1,895 results match your criteria Addiction Biology[Journal]

Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in rhesus macaques on the nucleus accumbens core transcriptome.

Addict Biol 2021 May 4:e13021. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) has been repeatedly demonstrated to be a key component of the circuitry associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Previous studies have illustrated that in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of chronic ethanol consumption, there is significant epigenetic remodeling of the NAcc. In the current study, RNA-Seq was used to examine genome-wide gene expression in eight each of control, low/binge (LD*), and high/very high (HD*) rhesus macaque drinkers. Read More

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The serotonin 2C receptor agonist lorcaserin, alone and in combination with the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone, attenuates binge-like ethanol drinking.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 29:e13040. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) use disorders. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT receptor agonist, attenuates drug self-administration in animal models. We investigated the effects of lorcaserin on EtOH intake using the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) procedure, an animal model of binge-like drinking. Read More

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F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography metabolic pattern assessment in the brain of betel quid dependent individuals.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 28:e13043. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Emergency, XiangYa Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The primary objective of this study was to identify the metabolic pattern in the brains of betel quid dependent (BQD) individuals using F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography ( F-FDG-PET). A total of 42 individuals (16 BQD individuals and 26 healthy controls, HCs) enrolled at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Xiangya Hospital underwent brain F-FDG-PET. Group comparisons using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) were performed to identify the F-FDG-PET patterns. Read More

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A closer look at alcohol-induced changes in the ghrelin system: novel insights from preclinical and clinical data.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 27:e13033. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Translational Addiction Medicine Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Ghrelin is a gastric-derived peptide hormone with demonstrated impact on alcohol intake and craving, but the reverse side of this bidirectional link, that is, the effects of alcohol on the ghrelin system, remains to be fully established. To further characterize this relationship, we examined (1) ghrelin levels via secondary analysis of human laboratory alcohol administration experiments with heavy-drinking participants; (2) expression of ghrelin, ghrelin receptor, and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) genes (GHRL, GHSR, and MBOAT4, respectively) in post-mortem brain tissue from individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) versus controls; (3) ghrelin levels in Ghsr knockout and wild-type rats following intraperitoneal (i.p. Read More

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Cocaine experience induces functional adaptations in astrocytes: Implications for synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens shell.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 16:e13042. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Astrocytes have become established as an important regulator of neuronal activity in the brain. Accumulating literature demonstrates that cocaine self-administration in rodent models induces structural changes within astrocytes that may influence their interaction with the surrounding neurons. Here, we provide evidence that cocaine impacts astrocytes at the functional level and alters neuronal sensitivity to astrocyte-derived glutamate. Read More

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Addict Biol 2021 May;26(3):e13039

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Addict Biol 2021 May;26(3):e13038

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GABA concentrations in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices: Associations with chronic cigarette smoking, neurocognition, and decision making.

Addict Biol 2021 05 10;26(3):e12948. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIND), San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with regional metabolite abnormalities in choline-containing compounds, creatine-containing compounds, glutamate, and N-acetylaspartate. The effects of cigarette smoking on anterior frontal cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration are unknown. This study compared chronic smokers (n = 33) and nonsmokers (n = 31) on anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) GABA+ (the sum of GABA and coedited macromolecules) concentrations and associations of GABA+ levels in these regions with seven neurocognitive domains of functioning, decision making, and impulsivity measures. Read More

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Neurometabolic alterations in the nucleus accumbens of smokers assessed with H magnetic resonance spectroscopy: The role of glutamate and neuroinflammation.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 6:e13027. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Addictive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of premature death and morbidity worldwide. For smokers trying to quit, relapse rates are high, even after prolonged periods of abstinence. Recent findings in animal models highlight the role of alterations in glutamatergic projections from the prefrontal cortex onto the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in relapse vulnerability. Read More

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Circular RNA expression alteration identifies a novel circulating biomarker in serum exosomal for detection of alcohol dependence.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 5:e13031. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Alcohol dependence (AD) is one of the most common and detrimental neuropsychological disorders. Recently, more and more studies have focused on circular RNA as markers for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the circular RNA expression alteration in serum exosomal and to identify a novel circulating biomarker for the detection of AD. Read More

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Cell-type specific expression and behavioral impact of galanin and GalR1 in the locus coeruleus during opioid withdrawal.

Addict Biol 2021 Mar 25:e13037. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

The neuropeptide galanin is reported to attenuate opioid withdrawal symptoms, potentially by reducing neuronal hyperactivity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) via galanin receptor 1 (GalR1). We evaluated this mechanism by using RNAscope in situ hybridization to characterize GalR1 mRNA distribution in the dorsal pons and to compare galanin and GalR1 mRNA expression in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) LC cells at baseline and following chronic morphine or precipitated withdrawal. We then used genetically altered mouse lines and pharmacology to test whether noradrenergic galanin (NE-Gal) modulates withdrawal symptoms. Read More

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Changes in the metabolic profile of human male postmortem frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid samples associated with heavy alcohol use.

