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    1 OF 30

    DRD2 promoter methylation and measures of alcohol reward: functional activation of reward circuits and clinical severity.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Studies have identified strong associations between D2 receptor binding potential and neural responses to rewarding stimuli and substance use. Thus, D2 receptor perturbations are central to theoretical models of the pathophysiology of substance dependence, and epigenetic changes may represent one of the fundamental molecular mechanisms impacting the effects of alcohol exposure on the brain. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene would be associated with cue-elicited activation of neural reward regions, as well as severity of alcohol use behavior. Read More

    Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-reported drinking patterns, expectancies, motives and personality: a randomized controlled experimental study.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. Read More

    Time-dependent regional brain distribution of methadone and naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Catalysis and Peptide Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery. Read More

    Medial habenula cholinergic signaling regulates cocaine-associated relapse-like behavior.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Ayala School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. Relapse and relapse-like behaviors are known to be induced, in part, by re-exposure to drug-associated cues. Yet, while many critical nodes in the neural circuitry contributing to relapse have been identified and studied, a full description of the networks driving reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors is lacking. Read More

    Sex differences in binge-like EtOH drinking, corticotropin-releasing hormone and corticosterone: effects of β-endorphin.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA.
    Binge drinking is an increasingly common pattern of risky use associated with numerous health problems, including alcohol use disorders. Because low basal plasma levels of β-endorphin (β-E) and an increased β-E response to alcohol are evident in genetically at-risk human populations, this peptide is thought to contribute to the susceptibility for disordered drinking. Animal models suggest that the effect of β-E on consumption may be sex-dependent. Read More

    Functional effects of synthetic cannabinoids versus Δ-THC in mice on body temperature, nociceptive threshold, anxiety, cognition, locomotor/exploratory parameters and depression.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
    Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive substances designed to mimic the euphorigenic effects of the natural cannabis. Novel unregulated compounds appear once older compounds become illegal. It has been previously reported that synthetic cannabinoids are different than Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) as they have chemical structures unrelated to Δ-THC, different metabolism and, often, greater toxicity. Read More

    Activation of amylin receptors attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviours in rodents.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol. Read More

    Acupuncture inhibition of methamphetamine-induced behaviors, dopamine release and hyperthermia in the nucleus accumbens: mediation of group II mGluR.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.
    Methamphetamine (METH) increases metabolic neuronal activity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and mediates the reinforcing effect. To explore the underlying mechanism of acupuncture intervention in reducing METH-induced behaviors, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, extracellular DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcs) using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and alterations of brain temperature (an indicator of local brain metabolic activity) produced by METH administration. When acupuncture was applied to HT7, but not TE4, both locomotor activity and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations were suppressed in METH-treated rats. Read More

    Cocaine conditioned place preference: unexpected suppression of preference due to testing combined with strong conditioning.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Inserm UMR-S839, France.
    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is widely used for evaluating the rewarding effects of drugs. Like other memories, CPP is proposed to undergo reconsolidation during which it is unstable and sensitive to pharmacological inhibition. Previous studies have shown that cocaine CPP can be apparently erased by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibition during cocaine reconditioning (re-exposure to the drug-paired environment in the presence of the drug). Read More

    Time-course and dynamics of obesity-related behavioral changes induced by energy-dense foods in mice.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 10;23(2):531-543. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Cellular and Systems Neurobiology, Systems Biology Program, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Spain.
    Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Read More

    Beyond genome-wide significance: integrative approaches to the interpretation and extension of GWAS findings for alcohol use disorder.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a heritable complex behavior. Due to the highly polygenic nature of AUD, identifying genetic variants that comprise this heritable variation has proved to be challenging. With the exception of functional variants in alcohol metabolizing genes (e. Read More

    Chemogenetic inhibition of direct pathway striatal neurons normalizes pathological, cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking in rats.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Addiction to drugs such as cocaine is marked by cycles of compulsive drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. Although the transition to addiction is thought to recruit neural processes in dorsal striatum, little is known regarding the role of dorsal striatal projections to the substantia nigra (i.e. Read More

