31,038 results match your criteria Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome


Neutrophil-targeted engineered prodrug nanoparticles for anti-inflammation.

Authors:
Jinping Shi Juan Li

FASEB J 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Advanced Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.

Inflammation response is a defense to infection induced by invading pathogen or tissue injury. However, exaggerated inflammation may cause autoimmune or inflammatory disorders, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-inflammatory agents and anti-cytokine therapy have been developed to inhibit inflammation pathways and neutralize cytokine storm, but the off-targeting delivery and damage in immune system cause systemic severe side-effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000978RRDOI Listing

High Incidence of Barotrauma in Patients with COVID-19 Infection on Invasive Mechanical Ventilation.

Radiology 2020 Jul 1:202352. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

From the Department of Radiology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY (G.M., C.Z., L.A., M.W., D.M.M., W.H.M.), NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY (N.R.), Department of Pathology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY (K.M.T.), and NYU Langone Health, New York, NY (G.M., C.Z., N.R., L.A., M.W., D.M.M., K.M.T., W.H.M.).

Background We observed a high number of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who had barotrauma related to invasive mechanical ventilation at our institution. Purpose To determine if the rate of barotrauma in patients with COVID-19 infection was greater than other patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at our institution. Methods In this retrospective study, clinical and imaging data of patients seen between 03/01/2020 and 04/06/2020 who tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced barotrauma associated with invasive mechanical ventilation were compared to patients without COVID-19 infection during the same period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020202352DOI Listing

Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor: A Biomarker for Predicting Complications and Critical Care Admission of COVID-19 Patients.

Mol Diagn Ther 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larisa, Greece.

The novel coronavirus infection has spread worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Most patients develop moderate clinical illness, but a substantial number will experience severe pneumonia, which may rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. In this population, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) could serve as a quick triage test and independent marker of clinical severity, hospital and intensive care unit admission, complications, and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40291-020-00481-8DOI Listing

P53 in lung vascular barrier dysfunction.

Vasc Biol 2020 20;2(1):E1-E2. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Basic Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana, USA.

Endothelial barrier dysfunction is the hallmark of inflammatory lung disease, including Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The purpose of the present editorial is to emphasize on recent advances in the corresponding field, as it relates to P53. This tumor suppressor protein has been shown to enhance the vascular barrier integrity via distinct molecular pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/vb-20-0004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328920PMC

Use of glucocorticoids in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

J Intensive Care 2020 30;8:43. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA.

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common and disabling disease with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The role of steroids in treating ARDS remains controversial. We aim to examine the evidence behind using glucocorticoids in the management of ARDS from the available studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-020-00464-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324774PMC

The COVID-19 Cytokine Storm; What We Know So Far.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:1446. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading global threat that has been declared as a pandemic by the WHO. COVID-19 is transmitted via droplets or direct contact and infects the respiratory tract resulting in pneumonia in most of the cases and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in about 15 % of the cases. Mortality in COVID-19 patients has been linked to the presence of the so-called "cytokine storm" induced by the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308649PMC

Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Post-Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Exposure Protects Mice From Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Toxicity.

Front Pharmacol 2020 16;11:893. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication that can ensue following infection. The enterotoxin produced by these bacteria (SEB) acts as a superantigen thereby activating a large proportion of T cells leading to cytokine storm and severe lung injury. Δ9Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive ingredient found in Cannabis sativa, has been shown to act as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308536PMC

Multiple Fatalities in a Family Cluster of COVID-19 With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Ochsner J 2020 ;20(2):134-138

Section of Intensive Care, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Ochsner Baptist, New Orleans, LA.

Cases of COVID-19 family clusters have been reported across the globe. While disease severity can vary widely, reports of severe infection leading to multiple fatalities within a family are limited. Four family members each presented to the emergency department with fever and upper respiratory symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31486/toj.20.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310175PMC
January 2020

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is upregulated by interleukin-6 via STAT3 signaling in synovial tissues.

