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    Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray for opioid overdose reversal: Phase I healthy volunteer study.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Background And Aims: Take-home naloxone can prevent death from heroin/opioid overdose, but pre-provision is difficult because naloxone is usually given by injection. Non-injectable alternatives, including naloxone nasal sprays, are currently being developed. To be effective, the intranasal (i. Read More

    A man before his time: Russell's insights into nicotine, smoking, treatment and curbing the smoking problem.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Addictions Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, UK.
    Background And Aims: This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible.

    Methods: Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. Read More

    Opioid Dependence and Pregnancy in Early Twentieth-Century America.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Centre for the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine at University of Manchester. US-UK Fulbright Commission.
    Background And Aims: Research on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome has prompted discussion over how to ensure best outcomes for pregnant women who use drugs and for drug-dependent newborns. Before Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and the 1980s panic of "crack babies," turn-of-the-century American medical journals discussed infants born to drug-using mothers. This paper aimed to determine whether women who used drugs while pregnant in early twentieth-century America were subject to the stigma many face today. Read More

    Self-Reported Marijuana Use Over 25 Years and Abdominal Adiposity: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
    Aims: We investigated the association between cumulative lifetime and current marijuana use with total abdominal adipose tissue (AT), visceral AT, subcutaneous AT, intermuscular AT, and mean liver attenuation (LA) at mid-life.

    Design: Longitudinal and cross-sectional secondary data analysis of participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    Setting: CARDIA field centers in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA, USA. Read More

    The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: Results of the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs).
    Addiction 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 418 Arnold House, MA, 01003, USA.
    Aims: To estimate the prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population.

    Design: Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data.

    Setting: Sweden. Read More

    Efficacy of a web-based intervention with and without guidance for employees with risky drinking: results of a three-arm randomized controlled trial.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Aims: To test the efficacy of a web-based alcohol intervention with and without guidance.

    Design: Three parallel groups with primary endpoint after 6 weeks.

    Setting: Open recruitment in the German working population. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of Personal Tailored Risk Information and Taster Sessions to increase the uptake of the NHS Stop Smoking Services: the Start2quit randomised controlled trial.
    Addiction 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK.
    Aims: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a two-component intervention designed to increase attendance at the NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) in England.

    Design: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial (Start2quit).

    Setting: NHS SSS and general practices in England. Read More

    The Genetic and Environmental Architecture of Substance Use Development from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin Study of Comorbidity of Alcohol, Tobacco and Illicit Drugs Use.
    Addiction 2017 Oct 22. Epub 2017 Oct 22.
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Aims: To investigate how use of alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco come from substance specific pathways and from pathways general to all three substances through adolescents' development DESIGN: Analysis of population-based survey. Adolescent twins reported alcohol use (AU), tobacco use (TU), and illicit drug use (IDU) at 3 waves (2006, 2008, 2010). Restructuring data by age allowed for variance decomposition into age and substance specific and common genetic and environmental variance components. Read More

    Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate-to-high risk gamblers.
    Addiction 2017 Oct 22. Epub 2017 Oct 22.
    Addiction, Development, and Psychopathology (ADAPT) Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background And Aims: Similar to substance addictions, reward-related cognitive motivational processes, such as selective attention and positive memory biases, have been found in disordered gambling. Despite findings that individuals with substance use problems are biased to approach substance-related cues automatically, no study has yet focused on automatic approach tendencies for motivationally salient gambling cues in problem gamblers. We tested if moderate-to-high-risk gamblers show a gambling approach bias and whether this bias was prospectively related to gambling behaviour and problems. Read More

    The need to exercise caution in accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia.
    Addiction 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia.
    The recent practice in Belgium and the Netherlands of accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia raises important issues for the field of addiction and the practice of euthanasia. In this paper we outline some of these issues. We also argue that physicians making decisions about whether to accept requests for euthanasia from people with an allegedly untreatable addiction should consider two issues carefully. Read More

    Impulsivity predicts poorer improvement in quality of life during early treatment for people with methamphetamine dependence.
    Addiction 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Methamphetamine dependence is associated with heightened impulsivity and diminished quality of life, but the link between impulsivity and changes in quality of life during treatment has not been examined. We aimed to investigate how different elements of impulsivity predict change in quality of life in the six weeks after engaging in treatment.

    Design: Longitudinal, observational cohort study. Read More

    Associations between Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Crime: A 17-year Longitudinal Cohort study of Canadian Provincial Offenders.
    Addiction 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Aims: To estimate and test the difference in rates of violent and non-violent crime during medicated and non-medicated methadone treatment episodes.

    Design, Setting And Participants: The study involved linkage of population level administrative data (health and justice) for all individuals (n=14,530) in British Columbia, Canada with a history of conviction and who filled a methadone prescription between January 1, 1998 and March 31, 2015. Methadone maintenance treatment was the primary independent variable and was treated as a time-varying exposure. Read More

    Addiction 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PB, 4404 Nydalen, 0403, Oslo, Norway.
    Aims: To examine the mortality risk in a cohort of "hard-to-reach" polysubstance users and its putative associations with substance use. Specifically, we estimated all-cause mortality risk as a function of individual substance use indicators, and then as a function of their complex, "real-life" patterns as identified through Latent Class Analysis (LCA).

    Design: Prospective cohort study among street-and low-threshold-service-recruited polysubstance users included between September and November 2013 and followed through the National Cause of Death Registry until 31 October 2015. Read More

    Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?
    Addiction 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22660, 1100DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background And Aim: As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is primarily targeted at young adolescents (under 16 years old). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have occurred.

    Design: Repeated cross-sectional survey. Read More

    How do we determine the impact of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor.
    Addiction 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    The Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies, Truth Initiative, Washington, DC, USA.
    Aims: To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction.

    Design: A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction.

    Settings: Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States. Read More

    The Effect of a Behavioral Activation Treatment for Substance Use on Post-treatment Abstinence: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Addiction 2017 Sep 30. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Aims: to compare outcomes for a behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT), versus a time and group size matched control condition delivered in a residential treatment setting.

    Design: single-site two-arm parallel-group randomized clinical trial with follow-up assessment at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment.

    Setting: residential substance use treatment facility in the USA. Read More

    Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders: a systematic review with direct and network meta-analyses on nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen and topiramate.
    Addiction 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Inserm, CIC 1414 Clinical Investigation Centre, Rennes, France.
    Background And Aims: Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is an emerging concept. Our objective was to explore the comparative effectiveness of drugs used in this indication.

    Design: Systematic review with direct and network meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in non-abstinent adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence or AUDs. Read More

    Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample.
    Addiction 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Population Research Center, Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Aim: To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking.

    Design And Setting: Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015.

    Participants: US adults aged 18 and older (n = 215 684; n = 203 562 heterosexual, n = 2784 lesbian/gay, n = 2892 bisexual, n = 686 'other' and n = 1947 don't know/unsure). Read More

    Assessing causal relationships using genetic proxies for exposures: an introduction to Mendelian randomization.
    Addiction 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Background And Aims: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Read More

    Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for a web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in middle-income countries.
    Addiction 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    Departamento de Psicobiologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidad Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background And Aims: Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use.

    Design: Two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) with follow-up 6 months after randomization. Read More

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