68,266 results match your criteria Addiction Biology[Journal]


4-Fluoramphetamine in the Netherlands: Text-mining and sentiment analysis of internet forums.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:34-39. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Trimbos Institute, The Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Da Costakade 45, 3521VS, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Users of new psychoactive substances including 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA/4-FMP) frequently share their experiences or opinions in online drug forums. We have tested the potential of computerised analysis of drug users' forum posts for monitoring and early detection of trends. Specifically, we tested whether changes in the volume of 4-FA related posts and sentiments expressed in those posts can be observed around the time 4-FA was increasingly reported by Dutch drug monitoring sources (2012-2017). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Promoting opioid overdose prevention and recovery: An exploratory study of an innovative intervention model to address opioid abuse.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:21-29. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

NJ Division of Mental Health and Addiction Services, Office of Planning, Research, Evaluation and Prevention, 222 South Warren Street, Trenton, NJ 08625-0700, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Fatal opioid overdose is a national public health concern in the United States and a critical problem confronting New Jersey's addiction treatment system. New Jersey developed an innovative program, the Opioid Overdose Recovery Program (OORP), to address the epidemic and the issue of low treatment admissions following a non-fatal overdose. The OORP utilizes an intervention model with peer recovery specialists (RSs) and patient navigators (PNs) to engage individuals within emergency departments (EDs) immediately following an opioid overdose reversal. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Characterization of locomotor response to psychostimulants in the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis): A promising model for studying the neural and molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, and Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA.

Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Toll-like receptor 3 activation increases voluntary alcohol intake in C57BL/6J male mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Waggoner Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Many genes differentially expressed in brain tissue from human alcoholics and animals that have consumed large amounts of alcohol are components of the innate immune toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. TLRs initiate inflammatory responses via two branches: [1] MyD88-dependent or [2] TRIF-dependent. All TLRs signal through MyD88 except TLR3. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Toll-like receptor 3 dynamics in female C57BL/6J mice: Regulation of alcohol intake.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Waggoner Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Although there are sex differences in the effects of alcohol on immune responses, it is unclear if sex differences in immune response can influence drinking behavior. Activation of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) produced a rapid proinflammatory response in males that increased alcohol intake over time (Warden et al., 2019). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Oncogene addiction as a foundation of targeted cancer therapy: the paradigm of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

Cancer Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland; Department for BioMedical Research, Radiation Oncology, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Following nearly two decades of its conception, the phenomenon of oncogene addiction still represents a key concept of how progresses in basic research can translate to unprecedented translational breakthroughs. Coined by Bernard Weinstein, this term refers to the phenomenon by which cancer cells can exhibit dependence on a single oncogenic protein or signaling pathway for sustaining proliferation and survival, despite the wide burden of genetic lesions characterizing their genomic background, revealing thus a promising Achilles' heel of cancer. Importantly, this concept aided the design and clinical implementation of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies, further supporting the paradigm shift witnessed in clinical oncology towards an individual-based, personalized era. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nicotine enhances responding for conditioned reinforcement via α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area, but not the nucleus accumbens or the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Biopsychology and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., M5S 3G3, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Nicotine enhances the conditioned reinforcing properties of reward-paired cues. We investigated the role of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices in mediating this enhancement. Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with a bilateral guide cannula aimed at either the VTA, NAcc, PrL or IL cortex. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Use of Buprenorphine-Naloxone in the Treatment of Tianeptine Use Disorder.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spectrum Health, Center for Integrative Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (PT); Boston University Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, School of Medicine & Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (AYW).

: Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant which exerts an opioid-like effect on the μ-opioid receptor. There is well documented intentional misuse and addiction to tianeptine in Europe, and this is increasingly being seen in the United States. We presented a case of buprenorphine/naloxone successfully being used to aid in cessation and subsequent abstinence from tianeptine after years of use. Read More

View Article
December 2018

What Should a Psychiatrist Know About Genetics? Review and Recommendations From the Residency Education Committee of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 27;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG) created a Residency Education Committee with the purpose of identifying key genetic knowledge that should be taught in psychiatric training programs. Thirteen committee members were appointed by the ISPG Board of Directors, based on varied training, expertise, gender, and national origin. The Committee has met quarterly for the past 2 years, with periodic reports to the Board and to the members of the Society. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Early Placebo Improvement Is a Marker for Subsequent Placebo Response in Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotic Trials for Schizophrenia: Combined Analysis of 4 RCTs.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;80(1). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Objective: Placebo effects remain largely unexplored in clinical trials of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for schizophrenia. This study aims to characterize patients showing improvements after placebo injections and to search for criteria for the prediction of subsequent response based on the magnitude of score changes after the first week of treatment.

