Amino acid modulation of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens mediates sex differences in nicotine withdrawal.
Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA.
The aversive effect of nicotine withdrawal is greater in female versus male rats, and we postulate that this sex difference is mediated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Nicotine withdrawal induces decreases in NAc dopamine and increases in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in male rats. To our knowledge, these neurochemical markers of nicotine withdrawal have not been compared in female versus male rats. Read More