Addict Biol 2021 Mar 21:e13035. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University and Fimlab Laboratories Ltd, Tampere University Hospital Region, Kuopio, Finland.

Heavy alcohol use is one of the top causes of disease and death in the world. The brain is a key organ affected by heavy alcohol use. Here, our aim was to measure changes caused by heavy alcohol use in the human brain metabolic profile. Read More

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Bipolar disorder and cannabis use: A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Addict Biol 2021 Mar 17:e13030. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Affective Disorders, Aarhus University Hospital - Psychiatry, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cannabis use is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders; however, the causal nature of these associations has been difficult to establish. Mendelian randomization (MR) offers a way to infer causality between exposures with known genetic predictors (genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) and outcomes of interest. MR has previously been applied to investigate the relationship between lifetime cannabis use (having ever used cannabis) and schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but not bipolar disorder, representing a gap in the literature. Read More

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Identifying neural signatures of tobacco retail outlet exposure: Preliminary validation of a "community neuroscience" paradigm.

Addict Biol 2021 Mar 4:e13029. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

An extensive epidemiological literature indicates that increased exposure to tobacco retail outlets (TROs) places never smokers at greater risk for smoking uptake and current smokers at greater risk for increased consumption and smoking relapse. Yet research into the mechanisms underlying this effect has been limited. This preliminary study represents the first effort to examine the neurobiological consequences of exposure to personally relevant TROs among both smokers (n = 17) and nonsmokers (n = 17). Read More

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GABAergic projections to the ventral tegmental area govern cocaine-conditioned reward.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 26:e13026. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Institute for Drug Research (IDR), School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Elevated dopamine (DA) levels in the reward system underlie various drug-related behaviors, including addiction. As a major DA source in the reward system, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is highly regulated by GABAergic inputs projected from different brain regions. It was previously shown that cocaine exposure reduces GABA -mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VTA DA neurons; however, the specific GABAergic input underlying this inhibitory effect remains unknown. Read More

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February 2021

Sustained brain response to repeated drug cues is associated with poor drug-use outcomes.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 26:e13028. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

A threefold increase in fatal cocaine overdoses during the past decade highlights the critical lack of medications for cocaine use disorders. The brain response to drug cues can predict future drug use; however, results have been mixed. We present preliminary evidence that a sustained response to repeated cocaine cues within a single task is a significant predictor of drug-use outcomes. Read More

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February 2021

Nicotine e-cigarette vapor inhalation and self-administration in a rodent model: Sex- and nicotine delivery-specific effects on metabolism and behavior.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 23:e13024. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

E-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine, have dramatically risen in popularity in recent years, despite many unanswered questions about safety, efficacy in reducing dependence, and overall impact on public health. Other factors, such as sex, also play an important role in determining behavioral and neurochemical responses to drugs of abuse. In these studies, we sought to develop a protocol for vaporized e-cigarette nicotine self-administration in rats, as a foundation to better understand the differing effects of nicotine exposure routes on behavior and physiological function. Read More

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February 2021

Akt and its phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens mediate heroin-seeking behavior induced by cues in rats.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 22:e13013. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Addiction Research, Ningbo Kangning Hospital, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, China.

Akt is initially identified as one of the downstream targets of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and is involved in morphine reward and tolerance. However, whether phospholyration of Akt (p-Akt) mediates heroin relapse remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the role of p-Akt in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in cue-induced heroin-seeking behaviors after withdrawal. Read More

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February 2021

Oxytocin prevents cue-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking: Involvement of DNA methylation in the hippocampus.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 20:e13025. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Oxycodone is one of the most commonly used analgesics in the clinic. However, long-term use can contribute to drug dependence. Accumulating evidence of changes in DNA methylation after opioid relapse has provided insight into mechanisms underlying drug-associated memory. Read More

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February 2021

Associations between the CADM2 gene, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and self-control: A phenome-wide association study.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 18:e13015. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, The Netherlands.

Risky behaviors, such as substance use and unprotected sex, are associated with various physical and mental health problems. Recent genome-wide association studies indicated that variation in the cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) gene plays a role in risky behaviors and self-control. In this phenome-wide scan for risky behavior, it was tested if underlying common vulnerability could be (partly) explained by pleiotropic effects of this gene and how large the effects were. Read More

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February 2021

Cannabis use does not impact on type 2 diabetes: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 12:e13020. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Chair of Epidemiology, LMU München, UNIKA-T Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.

Cannabis has effects on the insulin/glucose metabolism. As the use of cannabis and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase worldwide, it is important to examine the effect of cannabis on the risk of diabetes. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study by using 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables for lifetime cannabis use and 14 SNPs to instrument cannabis use disorder and linking these to type 2 diabetes risk using genome-wide association study data (lifetime cannabis use [N = 184,765]; cannabis use disorder [2387 cases/48,985 controls], type 2 diabetes [74,124 cases/824,006 controls]). Read More

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February 2021

Stress-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration, anxiety-like behavior, and elevated amygdala Avp expression in a susceptible subpopulation of rats.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 9:e13009. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.

