8,662 results match your criteria Addiction[Journal]


E-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking among European students: findings from the 2019 ESPAD survey.

Addiction 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa, Italy.

Background And Aims: Representative data on e-cigarette use among European adolescents is scanty. This study reports current vaping and tobacco smoking individual and country-specific correlates among European students.

Design: 2019 cross-sectional survey European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) collecting data on risk behaviours on a representative sample of 16 year-old students. Read More

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Behavioral economics indices predict alcohol use and consequences in young men at 4-year follow-up.

Addiction 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Psychiatry - Addiction Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: The alcohol purchase task (APT), which presents a scenario and asks participants how many drinks they would purchase and consume at different prices, generates indices of alcohol reward value that have shown robust associations with alcohol-related outcomes in numerous studies. The aim was to test its prospective validity at 4-year follow-up.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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Familial associations in Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: A Population-based Cohort Study.

Addiction 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background And Aims: Family history of substance use disorder (SUD) affects a child's risk of the disorder through both genetic and shared environmental factors. We aimed to estimate the association between parental or older sibling SUD history with the risk of adolescent SUD diagnosis.

Design, Setting And Participants: We conducted a population-based cohort study using administrative healthcare databases in the Province of Manitoba, Canada, which has a universal and publicly-funded healthcare system. Read More

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Association of Topiramate Prescribed for any Indication with Reduced Alcohol Consumption in Electronic Health Record Data.

Addiction 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Background And Aims: Topiramate is widely prescribed to treat a variety of conditions, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). We used electronic health record (EHR) data to measure topiramate's effects on drinking in individuals differentiated by a history of AUD.

Design: Parallel-groups comparison of patients prescribed topiramate and a propensity-score matched comparison group. Read More

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Commentary on Karnik et al.: Harmonization now-the need for consistent, validated measures to identify opioid use disorder in observational data.

Addiction 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

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If everything is a loot box, nothing is: Response to Xiao et al.

Addiction 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Queen Mary University of London - Centre for Intelligent Games and Game Intelligence, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, London, UK.

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Gabapentinoids: repeating mistakes of the past?

Addiction 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

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Impact of fentanyl use on initiation and discontinuation of methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone among people with prescription-type opioid use disorder: secondary analysis of a Canadian treatment trial.

Addiction 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal, QC, Canada.

Background And Aims: Fentanyl is primarily responsible for the current phase of the overdose epidemic in North America. Despite the benefits of treatment with medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), there are limited data on the association between fentanyl, MOUD type and treatment engagement. The objectives of this analysis were to measure the impact of baseline fentanyl exposure on initiation and discontinuation of MOUD among individuals with prescription-type opioid use disorder (POUD). Read More

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Mortality in the SuperMIX cohort of people who inject drugs in Melbourne, Australia: a prospective observational study.

Addiction 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Behaviours and Health Risks, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Aims: To measure mortality rates and factors associated with mortality risk among participants in the SuperMIX study, a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs.

Design: A prospective observational study using self-reported behavioural and linked mortality data.

Setting: Melbourne, Australia. Read More

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Response to commentaries on: Clarifying gambling subtypes: the revised pathways model of problem gambling.

Addiction 2022 Jul 5;117(7):2013-2014. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

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Domestication of drinking: a survey study of changes in types of drinking occasions during periods of increasing and decreasing alcohol consumption in the 2000s in Finland.

Addiction 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, c/o THL, Helsinki, Finland.

Background And Aims: In Finland, per-capita alcohol consumption increased in the early 2000s and decreased after 2007. Our aim was to determine how these changes originated from changes in drinking practices.

Design: Repeated cross-sectional general-population surveys. Read More

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High rates of resumption of injecting drug use following release from prison among men who injected drugs before imprisonment.

Addiction 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Behaviours and Health Risks Program, Public Health Discipline, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Aims: To estimate incidence of post-release injecting drug use (IDU) among men who injected drugs before imprisonment and determine factors associated with post-release IDU frequency.

Design, Setting, Participants: Prospective cohort study of men reporting monthly IDU before a period of sentenced imprisonment in Victoria, Australia, recruited between September 2014 and May 2016 (n = 195).

Measurements: Any post-release IDU and IDU frequency was measured via self-report at 3-month follow-up interview. Read More

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Trends in hospital presentations following analytically confirmed synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist exposure before and after implementation of the 2016 UK Psychoactive Substances Act.

Addiction 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.

Background And Aims: The United Kingdom (UK) Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), implemented on the 26  May 2016, made the production, supply and sale of all non-exempted psychoactive substances illegal. The aim of this study was to measure trends in hospital presentations for severe toxicity following analytically confirmed synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) exposure before and after implementation of the PSA.

Design: Observational study. Read More

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Causal inference with observational data in addiction research.