J Rheumatol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

From the Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; Department of Pathology, Ehime University Proteo-Science Center and Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Japan. This research was funded by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number 19K18499 to S.M., 19K08908 to E.S., 17H04656 and JP20H03719 to J.M.). Sho Mokuda, MD, PhD, Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan. E-mail:

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread explosively worldwide and resulted in a pandemic of a new respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020. Symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, malaise, cough, and in severe cases, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (1,2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.200547DOI Listing

Molecular Alterations Prompted by SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Induction of Hyaluronan, Glycosaminoglycan and Mucopolysaccharide Metabolism.

Arch Med Res 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Endocrinas, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent causing COVID-19 which has infected more than 2 million people with more than 200000 deaths since its emergence in December 2019. In the majority of cases patients are either asymptomatic or show mild to moderate symptoms and signs of a common cold. A subset of patients, however, develop a severe atypical pneumonia, with the characteristic ground-glass appearance on chest x-ray and computerized tomography, which evolves into an acute respiratory distress syndrome, that requires mechanical ventilation and eventually results in multiple organ failure and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.06.011DOI Listing

Haem oxygenase protects against thrombocytopaenia and malaria-associated lung injury.

Malar J 2020 Jul 1;19(1):234. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Background: Malaria-triggered lung injury can occur in both severe and non-severe cases. Platelets may interact with parasitized erythrocytes, leukocytes and endothelium. These interactions can lead to microvessel obstructions and induce release of inflammatory mediators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03305-6DOI Listing

Immunomodulation by an Omega-6 Fatty Acid Reduced Mixed Lipid Emulsion in Murine Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 29;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

University of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), University Hospital of Giessen, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with both high morbidity and mortality in intensive care units worldwide. Patients with ARDS often require parenteral nutrition with lipid emulsions as essential components. In the present study, we assessed the immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects of a modern, n-6-reduced lipid emulsion mixture in murine ARDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072048DOI Listing

Lung ultrasound in a Singapore COVID-19 intensive care unit patient and a review of its potential clinical utility in pandemic.

J Ultrason 2020 15;20(81):e154-e158. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Seng Kang General Hospital , Singapore.

Point-of-care bedside lung ultrasound is a diagnostic adjunct in the management of respiratory diseases. We describe the clinical progress and lung ultrasound findings of a Singaporean COVID-19 intensive care unit patient who was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection. The clinical course of one COVID-19 patient managed in the intensive care unit was traced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2020.0025DOI Listing

Feasibility and Efficacy of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program in a Rehabilitation Center: CASE REPORT OF A YOUNG PATIENT DEVELOPING SEVERE COVID-19 ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME.

J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2020 Jul;40(4):205-208

IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy (Drs Pancera, Galeri, Porta, Bianchi, Carrozza, and Villafañe and Ms Pietta); and Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy (Dr Pancera).

Details Of The Clinical Case: A 51-yr-old man underwent a respiratory rehabilitation program (RRP), after being tracheostomized and ventilated due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. Respiratory care, early mobilization, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation were started in the ad hoc isolation ward of our rehabilitation center. At baseline, muscle function was consistent with intensive care unit-acquired weakness and the patient still needed mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen support. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0000000000000529DOI Listing

Sweet syndrome with pulmonary involvement in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.

Dermatol Online J 2020 Mar 15;26(3). Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

We report a patient with Sweet syndrome involving the pulmonary system in the context of myelodysplastic syndrome. Although Sweet syndrome may involve a variety of organ systems, the pulmonary system is rarely affected and can result in poor clinical outcomes, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. Both cutaneous and pulmonary symptoms respond well to systemic corticosteroid therapy and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the prognosis. Read More

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Pathological Role of Angiotensin II in Severe COVID-19.

TH Open 2020 Apr 26;4(2):e138-e144. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Haemostaseology and Haemophilia Center, Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Medical Clinic 2, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

The activated renin-angiotensin system induces a prothrombotic state resulting from the imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. Angiotensin II is the central effector molecule of the activated renin-angiotensin system and is degraded by the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 to angiotensin (1-7). The novel coronavirus infection (classified as COVID-19) is caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response that can lead to severe manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and death in a proportion of patients, mostly elderly patients with preexisting comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319800PMC

Focal EEG changes indicating critical illness associated cerebral microbleeds in a Covid-19 patient.

