The aim of scientific research carried out into this disorder is both nosographic, to establish which subtype of mental disorder it belongs to, and physiopathological, to explain its origin and develop potential therapies. A state of the science on sexual dependency is charted, in the world of psychiatry, based on its very first mention to the present day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spsy.2019.02.001DOI Listing

Buprenorphine/naloxone induction in a Canadian emergency department with rapid access to community-based addictions providers.

CJEM 2019 Apr 22:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

*Department of Family and Community Medicine,University of Toronto,Toronto,ON.

Objectives: Opioid-related emergency department (ED) visits have increased significantly in recent years. Our objective was to evaluate an ED-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone program, which provided rapid access to an outpatient community-based addictions clinic, for patients in opioid withdrawal.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was completed within a health system encompassing four community EDs in Ontario, Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cem.2019.24DOI Listing

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2B6 and Efavirenz-containing Antiretroviral Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Meharry Medical College School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, efavirenz, is widely used to treat HIV-1 infection. Efavirenz is predominantly metabolized into inactive metabolites by CYP2B6, and patients with certain CYP2B6 genetic variants may be at increased risk for adverse effects, particularly central nervous system toxicity and treatment discontinuation. We summarize the evidence from the literature and provide therapeutic recommendations for efavirenz prescribing based on CYP2B6 genotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1477DOI Listing

Rewarding effects of 2-desoxypipradrol in mice.

Neurosci Lett 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Pharmacological Research Division, Toxicological Evaluation and Research Department, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, 187 Osong Saengmyeong 2-ro, Heungdeok-gu, Chungju-shi, 28159, Republic of Korea.

Desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), a new psychoactive substance (NPS), acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). NDRIs can be addictive due to their action mechanisms similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding the exact dependency of 2-DPMP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2019.04.037DOI Listing

Navigating the Labyrinth of Pharmacogenetic Testing: A Guide to Test Selection.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpt.1432
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1432DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neural substrates of self- and external-preoccupation: A voxel-based morphometry study.

Brain Behav 2019 Apr 19:e01267. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Ubiquitous Sensing, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Introduction: Self- and external-preoccupation have been linked to psychopathological states. The neural substrates underlying self- and external-preoccupation remain unclear. In the present study, we aim to provide insight into the information-processing mechanisms associated with self- and external-preoccupation at the structural level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1267DOI Listing

Convergent neural connectivity in motor impulsivity and high-fat food binge-like eating in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Center for Addiction Research and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Food intake is essential for survival, but maladaptive patterns of intake, possibly encoded by a preexisting vulnerability coupled with the influence of environmental variables, can modify the reward value of food. Impulsivity, a predisposition toward rapid unplanned reactions to stimuli, is one of the multifaceted determinants underlying the etiology of dysregulated eating and its evolving pathogenesis. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a major neural director of reward-driven behavior and impulsivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0394-8DOI Listing

Electroconvulsive therapy "corrects" the neural architecture of visuospatial memory: Implications for typical cognitive-affective functioning.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 5;23:101816. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a widely used and effective treatment for refractory depression, the neural underpinnings of its therapeutic effects remain poorly understood. To address this issue, here, we focused on a core cognitive deficit associated with depression, which tends to be reliably ameliorated through ECT, specifically, the ability to learn visuospatial information. Thus, we pursued three goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101816DOI Listing
April 2019
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Intervention Effects of Motivation Interviewing Chinese Modified on the Mental Health of College Students with Exercise Dependence.

Psychiatr Q 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Physical Education Institute, Hunan First Normal University, NO.1015, The Third Fenglin Road, Changsha, 410205, China.

Exercise dependence is a psychological problem that cannot be ignored and is positively related to anxiety and depression of college students. However, only a few effective intervention methods are available to deal with exercise dependence. This study aims to investigate the intervention effects of motivation interviewing Chinese modified on the mental health of college students with exercise dependence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-019-09635-2DOI Listing

Acceptability of Mental Health Facilities and De-addiction Centers in India.

J Exp Neurosci 2019 7;13:1179069519839990. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmacology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), Lucknow, India.