Methods: Data from 450 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) who received placebo injections in 4 double-blind randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy of LAI paliperidone palmitate obtained through the Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) project were analyzed. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule regulating neural systems underlying addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey.

Aims: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Identification of smoking status in the Census is needed, but what about the healthcare system?

Aust N Z J Public Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Addiction Medicine, The Sydney Central Clinical School, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales.

View Article
December 2018

Cognitive behavioural therapy can be effective in treating anxiety and depression in persons with dementia: a systematic review.

Psychogeriatrics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that affects a person's abilities in daily functioning. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common among persons with dementia. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been tested to manage their depression and anxiety symptoms. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Modeling Approach to Gauging the Effects of Nicotine Vaping Product Use on Cessation from Cigarettes: What Do We Know, What Do We Need to Know?

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Background And Aims: The long term population health impact of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) use among smokers is unknown and subject to a range of plausible assumptions about the use and health consequences of NVPs. While NVPs use may substitute for cigarette smoking and thereby aid in quitting cigarette use, it is also possible that smokers who would have otherwise quit would instead delay quitting cigarettes. We aimed to develop a cohort-specific simulation model of the impact of NVPs on smoking cessation by adult smokers and resulting premature deaths (PD) and life-years lost (LYL). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Uptake of direct acting antiviral therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs in a universal health-care system.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Key performance indicators and administrative data in an early psychosis service.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Rehabilitation Academic Clinical Unit, Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: This study aimed to introduce a set of administrative key performance indicators (KPIs) for Early Psychosis Services.

Methods: The study design was longitudinal with data retrieved from a 4-year period between January 2009 and December 2013 included in the study. Descriptive statistics and t tests were used to evaluate the KPIs. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Discussions between health professionals and smokers about nicotine vaping products: Results from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background And Aims: Debate exists about whether health professionals (HPs) should advise smokers to use nicotine vaping products (NVPs) to quit smoking. The objectives were to examine in four countries: (1) prevalence of HP discussions and recommendation to use an NVP; (2) who initiated NVP discussions; (3) the type of HP advice received about NVPs; and (4) smoker's characteristics related to receiving advice about NVPs.

Design: Cross-sectional study using multivariable logistic regression analyses on weighted data from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (ITC 4CV1). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Tramadol dispensing patterns and trends in Canada, 2007-2016.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.

Purpose: Opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity have substantially increased in Canada, which recent interventions have aimed to reduce. Tramadol is an atypical prescription-only (but unscheduled under Canada's narcotics law) opioid analgesic and not subject to controls for other (eg, strong) opioids. Given experiences in different jurisdictions, tramadol may have been increasingly dispensed as a "substitute" drug during a period with increasingly restrictive controls for other (scheduled) opioids. Read More

View Article
December 2018

News and Notes.

Authors:

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

View Article
December 2018

Alcohol Consumption and Hospitalization Burden in an Adult Italian Population: Prospective Results from the Moli-sani Study.

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, (IS), Italy.

Background And Aims: Epidemiological evidence on the impact of different alcohol drinking patterns on healthcare systems or hospitalizations is sparse. We investigated how the different average volumes of alcohol consumed relate to all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations.

Design: Prospective cohort study (baseline 2005-10) linked to a registry of hospital discharge records to identify hospitalizations at follow-up (Dec-2013). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Methods of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, Wave 1 (2016).

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Aim: To describe the methods of the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping (4CV) Survey, conducted in 2016 in Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN), and the United States (US).

Methods: The respondents were cigarette smokers, former smokers (quit within the previous two years), and at-least-weekly vapers, aged 18 and older. Eligible cohort members from the ITC Four Country Survey (4C) were retained. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Income trajectories prior to alcohol-attributable death in Finland and Sweden.

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Professor of Social Gerontology, Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Gävlegatan 16, 113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Aims: Mortality from alcohol-attributable causes is patterned by income. We study analysed the income trajectories 17-19 years prior to death in order to determine: 1) whether income levels and trajectories differ between those who die of alcohol-attributable causes, survivors with similar sociodemographic characteristics, all survivors and those dying of other causes; 2) whether the income trajectories of these groups differ by education; and 3) whether there are differences in income trajectories between Finland and Sweden - two countries with differing levels of alcohol-attributable mortality but similar welfare-provision systems.

