8,333 results match your criteria Addiction[Journal]


Predictors of Early and Sustained Cessation of Heavy Drinking Over 5 Years Among Adult Primary Care Patients.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA, 94612-2304.

Aims: To identify factors associated with early and sustained cessation of heavy drinking.

Design: Retrospective cohort study over 5 years.

Setting: Kaiser Permanente Northern California, USA. Read More

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Rising Vape Pod Popularity Disrupted Declining Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Young Adults in Texas, USA from 2014-2019.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, in Austin, 1616 Guadalupe Street, Suite 6.300, Austin, TX, 78701.

Aims: To examine the longitudinal trajectory of young Texan (USA) adults' Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) use from 2014-2019, and to determine if there are changes in the trajectory among younger and older young adults post-2017, when vape pods surged in popularity in the United States.

Design: Nine-wave longitudinal study, with 6 months between each of the first eight waves and 1 year between the last two waves. Discontinuous, or piecewise, growth curve models were used to test the hypotheses that a) the overall current/past 30-day ENDS use trajectory would decline from 2014-spring 2017, but then increase from fall 2017-2019 and b) the increasing trajectory from 2017-2019 would occur only for younger participants, but not older participants. Read More

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Predictors of recruitment and retention in randomised controlled trials of behavioural smoking cessation interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Health Psychology Group, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen.

Aim: To investigate predictors of participant eligibility, recruitment, and retention in behavioural randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for smoking cessation.

Method: Systematic review and pre-specified meta-regression analysis of behavioural RCTs for smoking cessation including adult (≥18 years old) smokers. The pre-specified predictors were identified through a literature review and experts' consultation and included participant, trial and intervention characteristics and recruitment and retention strategies. Read More

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Declining drinking among adolescents: Are we seeing a denormalisation of drinking and a normalisation of non-drinking?

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.

Background: In the early 2000s, alcohol use among young people began to decline in many western countries, especially among adolescents (aged between 12-17 years old). These declines have continued steadily over the past two decades, against the backdrop of much smaller declines among the general population.

Argument: Hypotheses examining individual factors fail adequately to provide the necessary 'big picture' thinking needed to understand declines in adolescent drinking. Read More

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Changes in drinking days among US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Aims: To examine changes in drinking behavior among US adults between March 10 and July 21, 2020, a critical period during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design: Longitudinal, internet-based panel survey.

Setting: The Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally-representative panel of US adults aged 18 or older. Read More

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Efficacy of Brief Intervention for harmful and hazardous alcohol use: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies from Low Middle-Income countries.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Psychiatry and National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India, 110029.

Background And Aims: Low and middle-income countries (LMIC) have a disproportionately higher alcohol-attributable disease burden, in conjunction with a minimal focus on primary prevention. Screening and brief interventions can be a promising approach to address this problem. This systematic review aimed to perform a qualitative and quantitative synthesis of studies of brief interventions for harmful and hazardous alcohol use in LMIC. Read More

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Ecological Momentary Assessments of Nighttime Drinking Among California Adolescents: Bases for Informing Nighttime Preventive Interventions.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2150 Shattuck Avenue, Suite 601, Berkeley, CA, 94704, USA.

Background And Aim: To inform the development of effective nighttime preventive interventions, our goal was to assess adolescents' residence (i.e., being at) and transitions across contexts during evening hours and risks for drinking and drinking-related problems in relation to contexts and to these transitions. Read More

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Changes in illicit drug use and markets with the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions: Findings from the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, 2016-2020.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Aims: To describe i) self-reported changes in drug use and ii) trends in price, perceived availability, and perceived purity of illicit drugs, among people who regularly use ecstasy/MDMA and other illicit stimulants in Australia following COVID-19 and associated restrictions.

Design: Annual interviews with cross-sectional sentinel samples conducted face-to-face in 2016-2019, and via video conferencing or phone in 2020. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Read More

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Overestimation of alcohol consumption norms as a driver of alcohol consumption: a whole-population network study of men across eight villages in rural, southwestern Uganda.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.

Background And Aims: Little is known about how perceived norms about alcohol consumption may influence high alcohol consumption rates in Uganda. This study estimated the accuracy of perceived norms about men's alcohol consumption and measured the association between perceived norms and personal consumption.

Design: Cross-sectional, whole-population, sociocentric network study. Read More

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Thinking beyond the individual, a response to commentaries.

Addiction 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Drug Policy Modelling Program, High Street Kensington, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia.

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Data triangulation for substance abuse research.

Addiction 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA.

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Quantification of Prenatal Marijuana Use: Evaluation of the Correlation between Self-Report, Serum, Urine and Umbilical Cord Assays among Women Delivering at Two Urban Colorado Hospitals.

Addiction 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Background And Aims: To estimate during pregnancy correlations between frequency of self-reported use of marijuana, and quantified marijuana metabolite in biospecimens including urine, sera, and umbilical cord homogenate.

Design: Prospective cohort SETTING: Two urban hospitals in Colorado with legal recreational and medicinal marijuana PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women (<16 weeks' gestation) self-reporting marijuana use MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a written self-report survey and provided biospecimens at <16 weeks' gestation (n=46), 18-22 weeks' gestation (n=43), 32-36 weeks' gestation (n=39) and delivery (n=37). Self-reported marijuana use frequency was calculated based on past-month days of use multiplied by number of daily uses. Read More

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Commentary on Minhas et al.: Food addiction--the role of substance and environmental factors.

Addiction 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

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Alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe: a large-scale cross-sectional study in 21 countries.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Aims: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic.

