Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    7195 results match your criteria Addiction[Journal]

    1 OF 144

    Modelling the impact of a national scale-up of interventions on hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland.
    Addiction 2018 May 20. Epub 2018 May 20.
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Background And Aims: To reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID), Scottish Government-funded national strategies, launched in 2008, promoted scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe provision (NSP), with some increases in HCV treatment. We test whether observed decreases in HCV incidence post-2008 can be attributed to this intervention scale-up.

    Design: A dynamic HCV transmission model amongst PWID incorporating intervention scale-up and observed decreases in behavioural risk, calibrated to Scottish HCV prevalence and incidence data for 2008/09. Read More

    Fetal Assessment in Buprenorphine Maintained Women using Fetal Magnetoencephalography: A Pilot Study.
    Addiction 2018 May 20. Epub 2018 May 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.
    Background And Aims: In-utero exposure to opioids including buprenorphine (BUP) has been shown to affect fetal activity, specifically heart-rate variability (FHRV) and fetal movement (FM). Our objective was to extract simultaneous recordings of fetal cardiac, and brain-related activity in BUP-maintained and non-opioid exposed pregnant women using a novel non-invasive biomagnetic technique.

    Design: A pilot study was conducted, recording and analyzing biomagnetic data from fetuses of BUP-maintained and non-opioid exposed pregnant women. Read More

    Impact of current and scaled-up levels of hepatitis C prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs in three UK settings-what is required to achieve the WHO's HCV elimination targets?
    Addiction 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Bristol Medical School, Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Aims: To estimate the impact of existing high-coverage needle and syringe provision (HCNSP, defined as obtaining more than one sterile needle and syringe per injection reported) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) in three UK settings and to determine required scale-up of interventions, including HCV treatment, needed to reach the World Health Organization (WHO) target of reducing HCV incidence by 90% by 2030.

    Design: HCV transmission modelling using UK empirical estimates for effect of OST and/or HCNSP on individual risk of HCV acquisition.

    Setting And Participants: Three UK cities with varying chronic HCV prevalence (Bristol 45%, Dundee 26%, Walsall 19%), OST (72-81%) and HCNSP coverage (28-56%). Read More

    Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption.
    Addiction 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Aims: To test whether reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages would reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in a laboratory (study 1) and a real-world drinking environment (study 2). Additionally, we modelled the potential public health benefit of reducing the standard serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom.

    Design: Studies 1 and 2 were cluster-randomized experiments. Read More

    Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence: An integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts.
    Addiction 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Studies have linked adolescent alcohol use with adverse consequences in adulthood; yet it is unclear how strong the associations are and to what extent they may be due to confounding. Our aim was to estimate the strength of association between different patterns of adolescent drinking and longer-term psychosocial harms taking into account individual, family, and peer factors.

    Design: Participant-level data were integrated from four long running longitudinal studies: Australian Temperament Project; Christchurch Health and Development Study; Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy; Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. Read More

    Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: 2017 status report.
    Addiction 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Aims: This review provides an up-to-date curated source of information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and their associated mortality and burden of disease. Limitations in the data are also discussed, including how these can be addressed in the future.

    Methods: Online data sources were identified through expert review. Read More

    Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence.
    Addiction 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Background And Aims: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options.

    Methods: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Read More

    Understanding the development of a regulated market approach to new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory.
    Addiction 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    SHORE & Whāriki Research Centre, College of Health, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Background And Aims: The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET).

    Methods: The analysis draws on three years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature. Read More

    Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal.
    Addiction 2018 May 1. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, University College London, WC1E 7HB.
    Background And Aims: Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabinoid, may be a promising novel smoking cessation treatment due to its anxiolytic properties, minimal side-effects and research showing it may modify drug cue salience. We used an experimental medicine approach with dependent cigarette smokers to investigate if (1) overnight nicotine abstinence, compared with satiety, will produce greater attentional bias (AB), higher pleasantness ratings of cigarette-related stimuli and increased craving and withdrawal; (2) CBD in comparison to placebo, would attenuate AB, pleasantness of cigarette-related stimuli, craving and withdrawal and not produce any side-effects.

    Design: Randomized, double-blind crossover study with a fixed satiated session followed by two overnight abstinent sessions. Read More

    Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Psychology, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Background And Aims: Despite the negative consequences associated with caffeine use among children and youth, its use is increasingly widespread among middle school students. Cross-sectional studies reveal links between caffeine and other substance use. The potential for caffeine use to confer increased vulnerability to substance use, however, has not been investigated using prospective designs. Read More

    Drawing attention to a neglected injecting-related harm: A systematic review of AA-amyloidosis among people who inject drugs.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1 9SH.
    Background And Aims: Chronic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) among people who inject drugs (PWID) can lead to AA-amyloidosis: a serious, yet neglected, multi-organ disease. We aim to synthesise findings on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical outcomes, screening recommendations, and challenges to treatment for AA-amyloidosis among PWID.

    Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Read More

    National Cancer Societies and their Public Statements on Alcohol Consumption and Cancer Risk.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background And Aims: Studies have shown that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, liver, colon, rectal, and breast cancer. It would therefore be expected that cancer prevention organizations would incorporate these facts into their public stance on the consumption of alcohol. The aims of this study were to: 1) assess how national cancer societies in developed English-speaking countries (i. Read More

    Testing associations between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in two large population-based samples.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, QLD, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi-substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes.

    Design: Exploratory analyses using mixed linear models, one per region of interest (ROI), were performed whereby individual differences in volume (outcome) at seven subcortical ROIs were regressed onto cannabis and comorbid substance use (predictors). Read More

    Are changes in drinking related to changes in cannabis use among Swedish adolescents? A time series analysis for the period 1989-2016.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aims: To examine if changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in cannabis use among Swedish adolescents in a period of diverging trends, and to investigate if cannabis and alcohol act as complements or substitutes.

    Design, Setting, Participants And Measurements: Data comprise a nationally representative annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish 9 grade students (15-16 years) covering the years 1989-2016 (n=149 603). Alcohol and cannabis use were measured concurrently and alcohol consumption was measured in liters of 100% alcohol per year. Read More

    Effects of a Prior Authorization Policy for Extended-release/Long-acting Opioids on Utilization and Outcomes in a State Medicaid Program.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
    Background And Aims: In response to the opioid overdose epidemic, USA state Medicaid programs have adopted restrictive policies for opioid analgesics, yet effects on prescribing patterns and health outcomes are uncertain. This study aimed to examine effects of a prior authorization policy for extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids on opioid use in the Oklahoma, USA state Medicaid program.

    Design: Retrospective difference-in-differences design study comparing changes in opioid use in Oklahoma Medicaid to control (Oregon Medicaid). Read More

    An RCT with the Combination of Varenicline and Bupropion for Smoking Cessation: Clinical Implications for Front Line Use.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
    Background And Aims: Despite the availability of several efficacious smoking cessation treatments, less than 25% of smokers who quit remain abstinent 1 year post treatment. This study aimed to determine if varenicline and bupropion combination treatment would result in higher abstinence rates than varenicline alone.

    Design: A double-blind, randomized, parallel groups smoking cessation clinical trial in which participants were exposed to 12 weeks of treatment and followed for 12 months. Read More

    Sexual-Orientation Differences in Alcohol Use Trajectories and Disorders in Emerging Adulthood: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study in the United States.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, 9245 Sky Park Court, Suite 100, San Diego, California, USA, 92123.
    Aims: We estimated sexual-orientation differences in alcohol use trajectories during emerging adulthood, and tested whether alcohol use trajectories mediated sexual-orientation differences in alcohol use disorders (AUDs).

    Design: Longitudinal self-reported survey data from the Growing Up Today Study.

    Setting: USA. Read More

    The safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine in achieving six-month continuous smoking abstinence in tuberculosis patients - protocol for a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
    Background And Aims: Tuberculosis (TB) patients who quit smoking have much better disease outcomes than those who continue to smoke. Behavioural support combined with pharmacotherapy is the most effective strategy in helping people to quit, in general populations. However, there is no evidence for the effectiveness of this strategy in TB patients who smoke. Read More

    The impact of buprenorphine and methadone on mortality: a primary care cohort study in the United Kingdom.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Aims: To estimate whether opioid substitution treatment (OST) with buprenorphine or methadone is associated with a greater reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and opioid drug-related poisoning (DRP) mortality.

    Design: Cohort study with linkage between clinical records from Clinical Practice Research Datalink and mortality register.

    Setting: UK primary care. Read More

    Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework and Multiple Streams policy theories to examine the role of evidence, research and other types of knowledge in drug policy.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Science, Technology and Policy Studies, University of Twente, the Netherlands.
    Background And Aims: The prevailing 'evidence-based policy' paradigm emphasizes a technical-rational relationship between alcohol and drug research evidence and subsequent policy action. However, policy process theories do not start with this premise, and hence provide an opportunity to consider anew the ways in which evidence, research and other types of knowledge impact upon policy. This paper presents a case study, the police deployment of drug detection dogs, to highlight how two prominent policy theories [the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and the Multiple Streams (MS) approach] explicate the relationship between evidence and policy. Read More