Not much is known about disease prevalence, treatment outcomes, trained manpower, programs, and patients' awareness of diseases from South Asia, compared with the Western world. While other aspects are improving, the quantitative evaluation of awareness of diseases is lagging. Compared with other diseases, the situation for mental health disorders and addiction is worse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179069519839990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454643PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

MDM4 is targeted by 1q gain and drives disease in Burkitt lymphoma.

Cancer Res 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

University Hospital and University of Zurich

Oncogenic MYC activation promotes proliferation in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but also induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis mediated by p53, a tumor suppressor that is mutated in 40% of BL cases. To identify molecular dependencies in BL, we performed RNAi-based, loss-of-function screening in eight BL cell lines and integrated non-BL RNAi screens and genetic data. We identified 76 genes essential to BL, including genes associated with hematopoietic cell differentiation (FLI1, BCL11A) or B cell development and activation (PAX5, CDKN1B, JAK2, CARD11) and found a number of context-specific dependencies including oncogene addiction in cell lines with TCF3/ID3 or MYD88 mutation. Read More

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http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1158/0008-54
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3438DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Increasing the Risk of Stroke by Opium Addiction.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health, Denver, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Stroke is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Besides the identified risk factor, Ischemic stroke evidence show drug use develops or exacerbates the atherosclerotic process. The current study aimed at comparing cerebrovascular ultrasounds' changes in addicted and nonaddicted people who developed ischemic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.03.044DOI Listing

Factors associated with alcohol consumption and prescribed drugs with addiction potential among older women and men - the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT2 and HUNT3), Norway, a population-based longitudinal study.

BMC Geriatr 2019 Apr 18;19(1):113. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.

Background: Little is known about factors associated with alcohol consumption and use of drugs with addiction potential in older adults. The aim of this study was to explore the association between socio-demographic variables, physical and mental health and the later (11 years) use of frequent drinking, prescribed drugs with addiction potential and the possible combination of frequent drinking and being prescribed drugs with addiction potential in older adults (≥ 65 years).

Methods: In this longitudinal study, we used data from two surveys of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 1995-1997 and HUNT3 2006-2008), a population based study in Norway. Read More

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https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1114-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Degree of Multidimensional Severity of Alcohol Use Disorder among Treatment-Seeking Patients: Is There an Additive Effect of Parental Alcohol Use Disorder?

Eur Addict Res 2019 Apr 18:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Unit for Clinical Alcohol Research, Unit for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern, Odense, Denmark.

Background: The additive effect of parental alcohol use disorders (AUD) is conventionally defined as an increasing risk of the offspring developing AUD relative to family history negative, < family history positive with 1 parent (FHP1), < FHP2. The few studies on the additive effect of parental AUD have focused on the risk of development of offspring AUD and not on the degree of multidimensional AUD addiction severity.

Aims: The aims of the present study were to examine the frequency of treatment-seeking outpatients exposed to FHP1 and FHP2 and whether addiction severity was impacted by the additive effect of parental AUD among AUD female and male offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499935DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Epigenetic regulation of immediate-early gene Nr4a2/Nurr1 in the medial habenula during reinstatement of cocaine-associated behavior.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine, USA; UC Irvine Center for Addiction Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA; Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA. Electronic address:

Propensity to relapse following long-periods of abstinence is a key feature of substance use disorder. Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cause long-term changes in the neural circuitry regulating reward, motivation, and memory processes through dysregulation of various molecular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation of activity-dependent gene expression. Underlying drug-induced changes to neural circuit function are the molecular mechanisms regulating activity-dependent gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Strategies of selective changing: Preparatory neural processes seem to be responsible for differences in complex inhibition.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0214652. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University Hospital of RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Selective inhibition describes the stopping of an action while other actions are further executed. It can be differentiated between two strategies to stop selectively: the fast but global stop all, then discriminate strategy and the slower but more selective first discriminate, then stop strategy. It is assumed that the first discriminate, then stop strategy is especially used when information regarding which action might have to be stopped is already available beforehand. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214652PLOS