Clin Neurophysiol Pract 2020 10;5:125-129. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

EEG and Epilepsy Unit, Division of Neurology, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.

Objectives: We describe a patient suffering from Covid19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), highlighting the diagnostic role of the EEG in ICU.

History: A Covid-19 patient undergoing mechanical ventilation due to related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), presented altered mental status in the ICU. Video-EEG revealed a focal monomorphic theta slowing in bilateral frontal-central regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnp.2020.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286251PMC

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Fulminant Myopericarditis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in a Middle-Aged Male Patient.

Cureus 2020 Jun 24;12(6):e8808. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Oncology, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, USA.

Myopericarditis remains a prominent infectious inflammatory disorder throughout a patient's lifetime. Moreover, viral pathogens have been proven to be the leading contributors to myopericarditis in the pediatric and adult populations. Despite the current comprehensive knowledge of myocardial injury in viral and post-viral myopericarditis, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced myopericarditis are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320646PMC

Hypercytokinemia and Pathogen-Host Interaction in COVID-19.

Authors:
Alaa Badawi

J Inflamm Res 2020 23;13:255-261. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Public Health Risk Sciences Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus identified as the cause of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) that began in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and spread now in 210 countries and territories around the world. Many people are asymptomatic or with mild symptoms. However, in some cases (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities) the disease may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction that can lead to death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S259096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320995PMC

Potential Role of Nrf2 Activators with Dual Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory Properties in the Management of Viral Pneumonia.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 11;13:1735-1741. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Dermatology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has already caused a huge burden to the global healthcare system, with the death toll reached tens of thousands. Although some antiviral agents were identified and used to inhibit viral replication, the management of cytokine storm is also a critical issue. In this article, we reviewed the literature on drug candidates for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and provided a brief overview of a class of drugs that exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S256773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295331PMC

Successful treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in a patient with asthma.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2020 Jul;41(4):296-300

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Underlying lung disease, especially asthma, has recently been found to be associated with a higher risk of hospitalization with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most commonly used controller medications in patients with asthma. It is unclear whether ICS use increases the risk for severe COVID-19 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/aap.2020.41.200044DOI Listing

Coronavirus Disease Pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a Global Perspective.

Pathogens 2020 06 28;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India.

The technology-driven world of the 21 century is currently confronted with a major threat to humankind, represented by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of now, COVID-19 has affected more than 6 million confirmed cases and took 0.39 million human lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070519DOI Listing

Decompression illness type II with stroke: challenging situation in acute neurorehabilitation.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(2):105-108

Department of Neurorehabilitation, Leicester General Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom.

A professional 55-year-old female experienced diver, who surfaced after the second dive, had a lucid interval before dropping Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to 3/15. She was admitted to intensive care unit and commenced on hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Her initial computed tomography of the head was normal but her magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 48 hours showed extensive bilateral cortical watershed territory infarcts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0019DOI Listing
January 2020

Therapeutic Potential of B-1a Cells in COVID-19.

Shock 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Center for Immunology and Inflammation, The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening respiratory illness caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its clinical presentation can vary from the asymptomatic state to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction. Due to our insufficient understanding of its pathophysiology and lack of effective treatment, the morbidity and mortality of severe COVID-19 patients are high. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001610DOI Listing

A novel complete autosomal recessive STAT1 LOF variant causes immunodeficiency with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like hyperinflammation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Complete STAT1 deficiency causes a rare primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by defective IFN-dependent gene expression leading to life-threatening viral and mycobacterial infections early in life.

Objective: Characterization of a novel STAT1 loss-of-function (LOF) variant leading to pathological infection susceptibility and hyperinflammation.

