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    1 OF 31

    Accumbens brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transmission inhibits cocaine seeking.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a variety of physiological processes, and several studies have explored the role of BDNF in addiction-related brain regions like the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore). We sought to understand the rapid effects of endogenous BDNF on cocaine seeking. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and extinguished. Read More

    Face validity of a pre-clinical model of operant binge drinking: just a question of speed.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Research Group on Alcohol and Pharmacodependences-INSERM U1247, University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.
    Binge drinking (BD) is often defined as a large amount of alcohol consumed in a 'short' period of time or 'per occasion'. In clinical research, few researchers have included the notion of 'speed of drinking' in the definition of BD. Here, we aimed to describe a novel pre-clinical model based on voluntary operant BD, which included both the quantity of alcohol and the rapidity of consumption. Read More

    Risk profiles for heavy drinking in adolescence: differential effects of gender.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Neural Information Processing Group, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Technische Universität Berlin, and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Germany.
    Abnormalities across different domains of neuropsychological functioning may constitute a risk factor for heavy drinking during adolescence and for developing alcohol use disorders later in life. However, the exact nature of such multi-domain risk profiles is unclear, and it is further unclear whether these risk profiles differ between genders. We combined longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses on the large IMAGEN sample (N ≈ 1000) to predict heavy drinking at age 19 from gray matter volume as well as from psychosocial data at age 14 and 19-for males and females separately. Read More

    Effects of alcohol exposure on the glutamatergic system: a combined longitudinal F-FPEB and H-MRS study in rats.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    KU Leuven - University of Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Belgium.
    In a longitudinal rat model of alcohol consumption, we showed that exposure to alcohol decreased the concentration of glutamate in the prefrontal cortex, whereas a normalization occurred during abstinence. 18F-FPEB PET scans revealed that pre-exposure mGluR5 availability in the nucleus accumbens was associated with future alcohol preference. Finally, alcohol exposure induced a decrease in mGluR5 availability in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala compared with baseline, and in the hippocampus and striatum compared with saccharin (Figure). Read More

    Glucocorticoid receptor gene variants and lower expression of NR3C1 are associated with cocaine use.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Animal and cross-sectional human studies suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with altered responsivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress. Moreover, increased susceptibility to stress has been proposed as an important factor for development, maintenance and relapse of cocaine addiction. As the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) mediates genomic effects of the stress hormone cortisol, we investigated NR3C1 expression and the association of NR3C1 genotypes with cocaine use, addiction and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in 126 chronic cocaine users and 98 stimulant-naïve healthy controls. Read More

    Effects of moderate, voluntary ethanol consumption on the rat and human gut microbiome.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Many alcohol-induced health complications are directly attributable to the toxicity of alcohol or its metabolites, but another potential health impact of alcohol may be on the microbial communities of the human gut. Clear distinctions between healthy and diseased-state gut microbiota have been observed in subjects with metabolic diseases, and recent studies suggest that chronic alcoholism is linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Here, we investigated the effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption on the gut microbiome in both rats and humans. Read More

    Preventing morphine reinforcement with high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the lateral hypothalamic area.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a promising intervention for patients with treatment-refractory substance use disorder. Here, we investigated if high-frequency DBS in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) could affect drug-induced reinforcement. Rats were bilaterally implanted with bipolar stimulation electrodes in the LHA and trained to the morphine conditioned place preference. Read More

    Distress intolerance moderation of motivated attention to cannabis and negative stimuli after induced stress among cannabis users: an ERP study.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Prevalence of cannabis use is increasing, but many regular users do not develop cannabis use disorder (CUD); thus, CUD risk identification among current users is vital for targeted intervention development. Existing data suggest that high distress intolerance (DI), an individual difference reflective of the ability to tolerate negative affect, may be linked to CUD, but no studies have tested possible neurophysiological mechanisms. Increased motivated attentional processing of cannabis and negative emotional stimuli as indexed by neurophysiology [i. Read More

    Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. Read More

    GDNF and alcohol use disorder.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been extensively studied for its role in the development and maintenance of the midbrain dopaminergic system, although evidence suggests that GDNF also plays a role in drug and alcohol addiction. This review focuses on the unique actions of GDNF in the mechanisms that prevent the transition from recreational alcohol use to abuse. Specifically, we describe studies in rodents suggesting that alcohol acutely increases GDNF expression in the ventral tegmental area, which enables the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and the gating of alcohol intake. Read More

    Drug-induced dysphoria is enhanced following prolonged cocaine abstinence and dynamically tracked by nucleus accumbens neurons.
    Addict Biol 2018 May 2. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Negative reinforcement models postulate that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative affective states (e.g. dysphoria) associated with withdrawal. Read More

    Inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the ventral hippocampus selectively attenuates reinstatement of morphine-conditioned place preference and associated changes in AMPA receptor binding.
    Addict Biol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK.
    Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. Read More

    Silencing synaptic MicroRNA-411 reduces voluntary alcohol consumption in mice.
    Addict Biol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Chronic alcohol consumption alters the levels of microRNAs and mRNAs in the brain, but the specific microRNAs and processes that target mRNAs to affect cellular function and behavior are not known. We examined the in vivo manipulation of previously identified alcohol-responsive microRNAs as potential targets to reduce alcohol consumption. Silencing of miR-411 by infusing antagomiR-411 into the prefrontal cortex of female C57BL/6J mice reduced alcohol consumption and preference, without altering total fluid consumption, saccharin consumption, or anxiety-related behaviors. Read More

    Guanfacine decreases symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in daily cannabis smokers.
    Addict Biol 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Division on Substance Use Disorders, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    The α2a-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, reduced cannabis withdrawal-related sleep disruption in the laboratory, but side effects (e.g. fatigue, hypotension) limit its utility as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. Read More

    Clozapine reduces nicotine self-administration, blunts reinstatement of nicotine-seeking but increases responding for food.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Preclinical Research and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    People with schizophrenia display significantly higher rates of smoking than the general population, which may be due to an interaction between nicotine and antipsychotic medication. While the conventional antipsychotic drug haloperidol sometimes increases cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia, there is some evidence suggesting that clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, may reduce nicotine use in these patients. However, the effects of antipsychotic drugs like clozapine on aspects of nicotine self-administration and reinstatement have not been systematically examined. Read More

    Fish oil treatment reduces chronic alcohol exposure induced synaptic changes.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, China.
    Alcohol addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that represents one of the most serious global public health problems. Yet, currently there still lacks an effective pharmacotherapy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs) have exhibited beneficial effects in a variety of neurological disorders, particularly in reversing behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity induced by prenatal alcohol exposure and binge drinking. Read More

    Genome-wide association study in Finnish twins highlights the connection between nicotine addiction and neurotrophin signaling pathway.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The heritability of nicotine dependence based on family studies is substantial. Nevertheless, knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture remains meager. Our aim was to identify novel genetic variants responsible for interindividual differences in smoking behavior. Read More

    Drinking despite adversity: behavioral evidence for a head down and push strategy of conflict-resistant alcohol drinking in rats.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Alcohol and Addiction Research Group, Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake persists regardless of adverse consequences, plays a major role in the substantial costs of alcohol use disorder. However, the processes that promote aversion-resistant drinking remain poorly understood. Compulsion-like responding has been considered automatic and reflexive and also to involve higher motivation, since drinking persists despite adversity. Read More

    Evidence of subgroups in smokers as revealed in clinical measures and evaluated by neuroimaging data: a preliminary study.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    To date, fractionation of the nicotine addiction phenotype has been limited to that based primarily on characteristics of cigarette use, although it is widely appreciated that a variety of individual factors are associated with tobacco use disorder. Identifying subtypes of tobacco use disorder based on such factors may lead to better understanding of potential treatment targets, individualize treatments and improve outcomes. In this preliminary study, to identify potential subgroups, we applied hierarchical clustering to a broad range of assessments measuring personality, IQ and psychiatric symptoms, as well as various environmental and experiential characteristics from 102 otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. Read More

