1,268 results match your criteria Acute Retinal Necrosis


The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Differential Diagnosis of Posterior Uveitis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 May 20:1-8. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Science "Luigi Sacco," Eye Clinic, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Modalities such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have improved the diagnostic utility of fundus imaging in management of uveitis. The purpose of this study is to review role of OCT and OCTA in differential diagnosis of certain posterior uveitic entities.

Methods: Narrative review. Read More

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Efficiency of Laser Photocoagulation on the Prevention of Retinal Detachment in Acute Retinal Necrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Retina 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Joint Shantou International Eye Center (JSIEC) of Shantou University & the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shantou, China.

Background: Retinal detachment (RD) is a severe complication of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), threatening vision. The published articles on the effectiveness of laser in preventing RD in ARN are controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate whether prophylactic laser is effective for RD following ARN. Read More

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A case of non-necrotising herpetic retinitis.

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) 2022 May 24;97(5):295-299. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Departamento de Atención Especializada en Úvea, Instituto Nacional de Oftalmología Dr. Francisco Contreras Campos, Lima, Peru.

In developed countries, the main etiology of posterior uveitis is of infectious origin, Herpes is the most common viral agent as it has a wide spectral of ocular manifestations. These manifestations could depend on the patient's immunologic state, ranging from a mild focal form of non-necrotizing herpetic renitis (NNHR) to a severe form of Acute retinal necrosis (ARN). We present a case of NNHR by VHS 2 and the different differential diagnostics previous to its diagnosis: atypical ocular toxoplasmosis, ocular tuberculosis and ARN. Read More

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"Vitreous Hemorrhage and Long-Lasting Priapism After COVID-19 m-RNA Based Vaccine: A Case Report".

Eur J Ophthalmol 2022 May 3:11206721221098880. Epub 2022 May 3.

Ophthalmology Unit, 9370University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Purpose: To report a case of possible multi-district thromboembolic event involving the eye of a patient with several cardiovascular risk factors, following a second inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 m-RNA based vaccine.

Case-report: A 60-year-old man presented with blurred vision in the left eye lasting 1 month but started within 24 hours from the 2 dose of BNT162b2 vaccine inoculation. He also reported a long-lasting but self-limiting priapism which started about 4 h after the vaccination. Read More

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Clinical and neuroradiologic characteristics in varicella zoster virus reactivation with central nervous system involvement.

J Neurol Sci 2022 Jun 16;437:120262. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation involving the cranial nerves and central nervous system (CNS).

Methods: This is a retrospective, multi-center case-series of 37 patients with VZV infection affecting the cranial nerves and CNS.

Results: The median age was 71 years [IQR 51. Read More

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Programmed Cell Death-Dependent Host Defense in Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Front Microbiol 2022 8;13:869064. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) remains one of the most ubiquitous human pathogens on earth. The classical presentation of HSV1 infection occurs as a recurrent lesions of the oral mucosa commonly refer to as the common cold sore. However, HSV1 also is responsible for a range of ocular diseases in immunocompetent persons that are of medical importance, causing vision loss that may result in blindness. Read More

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Acute Retinal Necrosis: Clinical Features, Diagnostic Pitfalls, Treatment, and Outcome of an Insidious Disease in Children. Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Pediatr 2022 1;10:854325. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Objective: This study aims to explore clinical features, diagnostic work-up, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and to propose a standardized management of this condition in childhood.

Methods: Clinical manifestations, diagnostic work-up, and treatment of three pediatric cases with ARN were analyzed. Furthermore, a review of the literature was performed from January 1990 to November 2021, focused on 1) clinical presentation; 2) differential diagnosis, including both infectious and non-infectious conditions; 3) key role of diagnostic techniques; and 4) currently available treatments. Read More

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[Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) acute retinal necrosis and recombinant zoster vaccine].

Rev Med Suisse 2022 Apr;18(777):714-717

Service des maladies infectieuses, Département de médecine, Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, 1211 Genève 14.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for chickenpox. Like all herpes viruses, after primary infection it enters into latency and can be reactivated afterwards. Many forms of symptomatic reactivation of VZV exist including acute retinal necrosis (ARN), an ophthalmic emergency which can lead to blindness. Read More

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Case Report: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Acute Retinal Necrosis With Viral Encephalitis in Children.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 16;9:815546. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Few cases concerning acute retinal necrosis with viral encephalitis in children have been reported, especially cases where the fundus cannot be identified due to severe vitreous opacity in the early stage that makes diagnosis difficult.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of an unusual case of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) acute retinal necrosis with viral encephalitis in an immunocompetent child, along with a review of relevant literature published up to September 2021.

