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    Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis: A two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.
    Addiction 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Montessorilaan 3, 6525, HR, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background And Aims: Epidemiological studies consistently show co-occurrence of use of different addictive substances. Whether these associations are causal or due to overlapping underlying influences remains an important question in addiction research. Methodological advances have made it possible to use published genetic associations to infer causal relationships between phenotypes. Read More

    Education is the strongest socioeconomic predictor of smoking in pregnancy.
    Addiction 2018 Jan 14. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    University of Turku, Faculty of Social Sciences (Sociology unit), Turku, Finland.
    Aims: To investigate socioeconomic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class, and current economic conditions.

    Design: Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data.

    Setting: South-Western Finland. Read More

    Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology.
    Addiction 2018 Jan 14. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), formerly National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD, 4108, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain priority public health issues worldwide. As participation in population-based surveys has fallen, it is increasingly challenging to estimate accurately the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach for estimating substance use at the population level that does not rely on survey participation. Read More

    Diminished Alternative Reinforcement as a Mechanism Linking Conduct Problems and Substance Use in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Examination.
    Addiction 2018 Jan 14. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California.
    Aims: To determine whether diminished alternative reinforcement (i.e., engagement and enjoyment from substance-free activities) mediated the longitudinal association of conduct problems with substance use in early-mid adolescence. Read More

    Increased non-fatal overdose risk associated with involuntary drug treatment in a longitudinal study with people who inject drugs.
    Addiction 2018 Jan 14. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    Division of Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego.
    Aim: To assess the effect of involuntary drug treatment (IDT) on non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs (PWID).

    Design: Longitudinal study.

    Setting: Tijuana, Mexico. Read More

    Trends in alcohol-related mortality in East and West Germany, 1980 to 2014: Age, period, and cohort variations.
    Addiction 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Leopoldstraße 175, 80804, Munich, Germany.
    Background And Aims: Several indicators suggest that the extent and trends of alcohol-related mortality differ between East and West Germany. Regional drinking patterns and differences in health care systems are assumed to affect the risk of dying from an alcohol-induced disease. The study addresses two questions: (1) What are the unbiased and independent age, period, and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality trends in Germany? (2) Do these trends differ between East and West Germany?

    Methods: Data on alcohol-related mortality for East and West Germany came from the national causes of deaths register for the years 1980 to 2014. Read More

    The associations between psychotic experiences, and substance use and substance use disorders: Findings from the World Health Organisation World Mental Health Surveys.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, and Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs), and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs, and various types of substance use (SU), and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental disorders on these associations.

    Design, Setting, Participants And Measurements: We used data from the World Health Organisation World Mental Health surveys. Read More

    Estimating the Drink Driving Attributable Fraction of Road Traffic Deaths in Mexico.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 23. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
    Secretariado Técnico del Consejo Nacional para la Prevención de Accidentes (ST CONAPRA), Guadalajara 46, Piso 3, Col. Roma Norte, Cuauhtémoc, 06700, Ciudad de México, Mexico.
    Aim: To estimate the Drink Driving Attributable Fraction (DDAF) of road traffic injury mortality in car occupants in Mexico during 2010-2013.

    Design: A case-control study was conducted to examine the presence of alcohol in analysed body fluids of car occupants killed in fatal crashes (cases) compared with car drivers tested in alcohol-testing checkpoints who were not involved in a fatal collision (controls). Two datasets were used for the period 2010-2013: The Forensic module of the Epidemiological Surveillance System on Addictions that included car occupants killed in a collision (cases) and a dataset from alcohol-testing at police checkpoints available for matching municipalities (controls). Read More

    Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: A comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 23. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
    Turning Point, Eastern Health, Fitzroy, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Despite the over-representation of people with gambling problems in mental health populations, there is limited information available to guide the selection of brief screening instruments within mental health services. The primary aim was therefore to compare the classification accuracy of nine brief problem gambling screening instruments (2-5 items) with a reference standard among patients accessing mental health services.

    Design: The classification accuracy of nine brief screening instruments was compared with multiple cut-off scores on a reference standard. Read More

    Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: A randomised controlled trial.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 23. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
    Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Background And Aims: Problem gambling is a significant public health issue worldwide. There is substantial investment in publicly funded intervention services, but limited evaluation of effectiveness. This study investigated three brief telephone interventions to determine whether they were more effective than standard helpline treatment in helping people reduce gambling. Read More

    Cigarette use is increasing among people with illicit substance use disorders in the United States, 2002-14: emerging disparities in vulnerable populations.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, The City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
    Background And Aims: While cigarette smoking has declined over time, it is not known whether this decline has occurred similarly among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) in the United States (US). The current study estimated trends in smoking from 2002 to 2014 among US individuals with and without SUDs.

    Design: Linear time trends of current smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression models. Read More

    Is it cost-effective to provide internet-based interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands? An analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Background And Aim: The cost-effectiveness of internet-based smoking cessation interventions is difficult to determine when they are provided as a complement to current smoking cessation services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such an alternate package compared with existing smoking cessation services alone (current package).

