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    Working memory predicts methamphetamine hair concentration over the course of treatment: moderating effect of impulsivity and implications for dual-systems model.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.
    High impulsivity and poor executive function are characteristic of methamphetamine use disorder. High arousal in the impulsive system has been proposed to compromise the executive system's regulating ability (i.e. Read More

    Mu opioid receptors in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain promote alcohol reward and drinking.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Département de Médecine Translationnelle et Neurogénétique, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, INSERM U-964, CNRS UMR-7104, Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are widely distributed throughout brain reward circuits and their role in drug and social reward is well established. Substantial evidence has implicated MOR and the endogenous opioid system in alcohol reward, but circuit mechanisms of MOR-mediated alcohol reward and intake behavior remain elusive, and have not been investigated by genetic approaches. We recently created conditional knockout (KO) mice targeting the Oprm1 gene in GABAergic forebrain neurons. Read More

    Problematic alcohol use associates with sodium channel and clathrin linker 1 (SCLT1) in trauma-exposed populations.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Excessive alcohol use is extremely prevalent in the United States, particularly among trauma-exposed individuals. While several studies have examined genetic influences on alcohol use and related problems, this has not been studied in the context of trauma-exposed populations. We report results from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and associated problems as measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in a trauma-exposed cohort. Read More

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase in the central amygdala alleviates co-morbid expression of innate anxiety and excessive alcohol intake.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Unit, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that prominently degrades the major endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased anandamide levels in brain regions that modulate stress and anxiety. Recently, we found that genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats display hyperactive FAAH in amygdalar regions that was associated with increased stress sensitivity and a hyper-anxious phenotype. Read More

    Genome-wide association study of alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores in 20 328 research participants of European ancestry.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Read More

    Association of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphism rs1789891 with gray matter brain volume, alcohol consumption, alcohol craving and relapse risk.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume. Read More

    Orbitofrontal gray matter deficits as marker of Internet gaming disorder: converging evidence from a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China.
    Internet gaming disorder represents a growing health issue. Core symptoms include unsuccessful attempts to control the addictive patterns of behavior and continued use despite negative consequences indicating a loss of regulatory control. Previous studies revealed brain structural deficits in prefrontal regions subserving regulatory control in individuals with excessive Internet use. Read More

    Selective inhibition of M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors attenuates cocaine self-administration in rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a debilitating health problem in the United States for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options. Accumulating anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype 5 (M5 ) plays a critical role in the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry, a major site of action for cocaine and other psychostimulants. In addition, M5 knockout mice exhibit reduced cocaine self-administration behaviors with no differences in sugar pellet-maintained responding relative to wild-type mice. Read More

    Activated mesenchymal stem cell administration inhibits chronic alcohol drinking and suppresses relapse-like drinking in high-alcohol drinker rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chile.
    Neuroinflammation has been reported to follow chronic ethanol intake and may perpetuate alcohol consumption. Present studies determined the effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), known for their anti-inflammatory action, on chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like ethanol intake in a post-deprivation condition. Rats were allowed 12-17 weeks of chronic voluntary ethanol (10% and 20% v/v) intake, after which a single dose of activated hMSCs (5 × 10(5) ) was injected into a brain lateral ventricle. Read More

    Hypocretin receptor 1 knockdown in the ventral tegmental area attenuates mesolimbic dopamine signaling and reduces motivation for cocaine.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    The hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTr1) is a critical participant in the regulation of motivated behavior. Previous observations demonstrate that acute pharmacological blockade of HCRTr1 disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and the motivation for cocaine when delivered systemically or directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To further examine the involvement of HCRTr1 in regulating reward and reinforcement processing, we employed an adeno-associated virus to express a short hairpin RNA designed to knock down HCRTr1. Read More