Result: An 11-year-old girl presented with an approximate 20-day history of ocular redness and decreased visual acuity in the left eye. Read More

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Efficacy of prophylactic laser retinopexy in acute retinal necrosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 May 21;42(5):1651-1660. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Uveitis, Eye Hospital and School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Purpose: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of prophylactic laser retinopexy in preventing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in acute retinal necrosis (ARN).

Methods: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for eligible studies from inception to July 2020. Comprehensive clinical demographics were extracted from each study by two independent investigators. Read More

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Rare cause of left eye floaters and blurred vision in an immunocompromised patient: acute retinal necrosis (ARN).

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 2;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a clinical syndrome featuring severe vitritis and occlusive vasculitis characterised by full thickness necrotising retinitis. ARN is usually caused by an acute infection by either varicella zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, rarely cytomegalovirus (CMV). ARN often occurs in healthy adults; occasionally affecting immunocompromised patients with poor prognosis including significant visual loss and detachment of the atrophic retina regardless of antiviral treatment. Read More

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Acute Retinal Necrosis: Signs, Treatment, Complications and Outcome.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Feb 2;12(2). Epub 2022 Feb 2.

University Eye Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The Acute Retinal Necrosis (ARN) is an inflammatory, rapidly progressive necrotizing retinitis and vasculitis, most frequently caused by Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV), followed by Herpes-Simplex-Virus (HSV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV). The diagnosis is based on clinical signs that were first defined by the American Uveitis Society in 1994 that include one or more foci of retinal necrosis, rapid progression without treatment, circumferential progression, occlusive vasculopathy, and inflammatory signs of the vitreous and anterior chamber Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we included 16 eyes of 10 patients, six patients with simultaneous or delayed bilateral affection, treated for ARN. Status of disease, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, decimal), intraocular pressure (IOP), pathogen proof, therapy, and complications were evaluated at diagnosis and 3 months later. Read More

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February 2022

Optic disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment as the presenting sign of necrotizing herpetic retinitis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Mar 11;25:101423. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

West Coast Retina Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To describe an atypical case of necrotizing herpetic retinitis (NHR) that presented initially with mild anterior uveitis, optic disc swelling, and peripapillary serous retinal detachment (SRD).

Observations: A 48-year-old Asian Indian man presented with blurred central vision and pain in his left eye. Examination revealed mild anterior chamber inflammation, optic disc swelling, and a peripapillary SRD in the affected eye. Read More

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Uveo-meningeal syndrome secondary to Herpes Simplex Virus related acute retinal necrosis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Mar 9;25:101409. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, 7400 State Line Road, Prairie Village, KS, 66208, USA.

Purpose: To present a rare case of uveo-meningeal syndrome secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in a patient with acute retinal necrosis.

Observations: A 49-year-old female with a past medical history of herpes simplex encephalitis 18 years prior presented with a 3-day history of right sided headache and decreased vision of the right eye. Her visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Read More

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Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Devastating Disease Coming Back with Vengeance or Finding Its Nemesis?

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2022 Jan-Mar;17(1):123-129. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a frequent, painful, and debilitating condition caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus alongside the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Twenty-five percent of adults will develop the disease during their lifetime with the risk increasing to one in two over the age of 50. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus presents with a plethora of ocular manifestations ranging from the characteristic rash in the distribution of the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve to more severe keratouveitis, disciform keratitis, and even retinal necrosis. Read More

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January 2022

Choroidal Involvement in a Case of Acute Retinal Necrosis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 Feb 16:1-5. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Vitreo-retina and Uvea Services, Sadguru Netra Chikitsalaya, Chitrakoot, India.

Purpose: To report choroidal involvement in a case of ARN.

Case Report: A 26-year-old immunocompetent female presented with a history of decreased vision in the right eye for 4 days. The best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 3/60. Read More

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February 2022

A case of Epstein-Barr virus acute retinal necrosis successfully treated with foscarnet.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Mar 29;25:101363. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Purpose: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpes virus known to cause infectious mononucleosis and several other human disorders. Ocular EBV infections that have been reported include uveitis, retinal vasculitis, and acute retinal necrosis (ARN). ARN is usually caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Read More

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Ocular adverse events associated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: a case series and review.

Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 10. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Background/aims: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapy has been shown to improve the remission rate and survival for patients with refractory haematological malignancies. The aim of this study is to describe ocular adverse effects associated with CAR T therapy in patients with haematological malignancies.