    Methods: A literature search was conducted to identify internet-based smoking cessation interventions in the Netherlands. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of increasing the reach of smoking cessation interventions in Germany: results from the EQUIPTMOD.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Helmholtz Zentrum München (GmbH) - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Aims: To evaluate costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of increased reach of specific smoking cessation interventions in Germany.

    Design: A Markov-based state transition return on investment model (EQUIPTMOD) was used to evaluate current smoking cessation interventions as well as two prospective investment scenarios. A health-care perspective (extended to include out-of-pocket payments) with life-time horizon was considered. Read More

    Predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Population Health Research Institute, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 ORE, UK.
    Aim: To identify factors found in the research literature to be associated with smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    Methods: Electronic searches of the bibliographic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Elsevier, Scopus and ISI Web of Science were conducted to April 2017. All studies reporting factors associated with smoking cessation or continuing smoking during pregnancy were included and systematically reviewed, irrespective of study design. Read More

    Improving Quit Rates of Web-Delivered Interventions for Smoking Cessation: Full Scale Randomized Trial of WebQuit.org versus Smokefree.gov.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
    Background And Aims: Millions of people worldwide use websites to help them quit smoking, but effectiveness trials have an average 34% follow-up data retention rate and an average 9% quit rate. We compared the quit rates of a website using a new behavioral approach called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; WebQuit.org) with the current standard of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Smokefree. Read More

    Validation of a Contextualized Assessment of Smoking Behavior in Students.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Adolescent Health Research Program, Department of Psychology, Reed College, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    Aims: The aim of this study was to validate an audio simulation of culture-specific social contexts associated with smoking to provide a medium for researchers to investigate social-contextual influences on tobacco use in the laboratory.

    Methods: 81 students (34.6% men; n = 28) listened to five audio simulations of peer social contexts where offers to smoke tobacco were made (S-SIDE). Read More

    Risk of amphetamine use disorder and mortality among incident users of prescribed stimulant medications in the Veterans Administration.
    Addiction 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Background And Aims: Non-medical use of prescribed stimulant medications is a growing concern. This study's aims were to ascertain the demographics of stimulant medication users compared with non-users, examine temporal trends of stimulant medication use and estimate risk factors for development of amphetamine use disorder (AUD) and mortality among new users of stimulant medications.

    Design: Cox proportional hazards regression in a retrospective cohort adjusted by baseline covariates. Read More

    Relationship between high-risk patients receiving prescription opioids and high-volume opioid prescribers.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Aims: (1) To characterize the amount of prescription opioids prescribed for high-risk patients by low-volume prescribers; (2) to quantify how high- and low-volume prescribers differ systematically in their prescribing patterns.

    Design: Cross-sectional study using 2015 longitudinal, all-payer QuintilesIMS pharmacy claims. We conducted an aggregated analysis for the first aim and an individual-level analysis for the second aim. Read More

    E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Health Policy Center, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Aims: We estimated associations between e-cigarette prices (both disposable and refill) and e-cigarette use among middle and high-school students in the United States. We also estimated associations between cigarette prices and e-cigarette use.

    Design: We used regression models to estimate the associations between e-cigarette and cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. Read More

    Excess overdose mortality immediately following transfer of patients and their care as well as after cessation of opioid substitution therapy.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.
    Aims: To investigate clustering of all-cause and overdose deaths after a transfer of patients and their care to alternative treatment provider and after the end of opioid substitution therapy (OST) in opioid-dependent individuals in specialist addiction treatment.

    Design, Setting And Participants: Mortality data were identified within a sample of 5335 patients with opioid use disorder who had received OST treatment between 1 April 2008 and 31 December 2013 from a large mental health-care provider in the United Kingdom. We investigated the circumstances and distribution of the 332 deaths identified within the observation window with a specific focus on overdose deaths (n = 103) after a planned discharge, dropout and transfer between services. Read More

    Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR), Melbourne: a decade on.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 26. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Established in 2006, the Centre for Alcohol Policy Research (CAPR) is Australia's only research centre with a primary focus on alcohol policy. CAPR has four main areas of research: alcohol policy impacts; alcohol policy formation and regulatory processes involved in implementing alcohol policies; patterns and trends in drinking and alcohol problems in the population; and the influence of drinking norms, cultural practices and social contexts, particularly in interaction with alcohol policies. In this paper, we give examples of key publications in each area. Read More

    Advancing alcohol research and treatment: contentions and debates about treatment intensity, goals and outcomes in the 1970s and 1980s.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Aims: This narrative exploration of alcohol treatment research focuses on key contentions and advances in alcohol treatment during the critical 1970s and 1980s.

    Methods: Papers and books which signal some of the major debates and advances in alcohol treatment research were selected from the 1970s and 1980s. The selection process was based on significant debate during this period, and included those that influenced the field in general and this author in particular. Read More

    Evaluating clinical stop-smoking services globally: towards a minimum data set.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 26. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) at the University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Background And Aims: Behavioural and pharmacological support for smoking cessation improves the chances of success and represents a highly cost-effective way of preventing chronic disease and premature death. There is a large number of clinical stop-smoking services throughout the world. These could be connected into a global network to provide data to assess what treatment components are most effective, for what populations and in what settings. Read More

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