Design: Retrospective cohort study using individual-level longitudinal register data including information on income, cause of death and socioeconomic position. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Dec 14;18(1):494. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a of the major public health issues in Asia. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for GDM in Asia via a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid, Scopus and ScienceDirect for observational studies in Asia from inception to August 2017. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Metabolite profiling and identification of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of mitragynine, the major alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom).

Xenobiotica 2018 Dec 14:1-31. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Department of Pharmaceutics , University of Florida , Gainesville , USA.

1. Mitragynine is the major indole-based alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom). Decoctions (teas) of the plant leaves have been used traditionally for cough, diarrhoea, pain, hypertension, and for the treatment of opioid addiction. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Group Therapy for Substance Use Disorders: A Survey of Clinician Practices.

J Groups Addict Recover 2017 8;12(4):243-259. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.

Substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is typically delivered in group format, but clinical research focuses on individual therapy. This exploratory study narrows this gap through a survey of 566 SUD group clinicians in the United States, concerning most commonly used group practices, attitudes about evidence-based treatments (EBTs), and beliefs about addiction. Clinicians reported high use of open groups, moderately high utilization of EBT practices, and moderate use of questionable practices. Read More

View Article
December 2017

Gender Variance and the Autism Spectrum: An Examination of Children Ages 6-12 Years.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Deerfield Hall, 3359 Mississauga Road, Office 4098, Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6, Canada.

Gender variance (GV) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently co-occur in clinical populations. We investigated GV in association with ASD characteristics in nonclinical children and in children with developmental/mental health diagnoses. In 6-12-year-olds (N = 2445; 51% birth-assigned boys), the Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children measured GV and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire measured six subdomains of ASD characteristics. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Can Your DNA Influence Your Bet-Placing? The Impact of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene on Gambling Tasks.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:458. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Sino-Britain Centre for Cognition and Ageing Research, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Are we placing a bet by ourselves or has our DNA already made the decision for us? Previous research has suggested that some genes related to dopamine or serotonin can influence our non-bet-placing decision-making, but little is known about whether cannabinoid-related genes can impact how much people bet. To investigate this issue, we focused on rs1049353, a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (), because it is related to addictive behavior and reward processing. In this study ( = 377), we used a modified Cambridge gambling task to test the effect of polymorphism on how much people bet. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Analysis of differentially methylated regions in great apes and extinct hominids provides support for the evolutionary hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

NORMENT - K.G. Jebsen Center for Psychosis Research, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Dr. Einar Martens Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Department of Medical Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

Introduction: The persistence of schizophrenia in human populations separated by geography and time led to the evolutionary hypothesis that proposes schizophrenia as a by-product of the higher cognitive abilities of modern humans. To explore this hypothesis, we used here an evolutionary epigenetics approach building on differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the genome.

Methods: We implemented a polygenic enrichment testing pipeline using the summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia and 12 other phenotypes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Advancing pharmacological treatments for opioid use disorder (ADaPT-OUD): protocol for testing a novel strategy to improve implementation of medication-assisted treatment for veterans with opioid use disorders in low-performing facilities.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2018 Dec 13;13(1):25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Innovation to Implementation, Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Rd, MC152, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Background: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mitochondrial Hyperactivation and Enhanced ROS Production are Involved in Toxicity Induced by Oncogenic Kinases Over-Signaling.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Dec 12;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.

Targeted therapy is an effective, rational, and safe approach to solid and hematological tumors treatment. Unfortunately, a significant fraction of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) relapses mainly because of gene amplification, mutations, or other bypass mechanisms. Recently a growing number of papers showed how, in some cases, resistance due to oncogene overexpression may be associated with drug addiction: cells able to proliferate in the presence of high TKI doses become also TKI dependent, undergoing cellular stress, and apoptosis/death upon drug withdrawal. Read More

View Article
December 2018

From Synapse to Function: A Perspective on the Role of Neuroproteomics in Elucidating Mechanisms of Drug Addiction.

Proteomes 2018 Dec 9;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Drug addiction is a complex disorder driven by dysregulation in molecular signaling across several different brain regions. Limited therapeutic options currently exist for treating drug addiction and related psychiatric disorders in clinical populations, largely due to our incomplete understanding of the molecular pathways that influence addiction pathology. Recent work provides strong evidence that addiction-related behaviors emerge from the convergence of many subtle changes in molecular signaling networks that include neuropeptides (neuropeptidome), protein-protein interactions (interactome) and post-translational modifications such as protein phosphorylation (phosphoproteome). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Active avoidance learning differentially activates ERK phosphorylation in the primary auditory and visual cortices of Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address:

Understanding the mechanisms underlying conditioned avoidance is a critical step toward the development of novel treatments of anxiety. In this context, the two-way active avoidance (2WAA) task is a validated paradigm to investigate uncontrolled avoidance, a hallmark of anxiety disorders. The outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rat lines are selected for respectively rapid vs. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Alpha 5 (CHRNA5) RNAi is associated with cell cycle inhibition, apoptosis, DNA damage response and drug sensitivity in breast cancer.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208982. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Alpha 5 (CHRNA5) is an important susceptibility locus for nicotine addiction and lung cancer. Depletion of CHRNA5 has been associated with reduced cell viability, increased apoptosis and alterations in cellular motility in different cancers yet not in breast cancer. Herein we first showed the expression of CHRNA5 was variable and positively correlated with the fraction of total genomic alterations in breast cancer cell lines and tumors indicating its potential role in DNA damage response (DDR). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Complex spatio-temporal distribution and genomic ancestry of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 24,216 Danes.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208829. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (hgs) are evolutionarily conserved sets of mtDNA SNP-haplotypes with characteristic geographical distribution. Associations of hgs with disease and physiological characteristics have been reported, but have frequently not been reproducible. Using 418 mtDNA SNPs on the PsychChip (Illumina), we assessed the spatio-temporal distribution of mtDNA hgs in Denmark from DNA isolated from 24,642 geographically un-biased dried blood spots (DBS), collected from 1981 to 2005 through the Danish National Neonatal Screening program. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users - United States, 2015-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 14;67(49):1353-1357. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Tobacco product use during adolescence increases the risk for lifelong nicotine addiction and immediate adverse health effects (1,2). During 2011-2017, current use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco decreased significantly among middle and high school students, but current use of e-cigarettes increased significantly from 1.5% to 11. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Evaluating the Impact of Prescribed Versus Nonprescribed Benzodiazepine Use in Methadone Maintenance Therapy: Results from a Population-based Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute for Clinical and Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (JKE, ASW, PK); Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (PK); Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (JKE, AMF, DCM).

Objectives: Benzodiazepine (BZD) use is common in patients who are engaged in methadone as a treatment for opioid use disorder. BZD prescribing is generally discouraged for this patient population due to the increased risk of BZD dependence and BZD use disorder, medication-assisted treatment (MAT) discontinuation, and opioid-overdose death. However, some patients have concurrent mental health disorders, where BZD use may be clinically indicated. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Latent Class Approach for Classifying the Problem and Disordered Gamers in a Group of Adolescence.

Front Psychol 2018 26;9:2273. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Gaming disorder is not yet recognized as a formal psychiatric disorder, and consensus is still lacking in the field concerning the definition of gaming disorder and what methods should be used to measure it. In order to deal with methodological challenges related to previously suggested approaches, the aim of the present study was to develop an alternative assessment procedure for gaming disorder using a latent class cluster approach, and to compare the criterion validity of this procedure with existing assessment procedures. A representative sample of 3,000 adolescents ( = 1,500 female) aged 17. Read More

View Article
November 2018

CB1 Agonism Alters Addiction-Related Behaviors in Mice Lacking Mu or Delta Opioid Receptors.

Front Psychiatry 2018 27;9:630. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Adaptatives (LNCA), Centre de la Recherche Nationale Scientifique, Université de Strasbourg Faculté de Psychologie, Strasbourg, France.

Opioids are powerful analgesics but the clinical utility of these compounds is reduced by aversive outcomes, including the development of affective and substance use disorders. Opioid systems do not function in isolation so understanding how these interact with other neuropharmacological systems could lead to novel therapeutics that minimize withdrawal, tolerance, and emotional dysregulation. The cannabinoid system is an obvious candidate as anatomical, pharmacological, and behavioral studies point to opioid-cannabinoid interactions in the mediation of these processes. Read More

View Article
November 2018

The Contribution of the Descending Pain Modulatory Pathway in Opioid Tolerance.

Front Neurosci 2018 27;12:886. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States.