Methods: Clinical, immunological and genetic characterization of a patient with severe infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-like hyperinflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.06.034DOI Listing

Corticosteroid administration for viral pneumonia: COVID-19 and beyond.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Corticosteroids are commonly used as adjuvant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by many clinicians due to their perceived anti-inflammatory effects. However, for patients with severe viral pneumonia, the corticosteroid treatment is highly controversial.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the effect and potential mechanism of corticosteroid administration in pandemic viral pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320691PMC

Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation versus conventional mechanical ventilation to treat refractory hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jun;48(6):300060520935704

Division of Respiratory Disease, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To compare the treatment outcome of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) versus mechanical ventilation in hypoxemic patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at a referral center that started offering VV-EMCO support in 2010.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled adults with severe ARDS (PaO/FiO ratio of <100 with FiO of ≥90 or Murray score of ≥3) who were admitted to the intensive care unit of Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) from January 2010 to December 2018. All patients were treated using a low tidal volume (TV) and optimal positive end-expiratory pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520935704DOI Listing

Belatacept, kidney transplantation and COVID-19: successful management of the first reported case within the United Kingdom.

Clin Transplant 2020 Jun 30:e14026. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Renal Medicine, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, United Kingdom.

Kidney transplant recipients may be at particular risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection with poor outcomes. In a recent case report it was hypothesised that kidney transplant recipients on maintenance belatacept, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) fusion protein, have a milder disease course due to belatacept mitigating the cytokine storm and resultant acute respiratory distress syndrome which have been linked to severity of COVID-19. Here we present the first reported case in the United Kingdom of a kidney transplant patient on belatacept who on the contrary developed a severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring intensive care admission and intubation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.14026DOI Listing

Clinical and Epidemiological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Patients in SARI Ward of a Tertiary Care Centre in New Delhi.

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Jul;68(7):19-26

Postgraduate Student (Medicine), ABVIMS and Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi.

Importance: Rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, prompted heightened surveillance in India. Since the first laboratory confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from Kerala on January 30, 2020 novel coronavirus infected pneumonia (NCIP) has been presenting to the hospital emergencies as severe acute respiratory illness (SARI). We aim to find out the rate of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in SARI cases and further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP in New Delhi, India. Read More

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The Risk of Diabetes on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 Jun 21;44(3):405-413. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Background: To determine the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we explored the clinical characteristics of patients with DM and compared risk factors such as age, glycemic control, and medications to those without DM.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 117 confirmed patients with COVID-19 which conducted at a tertiary hospital in Daegu, South Korea. The primary outcome was defined as the severe and critical outcome (SCO), of which the composite outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, intensive care unit care, and 28-day mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0105DOI Listing

The Definition and Risks of Cytokine Release Syndrome in 11 COVID-19-Affected Critically Ill Patients with Pneumonia: Analysis of Disease Characteristics.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Guangzhou Respiratory Health Research Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of respiratory diseases, Guangdong, China.

Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19)-affected patients with severe immune abnormalities have a risk of cytokine release syndrome. The definition, prevention, and treatment of symptoms of cytokine release syndrome in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are important problems. This was a single-center case series of 11 COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in China from January 26, 2020 to February 18, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa387DOI Listing

Association between obesity and clinical prognosis in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Jun 29;9(1):80. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Dongguan people's Hospital, Southern Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: It is well established that obesity is a disease of sustained low-grade inflammation. However, it is currently unknown if obesity plays a role in the clinical manifestations and prognosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether obesity played a role in clinical manifestations and prognosis in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00703-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322704PMC

Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy may be of value for nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: case series and systematic literature review.