Methods: This is a retrospective, single-institution, case series. Read More

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February 2022

Varicella Zoster Reactivation Causing Acute Retinal Necrosis following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in a Young Immunocompetent Man.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 Feb 8:1-4. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Monash Health, Clayton, Australia.

Background: Varicella zoster reactivation is an increasingly recognised event following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. In addition, various ocular inflammatory and infectious adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination have been described in the literature. This case report describes acute retinal necrosis (ARN) secondary to varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Read More

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February 2022

Risk Factors for Retinal Detachment in Acute Retinal Necrosis.

Ophthalmol Retina 2022 Feb 1. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Truhlsen Eye Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska. Electronic address:

Purpose: Retinal detachment (RD) is associated with poor visual outcomes in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). This research was undertaken to assess the risk factors for RD in ARN.

Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

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February 2022

Acute retinal necrosis from herpes simplex virus type 2: a case series.

Can J Ophthalmol 2022 Jan 31. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

University of Toronto Toronto, Ont; Kensington Vision and Research Center, Toronto, Ont; Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ont. Electronic address:

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January 2022

endogenous chorioretinitis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Mar 20;25:101283. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Ophthalmology, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: To present a case of subretinal abscess associated with pneumonia and meningitis caused by in an immunocompetent host.

Observations: A 37-year-old man presented with sub-acute painless unilateral vision loss and a white submacular elevation. Systemic evaluation revealed a lung lesion and cerebrospinal fluid evidence of infection. Read More

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Case Report: Associated Ocular Adverse Reactions With Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:823346. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

The vaccine is still the best clinical measure for effective prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The vaccine-associated ocular adverse reactions should be noted in detail among the medical community. We reported twelve eyes of 9 patients presented at the Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from March to August 2021 with ocular complaints following COVID-19 vaccination. Read More

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January 2022

A case report of isolated primary herpes-simplex virus neuroretinitis in an immunocompetent adult.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 1;22(1):47. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Centro de Oftalmología Barraquer, Muntaner 314, 08021, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Herpes simplex virus (specifically HSV-1 and HSV-2) are greatly prevalent viruses that can cause conjunctivitis, keratitis and other rarer ocular disorders such as acute retinal necrosis syndrome or neuroretinitis. We report a case of an isolated unilateral neuroretinitis with primary HSV infection in an immunocompetent adult without other related clinical features.

Case Presentation: A 60-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with sudden painless central vision loss in her left eye (best corrected visual acuity was 20/200) showing optic disc edema, submacular fluid and a delayed development of a macular star. Read More

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February 2022

Tocilizumab and Aflibercept as a Treatment Option for Refractory Macular Edema after Acute Retinal Necrosis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 Jan 21:1-4. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: The inflammatory milieu after acute retinal necrosis (ARN) may lead to a breakdown of the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and consequently to a cystoid macular edema (CME) with accumulation of intra- and subretinal fluid. Up to now, there is no established therapeutic approach for CME in ARN patients.Case report: We report a case of an immunocompetent 14-year-old female with chronic ARN-related CME, which was unresponsive to valacyclovir, prednisone and intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Read More

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January 2022

Acute retinal necrosis: time to consider double dose of Foscarnet in the first 72 hours.

Rom J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul-Sep;65(3):267-270

Department of Ophthalmology, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada, Spain.

To report a case of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and to emphasize special aspects of the management. Factors that must be considered. We present the case of an 83-year-old woman examined for acute vision loss in her left eye (LE). Read More

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January 2022

Evaluation of Infectious Uveitis at a Tertiary Referral Center in Turkey: A 31-year Retrospective Study.

Beyoglu Eye J 2021 8;6(2):115-123. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Health Scıences Ankara Ulucanlar Eye Research Hospital, Service of Uveitis and Retinal Diseases, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with infectious uveitis over time.

Methods: The records of a total of 2032 patients treated for uveitis were retrospectively analyzed and 369 eyes of 324 patients diagnosed with infectious uveitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the date of presentation. Read More

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Infliximab recovers central cone dysfunction with normal fundus in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Mar 14;25:101244. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To report the efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) on autoimmune-mediated macular cone dysfunction in a Japanese woman with ulcerative colitis (UC).

Observations: A 41-year-old woman presented with bilateral visual acuity loss and photophobia. She suffered from UC, and had been treated with prednisolone and 5-aminosalicylate since age 37. Read More

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