Opioids remain among the most effective pain-relieving therapeutics. However, their long-term use is limited due to the development of tolerance and potential for addiction. For many years, researchers have explored the underlying mechanisms that lead to this decreased effectiveness of opioids after repeated use, and numerous theories have been proposed to explain these changes. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Methamphetamine neurotoxicity, microglia, and neuroinflammation.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Dec 12;15(1):341. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida College of Medicine and McKnight Brain Institute, JHM Health Science Center, PO Box 100244, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is subject to abuse worldwide. While the modulatory effects of METH on dopamine neurotransmission and its neurotoxicity in the central nervous system are well studied, METH's effects on modulating microglial neuroimmune functions and on eliciting neuroinflammation to affect dopaminergic neurotoxicity has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The current review illuminates METH-induced neurotoxicity from a neuropathological perspective by summarizing studies reporting microglial activation after METH administration in rodents. Read More

View Article
December 2018

"It's on everyone's plate": a qualitative study into physicians' perceptions of responsibility for smoking cessation.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2018 Dec 12;13(1):48. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Hippocratespad 21, PO Box 9600, 2300, RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Little research has investigated in-depth how physicians perceive their role in smoking cessation care. This qualitative study sought to understand physicians' perceptions of responsibility for smoking cessation.

Methods: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews between June and November 2017 in The Netherlands. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Longitudinal HIV Transmission Risk Profiles Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With HIV in the SUN Study.

Am J Mens Health 2018 Dec 12:1557988318818283. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.

Examining how multiple concomitant factors interact to augment HIV transmission risk is needed to inform more effective primary and secondary HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. The development of a "taxonomy" of long-term sexual and drug-related risk behavior profiles may have important implications for resource allocation and targeted HIV prevention programming. A secondary data analysis was conducted to explore longitudinal HIV transmission risk profiles among 423 MSM living with HIV enrolled in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Moving from the terminology debate to a transdisciplinary understanding of the problem.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Department of People and Organisations, Open University Business School , Milton Keynes, UK.

This commentary considers a recent debate paper which presents and counters 10 work addiction myths. I reflect upon the proposal to move the field forward by distinguishing between, work addiction, which denotes a clinical phenomenon; and workaholism, a term used by the occupational psychology literature with little agreement about its defining dimensions beyond working compulsively. Rather than choosing between these two terms, I argue that addiction experts should lead a transdisciplinary integration of findings from studies where participants report both working compulsively and experiencing significant conflict. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Ten myths (or facts?) about workaholism: An appetitive motivation framework.

Authors:
Steve Sussman

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Preventive Medicine, Psychology, and Social Work, Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, CA, USA.

This commentary intends to provide constructive input into the "Ten myths about work addiction" by Griiffiths et al. (2018). I place the information into an appetitive motivation theoretical lens of addiction as well as outline the kernels of truth associated with each myth. Read More

View Article
December 2018

How to counter the ten myths about work addiction?: Three postulates for future research.

Authors:
Diana Malinowska

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University , Kraków, Poland.

Background And Aim: Referring to Ten myths about work addiction reviewed by Griffiths, Demetrovics, and Atroszko in the Journal of Behavioral Addiction, three postulates were proposed to apply in future research on work addiction: (a) the clinical psychology perspective, (b) the systems approach, and (c) diversified and adequate methodologies.

Methods: In a narrative review, using theoretical assumptions and empirical data, postulates were discussed against myths.

Results: The opportunities offered by the perspectives and new insights related to myths were presented. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Work addiction: An organizational behavior as well as an addictive behavior?

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Department of Behavioral Science and Integrative Brain and Cognition Center, University of Ariel , Ariel, Israel.

In their critical review, Griffiths et al. (2018) discussed 10 myths in the study of work addiction, and addressed the need to conceptualize and investigate this area of research more carefully. In this commentary, we expand their arguments, suggesting that indeed some of the popular myths have solid evidence-based results in the organizational literature. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Ten myths and twenty years: What we know and what we still do not know about work addiction.

Authors:
Bernadette Kun

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest, Hungary.

This commentary addresses a recent article by Griffiths et al. (2018) about myths in work addiction. In response to the narrative review, I reflect on all the myths that the authors highlighted and the argument on how they tried to counter them. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Associations between the dark triad of personality and unspecified/specific forms of Internet-use disorder.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Department of Molecular Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University , Ulm, Germany.

Background And Aims: Despite indications that the dark triad of personality might be associated with Internet-use disorder (IUD), research about these associations is lacking.

Methods: Two studies were performed to grasp the links between these variables. In the first study, a sample consisting of N = 468 participants (n = 130 males) filled in the Short Dark Triad Questionnaire to assess scores in the dark triad of personality and the short Internet Addiction Test to assess tendencies toward unspecified IUD. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Problematic overstudying: Studyholism or study addiction?

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

1 Department of Health Sciences, School of Psychology, University of Florence , Florence, Italy.

This commentary addresses Griffiths et al. (2018)'s sixth myth about work addiction. We agree that work addiction could also be spread in the school context, although we propose that problematic overstudying may be more similar to an obsession than to an addiction toward the study. Read More

View Article
December 2018