BMC Pulm Med 2020 Jun 29;20(1):183. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Centre of Respiratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital; National Clinical Research Centre for Respiratory Diseases, Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 2 Yinghuayuan East Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Identification of pathologic features is helpful for the management of nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is a novel biopsy technique that may have comparable utility to surgical biopsy. The aim of this study was to assess the value of TBLC in patients with nonresolving ARDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01203-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322907PMC

COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA)-From Immunology to Treatment.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;6(2). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Clinical and Translational Fungal-Working Group, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Like severe influenza, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as an important disease that predisposes patients to secondary pulmonary aspergillosis, with 35 cases of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) published until June 2020. The release of danger-associated molecular patterns during severe COVID-19 results in both pulmonary epithelial damage and inflammatory disease, which are predisposing risk factors for pulmonary aspergillosis. Moreover, collateral effects of host recognition pathways required for the activation of antiviral immunity may, paradoxically, contribute to a highly permissive inflammatory environment that favors fungal pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6020091DOI Listing

Weathering the Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: Therapeutic Implications.

Cardiorenal Med 2020 Jun 29:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy,

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged in Wuhan, Hubei-China, as responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and then spread rapidly worldwide. While most individuals remain asymptomatic or develop only mild symptoms, approximately 5% develop severe forms of COVID-19 characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple-organ failure (MOF) that usually require intensive-care support and often yield a poor prognosis.

Summary: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 is far from being completely understood, and the lack of effective treatments leads to a sense of urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies based on pathophysiological assumptions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509483DOI Listing

The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Biomarker Pipeline: Crippling Gaps between Discovery and Clinical Utility.

Transl Res 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

College of Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences, Tucson, AZ.

Recent innovations in translational research have ushered an exponential increase in the discovery of novel biomarkers, thereby elevating the hope for deeper insights into "personalized" medicine approaches to disease phenotyping and care. However, a critical gap exists between the fast pace of biomarker discovery and the successful translation to clinical use. This gap underscores the fundamental biomarker conundrum across various acute and chronic disorders: how does a biomarker address a specific unmet need? Additionally, the gap highlights the need to shift the paradigm from a focus on biomarker discovery to greater translational impact and the need for a more streamlined drug approval process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2020.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319618PMC

TRANSFUSION THRESHOLDS FOR ADULT RESPIRATORY EXTRACORPOREAL LIFE SUPPORT: AN EXPERT CONSENSUS DOCUMENT.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine - Alberta Health Services and University of Calgary and Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary.

Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can complicate novel pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents the final possible rescue strategy. Variations in practice, combined with a paucity of rigorous guidelines, may complicate blood product resource availability and allocation during a pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.06.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319637PMC

Lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells regulated the inflammatory responses in innate and adaptive immune cells through HVEM-BTLA pathway during ARDS.

Exp Cell Res 2020 Jun 26:112155. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Shanghai, China; National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Qingpu Branch, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an organ failure syndrome caused by overactivation of the immune system. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to be effective in ARDS therapy due to their excellent immunomodulatory abilities; however, people are concerned about the safety of infusing exogenous cells. We found that rat lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells (LRMSCs) (Sca-1CD45CD31) played important roles in regulating inflammation in the lungs during the pathogenesis of ARDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112155DOI Listing

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Contribute to Immunothrombosis in COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Blood 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Molecular Medicine Program, University of Utah, United States.

COVID-19 affects millions of patients worldwide with clinical presentation ranging from isolated thrombosis to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring ventilator support. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) originate from decondensed chromatin released to immobilize pathogens and can trigger immunothrombosis. We studied the connection between NETs and COVID-19 severity and progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007008DOI Listing

The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the pathogenesis of COVID-19: the villain or the hero?

Authors:
Josef Klhůfek

Acta Clin Belg 2020 Jun 27:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pharmacy, T. Bata Regional Hospital , Zlín, Czech Republic.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is the entry receptor for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the aetiological agent of COVID-19. At the same time, ACE 2 expression decreases during COVID-19. Two seemingly contradictory relationships between the expression of ACE 2 and COVID-19 have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2020.1786324DOI Listing

Iron overload causes a mild and transient increase in acute lung injury.