    Perception of Physical Attractiveness When Consuming and Not Consuming Alcohol: A Meta-Analysis.
    Addiction 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    University of Pittsburgh.
    Background And Aims: Elucidating why people drink and why drinking can lead to negative psychosocial consequences remains a crucial task for alcohol researchers. Because drinking typically occurs in social settings, broader investigation of the associations between alcohol and social experience is needed to advance understanding of both the rewarding and hazardous effects of alcohol use. This review aimed to (a) estimate alcohol's relation to the perception of others' physical attractiveness and (b) suggest theoretical and methodological considerations that may advance the study of this topic. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone for severe opioid use disorder: findings from the SALOME randomized clinical trial.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Providence Health Care, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background And Aims: Previous research has found diacetylmorphine, delivered under supervision, to be cost-effective in the treatment of severe opioid use disorder, but diacetylmorphine is not available in many settings. The Study to Assess Long-term Opioid Maintenance Effectiveness (SALOME) randomized controlled trial provided evidence that injectable hydromorphone is non-inferior to diacetylmorphine. The current study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone directly with diacetylmorphine and indirectly with methadone maintenance treatment. Read More

    Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Aims: To compare the proportion of people in England with probable alcohol dependence [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥ 20] with those with other drinking patterns (categorized by AUDIT scores) in terms of motivation to reduce drinking and use of alcohol support resources.

    Design: A combination of random probability and simple quota sampling to conduct monthly cross-sectional household computer-assisted interviews between March 2014 and August 2017.

    Setting: The general population in all nine regions of England. Read More

    Keeping Secrets: Leslie E. Keeley, the Gold Cure and the Nineteenth-Century Neuroscience of Addiction.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Department of History, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YT.
    Background And Aims: Dr Leslie E. Keeley was perhaps the world's most famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack because he dispensed a secret cure. The article aims to describe Keeley's now largely forgotten story and to draw attention to the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of any theory of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty first century. Read More

    Drink Less Enjoy More: effects of a multi-component intervention on improving adherence to, and knowledge of, alcohol legislation in a UK nightlife setting.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Policy Research and International Development Directorate, Public Health Wales, Cardiff, UK.
    Aims: To estimate the association between implementation of a community-based multi-component intervention (Drink Less Enjoy More) and sales of alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated patrons and nightlife patron awareness of associated legislation.

    Design: Cross-sectional pre-intervention and follow-up measurements, including alcohol test purchases (using pseudo-intoxicated patrons) in licensed premises (stratified random sample; 2013, 2015) and a survey with nightlife patrons (convenience sample; 2014, 2015).

    Setting: One UK municipality with a large night-time economy. Read More

    Treatment response and non-response in CBT and Network Support for alcohol disorders: targeted mechanisms and common factors.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA.
    Aims: To determine whether mechanisms of drinking behavior change that are targeted by specific treatments mediate the effects of Packaged Cognitive Behavior Therapy (PCBT) and Network Support (NS) on abstinence rates throughout 27 months.

    Design: Secondary analysis of data from two Network Support Project randomized clinical trials, in which participants were assigned to either a case management control treatment (control) or NS treatment in trial 1, or to PCBT or NS treatment in trial 2.

    Setting: An out-patient substance abuse treatment site at a university medical center in the United States. Read More

    Denise Kandel's classic work on the gateway sequence of drug acquisition.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Psychiatry Department, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
    During the early 1970s Denise Kandel and her colleagues documented an 'invariant sequence' in initiation of drug use: starting with alcohol and tobacco, progressing to cannabis and then to other illicit, or 'harder' drugs. This observation, which became known as the 'gateway sequence' of drug use, has been influential in policy debates but remains highly contentious, with the area of greatest controversy focusing upon whether cannabis use increases risk causally for initiation of other illicit drugs. While numerous studies have replicated Kandel's initial findings (sequence of onset) and reported that associations between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs remain after controlling for potentially confounding factors, the mechanisms underlying these observed associations remain hotly debated. Read More

    Alcohol industry involvement in policymaking: a systematic review.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.
    Aims: To summarize the substantive findings of studies of alcohol industry involvement in national or supranational policymaking, and to produce a new synthesis of current evidence.

    Methods: This study examined peer-reviewed journal reports published in the English language between 1980 and 2016 of studies of alcohol industry involvement in policymaking. Included studies were required to provide information on data collection and analysis and to have sought explicitly to investigate interventions by alcohol industry actors within the process of public policymaking. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios in Spain: results from the EQUIPTMOD.
    Addiction 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Centre of Research in Economics and Health (CRES-UPF) University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Aims: To assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS).

    Design: We used the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), a Markov-based state transition economic model, to estimate the return on investment (ROI) of: (a) the current provision of smoking cessation services (brief physician advice and printed self-helped material + smoking ban and tobacco duty at current levels); and (b) four alternative scenarios to complement the current provision: coverage of proactive telephone calls; nicotine replacement therapy (mono and combo) [prescription nicotine replacement therapy (Rx NRT)]; varenicline (standard duration); or bupropion. A rate of 3% was used to discount life-time costs and benefits. Read More

    1 OF 144