Comorbidity between alcohol use and anxiety disorders is associated with more severe symptoms and poorer treatment outcomes than either of the conditions alone. There is a well-known link between stress and the development of these disorders, with post-traumatic stress disorder as a prototypic example. Post-traumatic stress disorder can arise as a consequence of experiencing traumatic events firsthand and also after witnessing them. Read More

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February 2021

Dopamine neurons gate the intersection of cocaine use, decision making, and impulsivity.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 8:e13022. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Psychology, Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Gambling and substance use disorders are highly comorbid. Both clinical populations are impulsive and exhibit risky decision-making. Drug-associated cues have long been known to facilitate habitual drug-seeking, and the salient audiovisual cues embedded within modern gambling products may likewise encourage problem gambling. Read More

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February 2021

Discovery of a macromolecular complex mediating the hunger suppressive actions of cocaine: Structural and functional properties.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 8:e13017. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, School of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Cocaine not only increases brain dopamine levels but also activates the sigma receptor (σ R) that in turn regulates orexigenic receptor function. Identification of interactions involving dopamine D (D R), ghrelin (GHS-R ), and σ receptors have been addressed by biophysical techniques and a complementation approach using interfering peptides. The effect of cocaine on receptor functionality was assayed by measuring second messenger, cAMP and Ca , levels. Read More

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February 2021

Sugar, a powerful substitute for ethanol in ethanol postdependent rats: Relevance for clinical consideration?

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 8:e13023. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

INSERM UMR1247, Groupe de Recherche sur l'Alcool et les Pharmacodépendances (GRAP), Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.

Sugar has been shown to be a powerful substitute for drugs in preclinical studies on addiction. However, the link between sugar intake and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is poorly understood. We assessed the influence of sucrose on ethanol drinking in both nondependent (ND) and dependent (D) Long-Evans rats during acute withdrawal using the postdependent state model. Read More

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February 2021

Translating preclinical models of alcohol seeking and consumption into the human laboratory using intravenous alcohol self-administration paradigms.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 5:e13016. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Preclinical models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have advanced theoretical, mechanistic, and pharmacological study of the human condition. "Liking" and "wanting" behaviors reflect core processes underlying several models of AUD. However, the development and application of translational models of these preclinical approaches are at an incipient stage. Read More

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February 2021

Optogenetic brain-stimulation reward: A new procedure to re-evaluate the rewarding versus aversive effects of cannabinoids in dopamine transporter-Cre mice.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 3:e13005. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Addiction Biology Unit, Molecular Targets and Medications Discovery, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Despite extensive research, the rewarding effects of cannabinoids are still debated. Here, we used a newly established animal procedure called optogenetic intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) (oICSS) to re-examine the abuse potential of cannabinoids in mice. A specific adeno-associated viral vector carrying a channelrhodopsin gene was microinjected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to express light-sensitive channelrhodopsin in dopamine (DA) neurons of transgenic dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre mice. Read More

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February 2021

Tyramine synthesis, vesicular packaging, and the SNARE complex function coordinately in astrocytes to regulate Drosophila alcohol sedation.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 3:e13019. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Identifying mechanisms underlying alcohol-related behaviors could provide important insights regarding the etiology of alcohol use disorder. To date, most genetic studies on alcohol-related behavior in model organisms have focused on neurons, leaving the causal roles of glial mechanisms less comprehensively investigated. Here, we report our studies on the role of Tyrosine decarboxylase 2 (Tdc2), which converts tyrosine to the catecholamine tyramine, in glial cells in Drosophila alcohol sedation. Read More

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February 2021

Epigenetics of alcohol use disorder-A review of recent advances in DNA methylation profiling.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 3:e13006. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Section on Clinical Genomics and Experimental Therapeutics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although there is a heritable component, the etiology of AUD is complex and can involve environmental exposures like trauma and can be associated with many different patterns of alcohol consumption. Epigenetic modifications, which can mediate the influence of genetic variants and environmental variables on gene expression, have emerged as an important area of AUD research. Read More

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February 2021

Baclofen decreases compulsive alcohol drinking in rats characterized by reduced levels of GAT-3 in the central amygdala.

Addict Biol 2021 Feb 1:e13011. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

While most individuals with access to alcohol drink it recreationally, some vulnerable individuals eventually lose control over their intake and progressively develop compulsive alcohol drinking and decreased interest in alternative sources of reinforcement, two key features of addiction. The neural and molecular mechanisms underlying this vulnerability to switch from controlled to compulsive alcohol intake have not been fully elucidated. It has been shown that rats having reduced levels of expression of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter, GAT-3, in the amygdala tend to persist in seeking and drinking alcohol even when adulterated with quinine, suggesting that pharmacological interventions aimed at restoring GABA homeostasis in these individuals may provide a targeted treatment to limit compulsive alcohol drinking. Read More

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February 2021