Concomitant use of alcohol and benzodiazepine hypnotics in psychiatric outpatients: a cross-sectional survey.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and alcohol appears prevalent in a clinical setting. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to investigate the prevalence of concomitant use of benzodiazepine hypnotics and alcohol in psychiatric outpatients, (2) to examine the clinical characteristics and factors associated with the concomitant use, and (3) to investigate the awareness of the psychiatrists-in-charge about the concomitant use. Outpatients with schizophrenia, depression, and insomnia who were receiving benzodiazepine hypnotics were asked to fill in a sleeping diary for seven consecutive days in which use of hypnotics and alcohol was also recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YIC.0000000000000264DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Alcohol Availability Across Neighborhoods in Ontario Following Alcohol Sales Deregulation, 2013-2017.

Am J Public Health 2019 Apr 18:e1-e7. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Daniel T. Myran is with the School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, ON. Jarvis T. Chen and Vaughan W. Rees are with the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Benjamin Bearnot is with the Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Michael Ip is with the School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine. Norman Giesbrecht is with the Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON.

To examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol availability before and after deregulation in 2015 of the alcohol market in Ontario, Canada. We quantified alcohol access by number of alcohol outlets and hours of retail for all 19 964 neighborhoods in Ontario. We used mixed effects regression models to examine the associations between alcohol access and a validated SES index between 2013 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305014DOI Listing

Ferulic Acid Esters and Withanolides: In Search of Withania somnifera GABA Receptor Modulators.

J Nat Prod 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

National Research Council (CNR) , Institute of Neuroscience , 09042 Monserrato , Italy.

Nine compounds, including two undescribed withanolides, withasomniferolides A and B (1 and 2), three known withanolides (3-5), a ferulic acid dimeric ester (6), and an inseparable mixture of three long alkyl chain ferulic acid esters (7-9), were isolated from a GABA receptor positive activator methanol extract of the roots of Withania somnifera. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on NMR, MS, and ECD data analysis. In order to bioassay the single ferulic acid derivatives, compounds 6-9 were also synthesized. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b01023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b01023DOI Listing
April 2019
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Recovery dialects: A pilot study of stigmatizing and nonstigmatizing label use by individuals in recovery from substance use disorders.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Previous research has found language used to describe individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD; e.g., "addict," "substance abuser") contributes to and elicits negative bias among the general public and health care professionals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000286DOI Listing

Different doses, durations and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Apr 18;4:CD013308. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK, OX2 6GG.

Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to replace nicotine from cigarettes to ease the transition from cigarette smoking to abstinence. It works by reducing the intensity of craving and withdrawal symptoms. Although there is clear evidence that NRT used after smoking cessation is effective, it is unclear whether higher doses, longer durations of treatment, or using NRT before cessation add to its effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470854PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Key Kratom Alkaloids in Mitragyna speciosa Leaf Extracts and Commercial Products by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Drug Test Anal 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant popular in the United States for the self-treatment of pain and opioid addiction. For standardization and quality control of raw and commercial kratom products, a UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of ten key alkaloids, namely: corynantheidine, corynoxine, corynoxine B, 7-hydroxymitragynine, isocorynantheidine, mitragynine, mitraphylline, paynantheine, speciociliatine, and speciogynine. Chromatographic separation of diastereomers, or alkaloids sharing same ion transitions, was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column with a gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM, pH 3. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/dta.2604
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2604DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Feeling safe or unsafe in psychiatric inpatient care, a hospital-based qualitative interview study with inpatients in Sweden.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2019 8;13:23. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: A major challenge in psychiatric inpatient care is to create an environment that promotes patient recovery, patient safety and good working environment for staff. Since guidelines and programs addressing this issue stress the importance of primary prevention in creating safe environments, more insight is needed regarding patient perceptions of feeling safe. The aim of this study is to enhance our understanding of feelings of being safe or unsafe in psychiatric inpatient care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0282-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452515PMC

Longitudinal Associations Between Life Satisfaction and Cannabis Use Initiation, Cessation, and Disorder Symptom Severity in a Cohort of Young Swiss Men.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 16;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Addiction Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Motivations for cannabis use may include coping with negative well-being. Life satisfaction, a hallmark of subjective well-being, could play a role in cannabis use among young adults. This study aims to assess whether life satisfaction (SWLS) at age 21 is associated with cannabis initiation and cessation between the ages of 21 and 25, and with cannabis use severity (CUDIT) at age 25. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081372DOI Listing

