Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis: A two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.
Addiction 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Montessorilaan 3, 6525, HR, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Background And Aims: Epidemiological studies consistently show co-occurrence of use of different addictive substances. Whether these associations are causal or due to overlapping underlying influences remains an important question in addiction research. Methodological advances have made it possible to use published genetic associations to infer causal relationships between phenotypes. Read More