    Ago2 and Dicer1 are involved in METH-induced locomotor sensitization in mice via biogenesis of miRNA.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    College of Forensic Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, China.
    microRNA (miRNA) play important roles in drug addiction and act as a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. We previously reported extensive downregulation of miRNAs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of methamphetamine (METH)-sensitized mice. However, the regulatory mechanism of this METH-induced downregulation of miRNAs has yet to be elucidated. Read More

    Enhanced neuronal and blunted hemodynamic reactivity to cocaine in the prefrontal cortex following extended cocaine access: optical imaging study in anesthetized rats.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
    Cocaine addiction is associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which facilitates relapse and compulsive drug taking. To assess if cocaine's effects on both neuronal and vascular activity contribute to PFC dysfunction, we used optical coherence tomography and multi-wavelength laser speckle to measure vascularization and hemodynamics and used GCaMP6f to monitor intracellular Ca levels ([Ca ] ) as a marker of neuronal activity. Rats were given short (1 hour; ShA) or long (6 hours; LgA) access cocaine self-administration. Read More

    Pharmacogenetics of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase in cocaine dependence therapy with doxazosin.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    The α -adrenergic antagonist, doxazosin, has improved cocaine use disorder (CUD) presumably by blocking norepinephrine (NE) stimulation and reward from cocaine-induced NE increases. If the NE levels for release were lower, then doxazosin might more readily block this NE stimulation and be more effective. The NE available for release can be lower through a genetic polymorphism in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) (C-1021T, rs1611115), which reduces DβH's conversion of dopamine to NE. Read More

    Preclinical evidence for combining the 5-HT receptor agonist lorcaserin and varenicline as a treatment for nicotine dependence.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, is used to treat nicotine dependence. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT receptor agonist has been approved in some countries to treat obesity. Based on preclinical and preliminary clinical evidence, lorcaserin may have potential to treat nicotine dependence. Read More

    The monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 prevents the alcohol deprivation effect and improves motor impulsive behavior in rats.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Alcohol craving, in combination with impaired impulse control, often leads to relapse. The dopamine system mediates the rewarding properties of alcohol but is also involved in regulating impulsive behavior. The monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) has the ability to stabilize dopamine activity depending on the prevailing dopaminergic tone and may therefore normalize the dopaminergic transmission regulating both alcohol use disorder and impulsivity. Read More

    Stress augments the rewarding memory of cocaine via the activation of brainstem-reward circuitry.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Effects of stress on the reward system are well established in the literature. Although previous studies have revealed that stress can reinstate extinguished addictive behaviors related to cocaine, the effects of stress on the rewarding memory of cocaine are not fully understood. Here, we provide evidence that stress potentiates the expression of rewarding memory of cocaine via the activation of brainstem-reward circuitry using a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm combined with restraint stress in rats. Read More

    Not all smokers appear to seek nicotine for the same reasons: implications for preclinical research in nicotine dependence.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Université de Bordeaux, France.
    Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Read More

    Lysophosphatidic acid-induced increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis facilitates the forgetting of cocaine-contextual memory.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Salud Mental, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Spain.
    Erasing memories of cocaine-stimuli associations might have important clinical implications for addiction therapy. Stimulating hippocampal plasticity by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is a promising strategy because the addition of new neurons may not only facilitate new learning but also modify previous connections and weaken retrograde memories. To investigate whether increasing AHN prompted the forgetting of previous contextual cocaine associations, mice trained in a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm were administered chronic intracerebroventricular infusions of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, an endogenous lysophospholipid with pro-neurogenic actions), ki16425 (an LPA receptor antagonist) or a vehicle solution, and they were tested 23 days later for CPP retention and extinction. Read More

    DRD2 promoter methylation and measures of alcohol reward: functional activation of reward circuits and clinical severity.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Studies have identified strong associations between D2 receptor binding potential and neural responses to rewarding stimuli and substance use. Thus, D2 receptor perturbations are central to theoretical models of the pathophysiology of substance dependence, and epigenetic changes may represent one of the fundamental molecular mechanisms impacting the effects of alcohol exposure on the brain. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene would be associated with cue-elicited activation of neural reward regions, as well as severity of alcohol use behavior. Read More

    Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-reported drinking patterns, expectancies, motives and personality: a randomized controlled experimental study.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. Read More

    Time-dependent regional brain distribution of methadone and naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Catalysis and Peptide Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery. Read More

    Medial habenula cholinergic signaling regulates cocaine-associated relapse-like behavior.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Ayala School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. Relapse and relapse-like behaviors are known to be induced, in part, by re-exposure to drug-associated cues. Yet, while many critical nodes in the neural circuitry contributing to relapse have been identified and studied, a full description of the networks driving reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors is lacking. Read More

    Sex differences in binge-like EtOH drinking, corticotropin-releasing hormone and corticosterone: effects of β-endorphin.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA.
    Binge drinking is an increasingly common pattern of risky use associated with numerous health problems, including alcohol use disorders. Because low basal plasma levels of β-endorphin (β-E) and an increased β-E response to alcohol are evident in genetically at-risk human populations, this peptide is thought to contribute to the susceptibility for disordered drinking. Animal models suggest that the effect of β-E on consumption may be sex-dependent. Read More

    Functional effects of synthetic cannabinoids versus Δ -THC in mice on body temperature, nociceptive threshold, anxiety, cognition, locomotor/exploratory parameters and depression.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
    Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive substances designed to mimic the euphorigenic effects of the natural cannabis. Novel unregulated compounds appear once older compounds become illegal. It has been previously reported that synthetic cannabinoids are different than Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ -THC) as they have chemical structures unrelated to Δ -THC, different metabolism and, often, greater toxicity. Read More

    Activation of amylin receptors attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviours in rodents.
    Addict Biol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol. Read More

    Acupuncture inhibition of methamphetamine-induced behaviors, dopamine release and hyperthermia in the nucleus accumbens: mediation of group II mGluR.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.
    Methamphetamine (METH) increases metabolic neuronal activity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and mediates the reinforcing effect. To explore the underlying mechanism of acupuncture intervention in reducing METH-induced behaviors, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, extracellular DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcs) using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and alterations of brain temperature (an indicator of local brain metabolic activity) produced by METH administration. When acupuncture was applied to HT7, but not TE4, both locomotor activity and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations were suppressed in METH-treated rats. Read More

    Cocaine conditioned place preference: unexpected suppression of preference due to testing combined with strong conditioning.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Inserm UMR-S839, France.
    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is widely used for evaluating the rewarding effects of drugs. Like other memories, CPP is proposed to undergo reconsolidation during which it is unstable and sensitive to pharmacological inhibition. Previous studies have shown that cocaine CPP can be apparently erased by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibition during cocaine reconditioning (re-exposure to the drug-paired environment in the presence of the drug). Read More

    Time-course and dynamics of obesity-related behavioral changes induced by energy-dense foods in mice.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 10;23(2):531-543. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Cellular and Systems Neurobiology, Systems Biology Program, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Spain.
    Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Read More

    Beyond genome-wide significance: integrative approaches to the interpretation and extension of GWAS findings for alcohol use disorder.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a heritable complex behavior. Due to the highly polygenic nature of AUD, identifying genetic variants that comprise this heritable variation has proved to be challenging. With the exception of functional variants in alcohol metabolizing genes (e. Read More

    Chemogenetic inhibition of direct pathway striatal neurons normalizes pathological, cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking in rats.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Addiction to drugs such as cocaine is marked by cycles of compulsive drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. Although the transition to addiction is thought to recruit neural processes in dorsal striatum, little is known regarding the role of dorsal striatal projections to the substantia nigra (i.e. Read More

    Validation of a behavioral economic purchase task for assessing drug abuse liability.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Behavioral economic purchase tasks quantify drug demand (i.e. reinforcing value of a drug) and have been used extensively to assess the value of various drugs among current users. Read More