    Minocycline increases firing rates of accumbal neurons and modifies the effects of morphine on neuronal activity.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Accumulating evidence indicated that minocycline, a glial cell modulator, is able to modify a variety of morphine effects. Here, we investigated minocycline effects on electrical activity of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons using single unit recording in urethane-anesthetized rats. In addition, we investigated whether minocycline can modify the effects of morphine on NAc neural activity during reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior. Read More

    Functional role for suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating interoceptive effects of alcohol.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    The insular cortex (IC) is a region proposed to modulate, in part, interoceptive states and motivated behavior. Interestingly, IC dysfunction and deficits in interoceptive processing are often found among individuals with substance-use disorders. Furthermore, the IC projects to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), a region known to modulate the discriminative stimulus/interoceptive effects of alcohol and other drug-related behaviors. Read More

    Imaging the neuroimmune response to alcohol exposure in adolescent baboons: a TSPO PET study using (18) F-DPA-714.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Imagerie Moléculaire In Vivo, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, Orsay, France.
    The effects of acute alcohol exposure to the central nervous system are hypothesized to involve the innate immune system. The neuroimmune response to an initial and acute alcohol exposure was investigated using translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) PET imaging, a non-invasive marker of glial activation, in adolescent baboons. Three different alcohol-naive adolescent baboons (3-4 years old, 9 to 14 kg) underwent (18) F-DPA-714 PET experiments before, during and 7-12 months after this initial alcohol exposure (0. Read More

    Limited potential of cebranopadol to produce opioid-type physical dependence in rodents.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Preclinical Drug Development, Grünenthal GmbH, Germany.
    Cebranopadol is a novel potent analgesic agonist at the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and classical opioid receptors. As NOP receptor activation has been shown to reduce side effects related to the activation of μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptors, the present study evaluated opioid-type physical dependence produced by cebranopadol in mice and rats. In a naloxone-precipitated withdrawal assay in mice, a regimen of seven escalating doses of cebranopadol over 2 days produced only very limited physical dependence as evidenced by very little withdrawal symptoms (jumping) even at cebranopadol doses clearly exceeding the analgesic dose range. Read More

    Amino acid modulation of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens mediates sex differences in nicotine withdrawal.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA.
    The aversive effect of nicotine withdrawal is greater in female versus male rats, and we postulate that this sex difference is mediated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Nicotine withdrawal induces decreases in NAc dopamine and increases in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in male rats. To our knowledge, these neurochemical markers of nicotine withdrawal have not been compared in female versus male rats. Read More

    Red Bull® energy drink increases consumption of higher concentrations of alcohol.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Psychobiology, School of Psychology, Campus de Somosaguas, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Mixing alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks is a common practice, especially among young people. In humans, the research on this issue has mainly focused on the use of the mass-marketed energy drinks themselves, whereas in animal models, it has focused on the individual effects of their active ingredients (i.e. Read More

    Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the rat dorsal medial prefrontal cortex is associated with alcohol-induced cognitive inflexibility.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Repeated cycles of alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication and withdrawal dysregulate excitatory glutamatergic systems in the brain and induce neuroadaptations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. The mPFC is composed of subdivisions that are functionally distinct, with dorsal regions facilitating drug-cue associations and ventral regions modulating new learning in the absence of drug. A key modulator of glutamatergic activity is the holoenzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) that phosphorylates ionotropic glutamate receptors. Read More

    Time-dependent neuronal changes associated with craving in opioid dependence: an fMRI study.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, UK.
    Relapse after initially successful treatment is a significant problem facing the treatment of opioid dependence. Evidence suggests craving elicited by re-exposure to drug cues may precipitate relapse. Attempts to identify neural biomarkers of cue-elicited craving have yielded inconsistent findings. Read More

    Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 22;22(6):1883-1894. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Read More

    α6 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors mediate low-dose ethanol effects on ventral tegmental area neurons and ethanol reward.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
    Dopamine (DA) neuron excitability is regulated by inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α6 subunit-containing nAChRs (α6*-nAChRs) in acute ethanol effects on ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA and DA neurons. α6*-nAChRs were visualized on GABA terminals on VTA GABA neurons, and α6*-nAChR transcripts were expressed in most DA neurons, but only a minority of VTA GABA neurons from GAD67 GFP mice. Read More