    Validation of a behavioral economic purchase task for assessing drug abuse liability.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Behavioral economic purchase tasks quantify drug demand (i.e. reinforcing value of a drug) and have been used extensively to assess the value of various drugs among current users. Read More

    Appetitive to aversive counter-conditioning as intervention to reduce reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior: the role of the serotonin transporter.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Centre for Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, The Netherlands.
    Counter-conditioning can be a valid strategy to reduce reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior. However, this has not been tested in laboratory animals with extended cocaine-taking backgrounds nor is it well understood, which individual differences may contribute to its effects. Here, we set out to investigate the influence of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype on the effectiveness of counter-conditioning after extended access to cocaine self-administration. Read More

    Acute and chronic modulation of striatal endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity by nicotine.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Addiction Biology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulates several phenomena related to addictive behaviors, and drug-induced changes in eCB signaling have been postulated to be important mediators of physiological and pathological reward-related synaptic plasticity. Here, we studied eCB-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in the dorsolateral striatum, a brain region critical for acquisition of habitual and automatic behavior. We report that nicotine differentially affects ex vivo eCB signaling depending on previous exposure in vivo. Read More

    Methamphetamine binge administration dose-dependently enhanced negative affect and voluntary drug consumption in rats following prolonged withdrawal: role of hippocampal FADD.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    IUNICS, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
    While prior studies have established various interacting mechanisms and neural consequences (i.e. monoaminergic nerve terminal damage) that might contribute to the adverse effects caused by methamphetamine administration, the precise mechanisms that mediate relapse during withdrawal remain unknown. Read More

    Extinction and reinstatement of an operant responding maintained by food in different models of obesity.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 28;23(2):544-555. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Laboratori de Neurofarmacologia. Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking habits after maintaining an energy balanced diet. Alterations of eating behavior such as compulsive-like behavior and lack of self-control over food intake play a critical role in relapse. In this study, we used an operant paradigm of food-seeking behavior on two different diet-induced obesity models, a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity or for unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies. Read More

    Sex hormones in alcohol consumption: a systematic review of evidence.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Sex hormones play an important role in establishing sex-distinctive brain structural and functional variations that could contribute to the sex differences in alcohol consumption behavior. Here, we systematically reviewed articles that studied sex hormone impacts on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). An extensive literature search conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL databases identified 776 articles, which were then evaluated for pre-specified criteria for relevance and quality assurance. Read More

    Rich club and reward network connectivity as endophenotypes for alcohol dependence: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, Katip Celebi University, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.
    We aimed to examine the whole-brain white matter connectivity and local topology of reward system nodes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and unaffected siblings, relative to healthy comparison individuals. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 18 patients with AUD, 15 unaffected siblings of AUD patients and 15 healthy controls. Structural networks were examined using network-based statistic and connectomic analysis. Read More

    Rat brain CYP2D activity alters in vivo central oxycodone metabolism, levels and resulting analgesia.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Oxycodone is metabolized by CYP2D to oxymorphone. Despite oxymorphone being a more potent opioid-receptor agonist, its contribution to oxycodone analgesia may be minor because of low peripheral production, low blood-brain barrier permeability and central nervous system efflux. CYP2D metabolism within the brain may contribute to variation in central oxycodone and oxymorphone levels, thereby affecting analgesia. Read More

    Neurological, nutritional and alcohol consumption factors underlie cognitive and motor deficits in chronic alcoholism.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Read More

    Quantitative evaluation of cue-induced reinstatement model for evidence-based experimental optimization.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Institute of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cue-induced reinstatement is a widely used model for investigating relapse of reward-seeking behavior with high face validity in relation to clinical observations. Yet, face validity is not sufficient to evaluate an animal model, and quantitative, evidence-based analysis is required to estimate the ultimate applicability of this paradigm. Furthermore, such analysis would allow an accurate and reproducible design of future experiments. Read More

    Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors reduces cocaine-mediated behaviors and cocaine-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, no studies have examined the role of NAc GLP-1 receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Here, we show that systemic infusion of a behaviorally relevant dose of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 penetrated the brain and localized with neurons and astrocytes in the NAc. Read More

    Central administration of galanin N-terminal fragment 1-15 decreases the voluntary alcohol intake in rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, Universidad de Málaga, Spain.
    Alcohol consumption is considered a major risk factor for disease and mortality worldwide. In the absence of effective treatments in alcohol use disorders, it is important to find new biological targets that could modulate alcohol consumption. We tested the role of the N-terminal galanin fragment (1-15) [GAL(1-15)] in voluntary ethanol consumption in rats using the two-bottle choice paradigm as well as compare the effects of GAL(1-15) with the whole molecule of GAL. Read More

    Adolescent impulsivity as a sex-dependent and subtype-dependent predictor of impulsivity, alcohol drinking and dopamine Dreceptor expression in adult rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
    Impulsivity is a personality trait associated with a heightened risk for drug use and other psychiatric conditions. Because impulsivity-related disorders typically emerge during adolescence, there has been interest in exploring methods for identifying adolescents that will be at risk to develop substance use disorders in adulthood. Here, we used a rodent model to assess inhibitory control (impulsive action) and impulsive decision making (impulsive choice) during adolescence (43-50 days old) or adulthood (93-100 days old) and then examined the impact of development on these impulsivity traits by re-testing rats 50 days later. Read More

    Neuropeptide CART prevents memory loss attributed to withdrawal of nicotine following chronic treatment in mice.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, India.
    Although chronic nicotine administration does not affect memory, its withdrawal causes massive cognitive deficits. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been understood. We test the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), a neuropeptide known for its procognitive properties, in this process. Read More

    Environmental enrichment and drug value: a behavioral economic analysis in male rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
    Rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) show decreased stimulant self-administration relative to rats reared in an isolated condition (IC). However, few studies have examined the behavioral mechanisms underlying this environment-induced difference in self-administration. Because economic demand for drugs of abuse predicts addiction-like behavior in both humans and animals, we applied a behavioral economic analysis to cocaine self-administration data in EC and IC rats. Read More

    Shared additive genetic variation for alcohol dependence among subjects of African and European ancestry.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Division of Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.
    Alcohol dependence (AD) affects individuals from all racial/ethnic groups, and previous research suggests that there is considerable variation in AD risk between and among various ancestrally defined groups in the United States. Although the reasons for these differences are likely due in part to contributions of complex sociocultural factors, limited research has attempted to examine whether similar genetic variation plays a role across ancestral groups. Using a pooled sample of individuals of African and European ancestry (AA/EA) obtained through data shared within the Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes, we estimated the extent to which additive genetic similarity for AD between AA and EAs using common single nucleotide polymorphisms overlapped across the two populations. Read More

    Increased plasma oleoylethanolamide and palmitoleoylethanolamide levels correlate with inflammatory changes in alcohol binge drinkers: the case of HMGB1 in women.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Departamento de Psicobiología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Alcohol binge drinking is a heavy pattern of alcohol consumption increasingly used by young people. In a previous study, we reported that young drinkers with a 2-year history of binge alcohol consumption had an overactivation of the innate immune system and peripheral inflammation when compared with controls. In the present study, we measured several biolipids that are fatty acid derivatives belonging to the acylethanolamide or 2-acylglycerol families in the plasma of the same subjects (n = 42; 20 men and 22 women). Read More

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor co-agonist availability affects behavioral and neurochemical responses to cocaine: insights into comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Both schizophrenia (SZ) and substance abuse (SA) exhibit significant heritability. Moreover, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both SZ and SA. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of comorbid SA in SZ is due to dysfunction of NMDARs caused by shared risk genes. Read More