    Appetitive to aversive counter-conditioning as intervention to reduce reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior: the role of the serotonin transporter.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Centre for Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, The Netherlands.
    Counter-conditioning can be a valid strategy to reduce reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior. However, this has not been tested in laboratory animals with extended cocaine-taking backgrounds nor is it well understood, which individual differences may contribute to its effects. Here, we set out to investigate the influence of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype on the effectiveness of counter-conditioning after extended access to cocaine self-administration. Read More

    Acute and chronic modulation of striatal endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity by nicotine.
    Addict Biol 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Addiction Biology Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulates several phenomena related to addictive behaviors, and drug-induced changes in eCB signaling have been postulated to be important mediators of physiological and pathological reward-related synaptic plasticity. Here, we studied eCB-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in the dorsolateral striatum, a brain region critical for acquisition of habitual and automatic behavior. We report that nicotine differentially affects ex vivo eCB signaling depending on previous exposure in vivo. Read More

    Methamphetamine binge administration dose-dependently enhanced negative affect and voluntary drug consumption in rats following prolonged withdrawal: role of hippocampal FADD.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    IUNICS, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
    While prior studies have established various interacting mechanisms and neural consequences (i.e. monoaminergic nerve terminal damage) that might contribute to the adverse effects caused by methamphetamine administration, the precise mechanisms that mediate relapse during withdrawal remain unknown. Read More

    Extinction and reinstatement of an operant responding maintained by food in different models of obesity.
    Addict Biol 2018 Mar 28;23(2):544-555. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Laboratori de Neurofarmacologia. Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking habits after maintaining an energy balanced diet. Alterations of eating behavior such as compulsive-like behavior and lack of self-control over food intake play a critical role in relapse. In this study, we used an operant paradigm of food-seeking behavior on two different diet-induced obesity models, a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity or for unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies. Read More

    Sex hormones in alcohol consumption: a systematic review of evidence.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Sex hormones play an important role in establishing sex-distinctive brain structural and functional variations that could contribute to the sex differences in alcohol consumption behavior. Here, we systematically reviewed articles that studied sex hormone impacts on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). An extensive literature search conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL databases identified 776 articles, which were then evaluated for pre-specified criteria for relevance and quality assurance. Read More

    Rich club and reward network connectivity as endophenotypes for alcohol dependence: a diffusion tensor imaging study.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, Katip Celebi University, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.
    We aimed to examine the whole-brain white matter connectivity and local topology of reward system nodes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and unaffected siblings, relative to healthy comparison individuals. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 18 patients with AUD, 15 unaffected siblings of AUD patients and 15 healthy controls. Structural networks were examined using network-based statistic and connectomic analysis. Read More

    Rat brain CYP2D activity alters in vivo central oxycodone metabolism, levels and resulting analgesia.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Oxycodone is metabolized by CYP2D to oxymorphone. Despite oxymorphone being a more potent opioid-receptor agonist, its contribution to oxycodone analgesia may be minor because of low peripheral production, low blood-brain barrier permeability and central nervous system efflux. CYP2D metabolism within the brain may contribute to variation in central oxycodone and oxymorphone levels, thereby affecting analgesia. Read More

    Neurological, nutritional and alcohol consumption factors underlie cognitive and motor deficits in chronic alcoholism.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Read More

    Quantitative evaluation of cue-induced reinstatement model for evidence-based experimental optimization.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Institute of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cue-induced reinstatement is a widely used model for investigating relapse of reward-seeking behavior with high face validity in relation to clinical observations. Yet, face validity is not sufficient to evaluate an animal model, and quantitative, evidence-based analysis is required to estimate the ultimate applicability of this paradigm. Furthermore, such analysis would allow an accurate and reproducible design of future experiments. Read More

    Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.
    Addict Biol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors reduces cocaine-mediated behaviors and cocaine-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, no studies have examined the role of NAc GLP-1 receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Here, we show that systemic infusion of a behaviorally relevant dose of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 penetrated the brain and localized with neurons and astrocytes in the NAc. Read More

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