Addiction 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

National Centre for Youth Substance Use Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for making causal inferences, but RCTs are often not feasible in addiction research for ethical and logistic reasons. Observational data from real-world settings have been increasingly used to guide clinical decisions and public health policies. This paper introduces the potential outcomes framework for causal inference and summarizes well-established causal analysis methods for observational data, including matching, inverse probability treatment weighting, the instrumental variable method and interrupted time-series analysis with controls. Read More

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Investigating the cost-effectiveness of three cessation interventions on a national scale using the Economics of Smoking in Pregnancy (ESIP) decision analytical model.

Addiction 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

NIHR School for Primary Care Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Aim: To measure the cost-effectiveness of adding text message (TMB), exercise (EB) and abstinent-contingent financial incentive-based (CFIB) stop smoking interventions to standard smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England.

Design: Modelling cost-effectiveness outcomes by separately adding three cessation interventions to standard cessation care offered to pregnant women in England. English National Health Service Stop Smoking Services (NHS SSS) statistics from 2019 to 2020 were used for estimating the base quit rate. Read More

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Prices, taxes and alcohol use: a systematic umbrella review.

Addiction 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Escuela de Negocios, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile.

Aim: To measure the impact of taxes and prices on alcohol use with particular attention to the different context of rising alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries.

Methods: Systematic review: we searched MEDLINE, Embase, EconLit and LILACS, grey literature, hand-searched five specialty journals and examined references of relevant studies. We considered all reviews that included studies that quantitatively examined the relationship between alcohol prices or taxes and alcohol use. Read More

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Duration of medication treatment for opioid-use disorder and risk of overdose among Medicaid enrollees in 11 states: a retrospective cohort study.

Addiction 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background And Aims: Medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) reduces harms associated with opioid use disorder (OUD), including risk of overdose. Understanding how variation in MOUD duration influences overdose risk is important as health-care payers increasingly remove barriers to treatment continuation (e.g. Read More

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The impact of alcohol priming on craving and motivation to drink: a meta-analysis.

Addiction 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Liverpool Centre for Alcohol Research, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background And Aims: An initial dose of alcohol can motivate-or prime-further drinking and may precipitate (re)lapse and bingeing. Lab-based studies have investigated the alcohol priming effect; however, heterogeneity in designs has resulted in some inconsistent findings. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (i) determine the pooled effect size for motivation to drink following priming, measured by alcohol consumption and craving, and (ii) examine whether design characteristics influenced any priming effect. Read More

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Prevalence and self-rated health and depression of family members affected by addictive disorders: results of a nation-wide cross-sectional study.

Addiction 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Aims: To estimate the prevalence of family members affected by addictive disorders (FMA) with regard to various types of addictive disorders, and self-rated health and depression in the general population.

Design: Cross-sectional general population survey.

Setting: The German Health Update study (GEDA) 2014/2015, a nationally representative panel of German residents aged 15 years or older. Read More

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Association of opioid use disorder with healthcare utilization and cost in a public health system.

Addiction 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Israel Center on Addiction, Netanya, Israel.

Aim: To quantify the healthcare costs associated with opioid use disorder among members in a public healthcare system and compare them with healthcare costs in the general population.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Inpatient and outpatient care settings of Israel's largest public healthcare provider (that covers 4. Read More

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Prenatal areca nut consumption: overlooked aspects of a widely embraced habit.

Addiction 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Oral Medicine and Radiology, SRM Kattankulathur Dental College and Hospital, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Recreational cannabis legalization and transitions in cannabis use: findings from a nationally representative longitudinal cohort in the United States.

Addiction 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, CA, USA.

Aims: This study estimated the likelihoods of individuals transitioning to different cannabis use status following recreational cannabis legalization (RCL) in the United States.

Design: Secondary analysis of a nationally representative longitudinal cohort in the United States. We used propensity score matching to balance individual characteristics between RCL and comparison states and generalized mixed regressions to estimate behavioral transitions in matched samples. Read More

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Need for comprehensive and timely data to address the opioid overdose epidemic without a blindfold.

Addiction 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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The relationship between smokeless tobacco (snus) and anxiety and depression among adults and elderly people. A comparison to smoking in the Tromsø Study.

Addiction 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Aims: To (i) define the characteristics of snus users compared with non-users and smokers and (ii) define the relationship between snus use and self-reported anxiety and depression and compare it with the relation between smoking and anxiety and depression.

Design, Setting And Participants: A cross-sectional study based on data from the Norwegian population-based survey, the Tromsø Study (2015-16). A total of 32 591 people aged 40 years and older in the municipality of Tromsø were invited to attend. Read More

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Characterising the use of varenicline: an analysis of the Australian dispensing claims data.

Addiction 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Centre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Aims: In Australia, patterns of use of smoking cessation medications and factors associated with their dispensing are currently not known. This study aimed to measure the demographic and clinical factors associated with varenicline dispensing compared with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion among first-time users of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) subsidised smoking cessation medicines in Australia and to characterise those who discontinued varenicline treatment prematurely.

Design: Retrospective, population-based study. Read More

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