    Adolescent ethanol intake alters cannabinoid type-1 receptor localization in astrocytes of the adult mouse hippocampus.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Cannabinoid type-1 (CB) receptors are widely distributed in the brain and play important roles in astrocyte function and the modulation of neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is currently unknown how CBreceptor expression in astrocytes is affected by long-term exposure to stressors. Here we examined CBreceptors in astrocytes of ethanol (EtOH)-exposed adolescent mice to determine its effect on CBreceptor localization and density in adult brain. Read More

    Working memory predicts methamphetamine hair concentration over the course of treatment: moderating effect of impulsivity and implications for dual-systems model.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.
    High impulsivity and poor executive function are characteristic of methamphetamine use disorder. High arousal in the impulsive system has been proposed to compromise the executive system's regulating ability (i.e. Read More

    Mu opioid receptors in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain promote alcohol reward and drinking.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Département de Médecine Translationnelle et Neurogénétique, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, INSERM U-964, CNRS UMR-7104, Université de Strasbourg, France.
    Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are widely distributed throughout brain reward circuits and their role in drug and social reward is well established. Substantial evidence has implicated MOR and the endogenous opioid system in alcohol reward, but circuit mechanisms of MOR-mediated alcohol reward and intake behavior remain elusive, and have not been investigated by genetic approaches. We recently created conditional knockout (KO) mice targeting the Oprm1 gene in GABAergic forebrain neurons. Read More

    Problematic alcohol use associates with sodium channel and clathrin linker 1 (SCLT1) in trauma-exposed populations.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Excessive alcohol use is extremely prevalent in the United States, particularly among trauma-exposed individuals. While several studies have examined genetic influences on alcohol use and related problems, this has not been studied in the context of trauma-exposed populations. We report results from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and associated problems as measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in a trauma-exposed cohort. Read More

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase in the central amygdala alleviates co-morbid expression of innate anxiety and excessive alcohol intake.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Unit, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that prominently degrades the major endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased anandamide levels in brain regions that modulate stress and anxiety. Recently, we found that genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats display hyperactive FAAH in amygdalar regions that was associated with increased stress sensitivity and a hyper-anxious phenotype. Read More

    Genome-wide association study of alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores in 20 328 research participants of European ancestry.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Read More

    Association of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphism rs1789891 with gray matter brain volume, alcohol consumption, alcohol craving and relapse risk.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume. Read More

    Orbitofrontal gray matter deficits as marker of Internet gaming disorder: converging evidence from a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China.
    Internet gaming disorder represents a growing health issue. Core symptoms include unsuccessful attempts to control the addictive patterns of behavior and continued use despite negative consequences indicating a loss of regulatory control. Previous studies revealed brain structural deficits in prefrontal regions subserving regulatory control in individuals with excessive Internet use. Read More

    Selective inhibition of Mmuscarinic acetylcholine receptors attenuates cocaine self-administration in rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
    Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a debilitating health problem in the United States for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options. Accumulating anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype 5 (M) plays a critical role in the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry, a major site of action for cocaine and other psychostimulants. In addition, Mknockout mice exhibit reduced cocaine self-administration behaviors with no differences in sugar pellet-maintained responding relative to wild-type mice. Read More

    Activated mesenchymal stem cell administration inhibits chronic alcohol drinking and suppresses relapse-like drinking in high-alcohol drinker rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chile.
    Neuroinflammation has been reported to follow chronic ethanol intake and may perpetuate alcohol consumption. Present studies determined the effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), known for their anti-inflammatory action, on chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like ethanol intake in a post-deprivation condition. Rats were allowed 12-17 weeks of chronic voluntary ethanol (10% and 20% v/v) intake, after which a single dose of activated hMSCs (5 × 10) was injected into a brain lateral ventricle. Read More

    Hypocretin receptor 1 knockdown in the ventral tegmental area attenuates mesolimbic dopamine signaling and reduces motivation for cocaine.
    Addict Biol 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    The hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTr1) is a critical participant in the regulation of motivated behavior. Previous observations demonstrate that acute pharmacological blockade of HCRTr1 disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and the motivation for cocaine when delivered systemically or directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To further examine the involvement of HCRTr1 in regulating reward and reinforcement processing, we employed an adeno-associated virus to express a short hairpin RNA designed to knock down HCRTr1. Read More