    Abnormal gray matter volume and impulsivity in young adults with Internet gaming disorder.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, South Korea.
    Reduced executive control is one of the central components of model on the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Among the various executive control problems, high impulsivity has consistently been associated with IGD. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration by using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) to investigate the relationship of gray matter abnormalities to impulsivity in IGD. Read More

    Cerebral dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission relate to different subjective responses of acute alcohol intake: an in vivo multimodal imaging study.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging and Pathology, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively. Read More

    Phosphorylated SNAP25 in the CA1 regulates morphine-associated contextual memory retrieval via increasing GluN2B-NMDAR surface localization.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience of the Ministry of Education and National Health and Family Planning Commission, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University, China.
    Although our previous studies have demonstrated both protein kinase C (PKC) and GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GluN2B-NMDAR) play crucial roles in morphine-associated learning and memory, the relationship between them remains unexplored. In this study, we validated the enhanced PKC and membrane GluN2B protein expression in the hippocampal CA1 after morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) expression in rats. Interestingly, we also found that phosphorylation of SNAP25 at Ser187 (pSer187-SNAP25), a PKC-activated target, was significantly increased following morphine CPP expression. Read More

    Self-efficacy modulates the neural correlates of craving in male smokers and ex-smokers: an fMRI study.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    The regulation of cue-induced craving for cigarettes is a key factor in smoking cessation. Outcomes of smoking cessation have been linked to self-efficacy, faith in one's own ability, in smokers. However, no study has examined the neural basis of self-efficacy during the control of craving. Read More

    Neural correlates of tobacco cue reactivity predict duration to lapse and continuous abstinence in smoking cessation treatment.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
    It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances. Read More

    Neurotensin in the posterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus: inhibitor of pharmacologically relevant ethanol drinking.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Individuals prone to ethanol overconsumption may have preexisting neurochemical disturbances that contribute to their vulnerability. This study examined the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), a limbic structure recently shown to participate in ethanol intake. To identify individuals prone to ethanol overconsumption, we tested Long-Evans rats in behavioral paradigms and found high levels of vertical time (rearing behavior) in a novel activity chamber to be a consistent predictor of subsequent excessive 20 percent ethanol drinking under the intermittent access model. Read More

    Neural mechanisms of extinguishing drug and pleasant cue associations in human addiction: role of the VMPFC.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
    The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the resistance of drug cue associations to extinction in addiction remain unknown. Fear extinction critically depends on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here, we tested if this same region plays a role in extinction of non-fear, drug and pleasant cue associations. Read More

    Cafeteria diet induces neuroplastic modifications in the nucleus accumbens mediated by microglia activation.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Laboratory of Neuropharmacology (DCEXS), Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona/Universitat Pompeu Fabra (PRBB/UPF), Spain.
    High-palatable and caloric foods are widely overconsumed due to hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities leading to overeating and overweight. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key brain area modulating the reinforcing effects of palatable foods and is crucially involved in the development of eating disorders. We describe that prolonged exposure to high-caloric chocolate cafeteria diet leads to overeating and overweight in mice. Read More

    Working memory and salivary brain-derived neurotrophic factor as developmental predictors of cocaine seeking in male and female rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA.
    Poor working memory is linked to future risk-taking behaviors. Lifelong risk of habitual drug use is highest in individuals who initiate use in early adolescence. We sought to determine in rats whether juvenile traits, specifically poor working memory and low salivary brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are related to elevated cocaine taking and relapse in adolescence and adulthood. Read More