Physiol Rep 2020 Jun;8(12):e14470

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Recent studies have demonstrated a strong link between acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the levels of iron and iron-related proteins in the lungs. However, the role of iron overload in ARDS development has yet to be characterized. In this study, we compared the highly iron-overloaded hepcidin knockout mice (HKO) to their iron-sufficient wild-type (WT) littermates in a model of sterile acute lung injury (ALI) induced by treatment with oropharyngeal (OP) LPS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322498PMC

The Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Virus-Induced Cytokine Storm and Its Potential Use in the Associated Severe Pneumonia.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 12;8:479. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Tumor Pathogens and Molecular Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Coronavirus infection, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2, causes daunting diseases that can be fatal because of lung failure and systemic cytokine storm. The development of coronavirus-evoked pneumonia is associated with excessive inflammatory responses in the lung, known as "cytokine storms," which results in pulmonary edema, atelectasis, and acute lung injury (ALI) or fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). No drugs are available to suppress overly immune response-mediated lung injury effectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303286PMC

The successful use of therapeutic plasma exchange for severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with multiple organ failure.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 18;8:2050313X20933473. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about an urgent need for effective treatment, while conserving vital resources such as intensive care unit beds and ventilators. Antivirals, convalescent plasma, and biologics have been used with mixed results. The profound "cytokine storm" induced endotheliopathy and microthrombotic disease in patients with COVID-19 may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and multi-organ failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20933473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303771PMC

Echocardiographic Characteristics of Subjects With COVID-19: A Case Series.

Cardiol Res 2020 Aug 3;11(4):260-265. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests in most cases with respiratory symptoms, other presentations can occur. Direct damage to the cardiovascular system has been reported and recently, acute myocardial injury has been identified as a risk factor for mortality. Transthoracic echocardiography is a non-invasive tool that allows the detection of myocardial damage with validated markers (left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/cr1084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295558PMC

Early Hemoperfusion for Cytokine Removal May Contribute to Prevention of Intubation in Patients Infected with COVID-19.

Blood Purif 2020 Jun 26:1-4. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hemoperfusion (HP) was helpful to prevent the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury (AKI), liver failure, and septic shock by removing cytokines and other inflammatory mediators and ultimately preventing progression toward multiple organ failure. A 54-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 was hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The patient's O2 saturation was 80% using an oxygen mask, which was gradually declining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509107DOI Listing

Why is SARS-CoV-2 infection more severe in obese men? The gut lymphatics - Lung axis hypothesis.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Jun 23;144:110023. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, IBD and Nutritional Support, CHU Paris Nord-Val de Seine, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France.

Consistent observations report increased severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in overweight men with cardiovascular factors. As the visceral fat possesses an intense immune activity, is involved in metabolic syndrome and is at the crossroad between the intestines, the systemic circulation and the lung, we hypothesized that it plays a major role in severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV2 presents the ability to infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract as well as the intestinal tract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308746PMC

Favorable COVID-19 course despite significant comorbidities in a ruxolitinib-treated patient with primary myelofibrosis.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pneumology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

COVID-19 carries a high risk of severe disease course, particularly in patients with comorbidities. Therapy of severe COVID-19 infection has relied on supportive intensive care measures. More specific approaches including drugs that limit the detrimental "cytokine storm", such as Janus-activated kinase (JAK) inhibitors, are being discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13480DOI Listing

Acute respiratory distress syndrome during a pandemic-an obvious diagnosis?

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jul;20(7):873

Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30468-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314448PMC

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis treated with secukinumab: a case-based review.

Rheumatol Int 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coranovirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become an important health-care issue worldwide. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has also raised concerns among patients with inflammatory rheumatic conditions and their treating physicians. There are emerging data regarding the potential risks of SARS-CoV-2 for this particular patient group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-020-04635-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319213PMC

Could there be a link between oral hygiene and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections?

Br Dent J 2020 Jun;228(12):971-975

Orthodontics, Cambridge University Hospital Trust, Cambridge, CB1 00Q, UK.

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organisation identified COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, to be a global emergency. The risk factors already identified for developing complications from a COVID-19 infection are age, gender and comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors, however, do not account for the other 52% of deaths arising from COVID-19 in often seemingly healthy individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-1747-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319209PMC