Brief interventions for problem gambling: A meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214502. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Brief interventions have been increasingly investigated to promote early intervention in gambling problems; an accurate estimate of the impact of these interventions is required to justify their widespread implementation. The goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of in-person brief interventions for reducing gambling behaviour and/or problems, by quantifying the aggregate effect size associated with these interventions in the published literature to date.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials including the following design features were identified via systematic review: an adult sample experiencing problems associated with gambling; an in-person individual psychosocial intervention of brief duration (≤3 sessions); a control/comparison group; and an outcome related to gambling behaviour and/or problems. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214502PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Do drinking problems in the past affect current consumption?

Cad Saude Publica 2019 8;35(4):e00025618. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Centre for Business and Economics Research, Coimbra, Portugal.

Harmful use of alcohol ranks among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death worldwide. However, not all individuals who consume alcohol throughout life are addicted and our premise is that addiction implies a chain of consumption that produces harmful effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether self-assessed past drinking problems - our measure of harmful alcohol consumption - affect the current alcohol consumption patterns. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00025618DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Metabolomics reveals tepotinib-related mitochondrial dysfunction in MET activating mutations-driven models.

FEBS J 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

Genetic aberrations in the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase MET induce oncogenic addiction in various types of human cancers, advocating MET as a viable anticancer target. Here, we report that MET signaling plays an important role in conferring a unique metabolic phenotype to cellular models expressing MET-activating mutated variants that are either sensitive or resistant towards MET small molecule inhibitors. MET phosphorylation downregulated by the specific MET inhibitor tepotinib resulted in markedly decreased viability and increased apoptosis in tepotinib-sensitive cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.14852DOI Listing

Initiation Sequence of E-Cigarette and Cigarette Smoking among US Adolescents: A National Study.

Am J Addict 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for the Study of Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking, and Health, Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background And Objectives: The primary objectives were to: (1) examine the initiation sequence of e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking; (2) assess other substance use as a function of the initiation sequence of e-cigarettes and cigarettes; and (3) investigate the role of early e-cigarette initiation among US secondary school students.

Methods: Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires from independent 2015 and 2016 nationally representative cross-sectional samples of 8th grade, 10th grade, and 12th grade students (N = 36 410).

Results: The lifetime initiation sequence included: (1) e-cigarette use before cigarette smoking (1. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ajad.12886
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12886DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Physical activity and fitness among pediatric cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

Support Care Cancer 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose: The number of pediatric cancer survivors has increased dramatically over recent decades. Prior studies involving pediatric cancer survivors have reported reduced physical activity and fitness levels. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize previous findings on physical activity and fitness levels of pediatric cancer survivors, who had completed cancer treatment and are in complete remission compared with age-matched, non-athletic healthy controls with no history of cancer diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-019-04788-zDOI Listing

Possible Role of Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding/Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway in Mediating the Pharmacological Effects of Duloxetine against Methamphetamine Use-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety and Depression in Rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 21;8:11. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Duloxetine is used for treating depression and anxiety. The current study evaluated the effects of duloxetine against methamphetamine withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression, and motor disturbances and methamphetamine use-induced cognitive impairments.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-six adult male rats were used for two independent experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_34_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425746PMC
February 2019

Perceived parental style, cognitive style, and resilience in females with dissociative disorder in India.

Indian J Psychiatry 2019 Mar-Apr;61(2):177-183

Department of Psychiatry and Drug De-addiction, Centre of Excellence in Mental Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research-Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: Dissociative disorders are theorized to be caused by extremely stressful situations, including abuse, kidnapping, incest, rape, and other threats of death. Such childhood experiences alter one's cognitive style as well as one's ability to deal with adverse situations. It is important to understand how cognitive style influences the relationship between parental style and resilience to help in the management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_404_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425806PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Intrinsic insular-frontal networks predict future nicotine dependence severity.