    Chronic ethanol consumption: role of TLR3/TRIF-dependent signaling.
    Addict Biol 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Chronic ethanol consumption stimulates neuroimmune signaling in the brain, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation plays a key role in ethanol-induced inflammation. However, it is unknown which of the TLR signaling pathways, the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) dependent or the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) dependent, is activated in response to chronic ethanol. We used voluntary (every-other-day) chronic ethanol consumption in adult C57BL/6J mice and measured expression of TLRs and their signaling molecules immediately following consumption and 24 hours after removing alcohol. Read More

    Young alcohol binge drinkers have elevated blood endotoxin, peripheral inflammation and low cortisol levels: neuropsychological correlations in women.
    Addict Biol 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
    Alcohol binge drinking is a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption that is increasingly practiced by adolescents and young adults. Evidence indicates that alcohol binges induce peripheral inflammation and an exacerbated neuroimmune response that may participate in alcohol-induced cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions. Here, we recruited 20-year-old male and female university students who were identified as binge drinkers for at least 2 years. Read More

    Acute calming effects of alcohol are associated with disruption of the salience network.
    Addict Biol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    The mood-altering properties of alcohol are a key motivation for drinking, and people commonly report that they drink alcohol to alleviate stress or to relax. To date, the neural processes associated with the self-reported calming effects of alcohol are not well understood. Existing data imply that alcohol may target and disrupt activity within anterior insula (aINS) and amygdala-based neural networks, which are regions implicated in threat detection and anxious responding. Read More

    Differential stimulus control of drug-seeking: multimodal reinstatement.
    Addict Biol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Behavioral Neuroscience and Psychopharmacology, Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
    In animal models of substance-use disorder, individuals that repeatedly self-administer drugs of abuse have long-lasting neuronal adaptations that do not occur ostensibly in control animals only exposed to natural reinforcers (e.g. food). Read More

    Prenatal androgen receptor activation determines adult alcohol and water drinking in a sex-specific way.
    Addict Biol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Clinic, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Alcohol use disorders are major psychiatric disorders. Correlational studies in humans suggested organizational hormonal effects during embryonic development as a risk factor for adult alcohol dependence. Permanent changes can be induced by the activity of sex hormones, like testosterone. Read More

    Addiction-related interactions of pregabalin with morphine in mice and humans: reinforcing and inhibiting effects.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. Read More

    Methamphetamine promotes habitual action and alters the density of striatal glutamate receptor and vesicular proteins in dorsal striatum.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Australia.
    Goal-directed actions are controlled by the value of the consequences they produce and so increase when what they produce is valuable and decrease when it is not. With continued invariant practice, however, goal-directed actions can become habits, controlled not by their consequences but by antecedent, reward-related states and stimuli. Here, we show that pre-exposure to methamphetamine (METH) caused abnormally rapid development of habitual control. Read More

    Neuronal representation of individual heroin choices in the orbitofrontal cortex.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 13. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, France.
    Drug addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other non-drug-related activities. We previously identified in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that influences individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative action rewarded by a non-drug reward (i.e. Read More

    Aberrant blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal oscillations across frequency bands characterize the alcoholic brain.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Neuroscience Program, Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA.
    Chronic alcoholism is associated with widespread regional differences from controls in brain activity and connectivity dynamics measured by blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Identification of alcoholism-related neurofunctional power dynamics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that relate to cognition and behavior may serve as biomarkers of alcoholism. Previously, resting-state fMRI studies examined BOLD signals at a single low-frequency (LF) bandwidth. Read More

    Adolescent alcohol exposure decreases frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity in adulthood.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 9. Epub 2017 Jul 9.
    Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Connectivity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) matures through adolescence, coinciding with emergence of adult executive function and top-down inhibitory control over behavior. Alcohol exposure during this critical period of brain maturation may affect development of PFC and frontolimbic connectivity. Adult rats exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg ethanol, 25 percent v/v in water, intragastrically, 2-day-on, 2-day-off, postnatal day 25-54) or water control underwent resting-state functional MRI to test the hypothesis that AIE induces persistent changes in frontolimbic functional connectivity under baseline and acute alcohol conditions (2 g/kg ethanol or saline, intraperitoneally administered during scanning). Read More