Design: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020.

Setting: Twenty-one European countries. Read More

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Reduction in smoking prevalence and e-cigarettes: an English exception?

Authors:
Alain Braillon

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Previously Chief of the Alcohol Treatment Unit, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, France.

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Alcohol use among young Australian adults in May-June 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective cohort study.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia.

Aims: To estimate change in young people's alcohol consumption during COVID-19 restrictions in Australia in early-mid 2020, and test whether those changes were consistent by gender and level of consumption prior to the pandemic.

Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort SETTING: Secondary schools in New South Wales, Tasmania, and Western Australia.

Participants: Subsample of a cohort (n=443) recruited in the first year of secondary school in 2010-11. Read More

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Mortality in substance-induced psychosis: A register-based national cohort study.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Copenhagen Research Center for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: We aimed to analyze whether people with substance-induced psychosis (SIP), both those who convert and do not convert to schizophrenia, have higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality when compared to the general population.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Nationwide Danish registers. Read More

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Long-term follow-up assessment of opioid use outcomes among individuals with comorbid mental disorders and opioid use disorder treated with buprenorphine or methadone in a randomized clinical trial.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, WA, Seattle, USA.

Aims: To investigate whether reduction in opioid use differs when treated by either buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP) or methadone (MET) among adults with comorbid opioid use disorder (OUD) and mental disorders.

Design, Setting And Participants: In a randomized controlled trial, adults with OUD were randomized to 24 weeks of either BUP or MET treatment and were followed up in 3-yearly assessments. The present secondary analyses were based on 597 participants who completed all assessments. Read More

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Alcohol Intake and Total Mortality in 142,960 Individuals from the MORGAM Project: a population-based study.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.

Aim: To test the association of alcohol consumption with total and cause-specific mortality risk DESIGN: Prospective observational multicentre population-based study SETTING: Sixteen cohorts (15 from Europe) in the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) Project PARTICIPANTS: A total of 142,960 individuals (mean age 50±13 y, 53.9% men) MEASUREMENTS: Average alcohol intake by food frequency questionnaire. Total and cause-specific mortality FINDINGS: In comparison with lifetime abstainers, consumption of alcohol less than 10 gr/d was associated with an average 11% (95%CI: 7%-14%) reduction in the risk of total mortality, while intake >20 gr/d was associated with a 13% (7%-20%) increase in the risk of total mortality. Read More

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Changes in dependence, withdrawal, and craving among adult smokers who switch to nicotine salt pod-based e-cigarettes.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, California State University San Marcos.

Background And Aims: For e-cigarettes to be a viable substitute for combustible cigarettes, it is likely that they must be rewarding enough for regular use, indicated by factors such as craving and dependence, important aspects of reinforcement. This study aimed to understand short-term changes in measures of nicotine dependence between groups differing by use trajectory in a switching trial, and within group changes of these measures.

Design: Secondary data analysis of one arm of an e-cigarette randomized clinical trial. Read More

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Does heroin-assisted treatment reduce crime? A review of randomized-controlled trials.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Background And Aims: Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conclude that heroin-assisted-treatment (HAT) has a larger benefit-cost ratio than oral methadone because HAT more reliably and substantially reduces participants' criminal activity. This review: (1) summarizes results from RCTs concerning the comparative effectiveness of HAT for reducing criminal activity and (2) examines the role of different mechanisms for explaining changes in crime.

Design: Systematic search of five databases for RCTs evaluating comparative effectiveness of HAT on participant crime outcomes and potential mediators of crime. Read More

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Cannabis chains of influence from a US perspective.

Authors:
David H Jernigan

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, West Boston, MA, USA.

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Association Between Punitive Policies and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Among Medicaid-Insured Infants in Complex Policy Environments.

Addiction 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.

Aims: To estimate the association between punitive policies for women with substance use during pregnancy and odds of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) diagnosis among Medicaid-insured infants, and to estimate this association controlling for the presence of four other policies related to substance use in pregnancy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Analysis of live births in Medicaid claims data from 39 US states in varying years between 2006 and 2014 using weighted generalized linear models with clustered standard errors and state and year fixed effects.

Measurements: NAS rates in states without punitive policies were compared with rates in states with policies before and after policy enactment using logistic regression models adjusted for individual and county-level factors and including state and year fixed effects. Read More

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Impacts of Canada's cannabis legalization on police-reported crime among youth: early evidence.

Addiction 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Human Brain Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, Canada.

Aims: Canada's 2018 Cannabis Act allows youth (age 12-17 years) to possess up to 5 g of dried cannabis (or equivalent) for personal consumption/sharing. This study assessed whether the Cannabis Act was associated with changes in police-reported cannabis offences among youth in Canada.

Design: Time series model using national daily criminal incident data from January 1, 2015-December 31, 2018 from the Canadian Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR-2). Read More

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Coronary heart disease in mothers and fathers of adult children with alcohol use disorders.

Addiction 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University and Region Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.

Background And Aim: Having a family member with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may negatively affect a person's health. Our aim was to study the long-term risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in parents who have an offspring with AUD.

Design: Cohort study with Cox regression models and co-sibling analyses. Read More

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Changes in alcohol-related hospital visits during COVID-19 in New York City.

Addiction 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Elmhurst Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background And Aims: Increased alcohol consumption has been proposed as a potential consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There has been little scrutiny of alcohol use behaviors resulting in hospital visits, which is essential to guide pandemic public policy. We aimed to determine whether COVID-19 peak restrictions were associated with increased hospital visits for alcohol use or withdrawal. Read More

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