J Neurosci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD, 21224

Although 60% of the US population have tried smoking cigarettes, only 16% smoke regularly. Identifying this susceptible subset of the population before the onset of nicotine dependence may encourage targeted early interventions to prevent regular smoking and/or minimize severity. While prospective neuroimaging in human populations can be challenging, preclinical neuroimaging models prior to chronic nicotine administration can help develop translational biomarkers of disease risk. Read More

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http://www.jneurosci.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0140-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0140-19.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
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Case Report: Unprovoked venous thromboembolism in a young adult male.

F1000Res 2019 14;8:182. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

A 24-year-old male was presented to us with sudden onset of chest pain and dyspnea for the past one hour. There was no history of calf pain, trauma, surgery, prolonged immobilization, long-haul air travel, bleeding diathesis or any other co-morbidity. The patient denied any addiction history. Read More

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https://f1000research.com/articles/8-182/v1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.18202.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446494PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Flexible assertive community treatment for individuals with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: results of a longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Behavioural Science Institute (BSI), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands & Trajectum, Zwolle, the Netherlands.

Background: Assertive community treatment (ACT) and Flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) are organisation models for intensive assertive outreach that were originally developed for individuals with severe mental illness. The models are increasingly applied to people with mild intellectual disability (MID) or borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) and challenging behaviour or mental illness. Research on these types of care for this population is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12619DOI Listing
April 2019
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An experimental study on spontaneous recovery of conditioned reward expectancies and instrumental responding in humans.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Mar 21;118:54-64. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Sussex Addiction Research and Intervention Centre, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK.

The aim of the present study was to investigate spontaneous recovery of reward-expectancies and a reward-associated response in humans and to assess individual factors affecting spontaneous recovery. We therefore implemented an experimental procedure comprising three separate test-sessions. In the first test-session, participants underwent instrumental discrimination training to acquire a conditioned reward-associated response, in the second test-session, memory of this response was tested followed by extinction training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Measurement of substance-free reinforcement in addiction: A systematic review.

Clin Psychol Rev 2019 Apr 5;70:79-90. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, 400 Innovation Dr., Memphis, TN 38152, United States. Electronic address:

A robust body of theoretical and experimental work highlights the influence of alternative, substance-free rewards on decisions to use alcohol and other drugs. However, translational applications have been limited in part by the lack of consensus on how to measure substance-free reinforcement in applied and clinical settings. The current study summarizes extant research utilizing self-report reinforcement or reward methodologies, and critically reviews the psychometric properties of the available measures. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02727358183045
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Oxytocin blocks enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol dependence and blocks alcohol effects on GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 16;17(4):e2006421. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Neurobiology of Addiction Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Oxytocin administration has been reported to decrease consumption, withdrawal, and drug-seeking associated with several drugs of abuse and thus represents a promising pharmacological approach to treat drug addiction. We used an established rat model of alcohol dependence to investigate oxytocin's effects on dependence-induced alcohol drinking, enhanced motivation for alcohol, and altered GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Intraperitoneal oxytocin administration blocked escalated alcohol drinking and the enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol-dependent but not nondependent rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006421DOI Listing
April 2019
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Mortality in older adults with frequent alcohol consumption and use of drugs with addiction potential - The Nord Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3), Norway, a population-based study.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(4):e0214813. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether frequent drinking, use of drugs with addiction potential and the possible combination of frequent drinking and use of prescribed drugs with addiction potential were associated with all-cause mortality in older adults.

Methods: We used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006-08), a population-based study in Norway. A total of 11,545 (6,084 women) individuals 65 years and older at baseline participated. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214813PLOS

Designing a Chatbot for a Brief Motivational Interview on Stress Management: Qualitative Case Study.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Apr 16;21(4):e12231. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Human Centered Computing Lab., Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In addition to addiction and substance abuse, motivational interviewing (MI) is increasingly being integrated in treating other clinical issues such as mental health problems. Most of the many technological adaptations of MI, however, have focused on delivering the action-oriented treatment, leaving its relational component unexplored or vaguely described. This study intended to design a conversational sequence that considers both technical and relational components of MI for a mental health concern. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12231DOI Listing