    Cocaine and HIV are independently associated with neural activation in response to gain and loss valuation during economic risky choice.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Stimulant abuse is disproportionately common in HIV-positive persons. Both HIV and stimulants are independently associated with deficits in reward-based decision making, but their interactive and/or additive effects are poorly understood despite their prevalent co-morbidity. Here, we examined the effects of cocaine dependence and HIV infection in 69 adults who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an economic loss aversion task. Read More

    A new generation of mTORC1 inhibitor attenuates alcohol intake and reward in mice.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic condition associated with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Yet, pharmacotherapies to treat behavioral phenotypes such as uncontrolled heavy drinking are limited. Studies in rodents suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking behaviors as well as alcohol seeking and relapse. Read More

    Context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence is associated with activation of cortical and subcortical brain regions.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. Read More

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inactivation confers enhanced sensitivity to nicotine-induced dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
    Nicotine exerts its rewarding effects by promoting an increase in dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and this process is influenced by the endocannabinoid system. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide and other non-cannabinoid N-acylethanolamines. Previous research has reported that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of FAAH enhance nicotine-induced conditioned place preference at low doses. Read More

    Long-term subregion-specific encoding of enhanced ethanol intake by D1DR medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.
    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical component of the mesocorticolimbic system and is involved in mediating the motivational and reinforcing aspects of ethanol consumption. Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure is a reliable model to induce ethanol dependence and increase volitional ethanol consumption in mice. Following a CIE-induced escalation of ethanol consumption, NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor)-dependent long-term depression in D1 dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons of the NAc shell was markedly altered with no changes in plasticity in D1 dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons from the NAc core. Read More

    CB1 and ethanol effects on glutamatergic transmission in the central amygdala of male and female msP and Wistar rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
    The central amygdala (CeA) is involved in the processing of anxiety and stress and plays a role in ethanol consumption. Chronic ethanol recruits stress systems in the CeA, leading to aversive withdrawal symptoms. Although primarily GABAergic, CeA contains glutamatergic afferents, and we have reported inhibitory effects of ethanol on locally evoked glutamatergic responses in CeA of Wistar and Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. Read More

    Buprenorphine requires concomitant activation of NOP and MOP receptors to reduce cocaine consumption.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Unit, University of Camerino, Italy.
    Buprenorphine's clinical use is approved for the treatment of heroin addiction; however, evidence supporting its efficacy in cocaine abuse also exists. While for heroin it has been demonstrated that the effect of buprenorphine is mediated by its ability to activate μ-opioid peptide receptor (MOP) receptors, the mechanism through which it attenuates cocaine intake remains elusive. We explored this mechanism using operant models where rodents were trained to chronically self-administer cocaine for 2 hours daily. Read More

    Noradrenergic signaling in the VTA modulates cocaine craving.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA. Read More

    Locomotor sensitization is expressed by ghrelin and D1 dopamine receptor agonist in the nucleus accumbens core in amphetamine pre-exposed rat.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Physiology, Brain Korea 21 Plus Project for Medical Science, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Ghrelin modulates mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways in the brain in addition to its role in feeding. We investigated what roles ghrelin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core may play in mediating locomotor activating effects of amphetamine (AMPH). First, when rats were administered with AMPH (1 mg/kg, i. Read More

    Novel role and regulation of HDAC4 in cocaine-related behaviors.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA.
    Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to persistent aspects of addiction-related behaviors. One family of epigenetic molecules that may regulate maladaptive behavioral changes produced by cocaine use are the histone deacetylases (HDACs)-key regulators of chromatin and gene expression. In particular, the class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7 and HDAC9) respond to changes in neuronal activity by modulating their distribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm-a process controlled in large part by changes in phosphorylation of conserved residues. Read More

    Regional cerebral blood flow in opiate dependence relates to substance use and neuropsychological performance.
    Addict Biol 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIND), San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. Read More

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