    Minocycline increases firing rates of accumbal neurons and modifies the effects of morphine on neuronal activity.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Accumulating evidence indicated that minocycline, a glial cell modulator, is able to modify a variety of morphine effects. Here, we investigated minocycline effects on electrical activity of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons using single unit recording in urethane-anesthetized rats. In addition, we investigated whether minocycline can modify the effects of morphine on NAc neural activity during reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior. Read More

    Functional role for suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating interoceptive effects of alcohol.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    The insular cortex (IC) is a region proposed to modulate, in part, interoceptive states and motivated behavior. Interestingly, IC dysfunction and deficits in interoceptive processing are often found among individuals with substance-use disorders. Furthermore, the IC projects to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), a region known to modulate the discriminative stimulus/interoceptive effects of alcohol and other drug-related behaviors. Read More

    Imaging the neuroimmune response to alcohol exposure in adolescent baboons: a TSPO PET study usingF-DPA-714.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Imagerie Moléculaire In Vivo, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, Orsay, France.
    The effects of acute alcohol exposure to the central nervous system are hypothesized to involve the innate immune system. The neuroimmune response to an initial and acute alcohol exposure was investigated using translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) PET imaging, a non-invasive marker of glial activation, in adolescent baboons. Three different alcohol-naive adolescent baboons (3-4 years old, 9 to 14 kg) underwentF-DPA-714 PET experiments before, during and 7-12 months after this initial alcohol exposure (0. Read More

    Limited potential of cebranopadol to produce opioid-type physical dependence in rodents.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Preclinical Drug Development, Grünenthal GmbH, Germany.
    Cebranopadol is a novel potent analgesic agonist at the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and classical opioid receptors. As NOP receptor activation has been shown to reduce side effects related to the activation of μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptors, the present study evaluated opioid-type physical dependence produced by cebranopadol in mice and rats. In a naloxone-precipitated withdrawal assay in mice, a regimen of seven escalating doses of cebranopadol over 2 days produced only very limited physical dependence as evidenced by very little withdrawal symptoms (jumping) even at cebranopadol doses clearly exceeding the analgesic dose range. Read More

    Amino acid modulation of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens mediates sex differences in nicotine withdrawal.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA.
    The aversive effect of nicotine withdrawal is greater in female versus male rats, and we postulate that this sex difference is mediated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Nicotine withdrawal induces decreases in NAc dopamine and increases in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in male rats. To our knowledge, these neurochemical markers of nicotine withdrawal have not been compared in female versus male rats. Read More

    Red Bull® energy drink increases consumption of higher concentrations of alcohol.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Psychobiology, School of Psychology, Campus de Somosaguas, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Mixing alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks is a common practice, especially among young people. In humans, the research on this issue has mainly focused on the use of the mass-marketed energy drinks themselves, whereas in animal models, it has focused on the individual effects of their active ingredients (i.e. Read More

    Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the rat dorsal medial prefrontal cortex is associated with alcohol-induced cognitive inflexibility.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Repeated cycles of alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication and withdrawal dysregulate excitatory glutamatergic systems in the brain and induce neuroadaptations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. The mPFC is composed of subdivisions that are functionally distinct, with dorsal regions facilitating drug-cue associations and ventral regions modulating new learning in the absence of drug. A key modulator of glutamatergic activity is the holoenzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) that phosphorylates ionotropic glutamate receptors. Read More

    Time-dependent neuronal changes associated with craving in opioid dependence: an fMRI study.
    Addict Biol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, UK.
    Relapse after initially successful treatment is a significant problem facing the treatment of opioid dependence. Evidence suggests craving elicited by re-exposure to drug cues may precipitate relapse. Attempts to identify neural biomarkers of cue-elicited craving have yielded inconsistent findings. Read More

    Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Nov 22;22(6):1883-1894. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Read More

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