23,471 results match your criteria Acute Poliomyelitis


Polio eradication at the crossroads.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988 with anticipated completion by 2000, has yet to reach its ultimate goal. The recent surge of polio cases urgently calls for a reassessment of the programme's current strategy and a new design for the way forward. We propose that the sustainable protection of the world population against paralytic polio cannot be achieved simply by stopping the circulation of poliovirus but must also include maintaining high rates of population immunity indefinitely, which can be created and maintained by implementing global immunisation programmes with improved poliovirus vaccines that create comprehensive immunity without spawning new virulent viruses. Read More

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Coxsackievirus B4: an underestimated pathogen associated with a hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreak.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

In order to discover the causes of a coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak and to study the evolutionary characteristics of the virus, we sequenced isolates obtained during an outbreak for comparative analysis with previously sequenced strains. Phylogenetic and evolutionary dynamics analysis was performed to examine the genetic characteristics of CV-B4 in China and worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CV-B4 originated from a common ancestor in Shandong. Read More

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Immunogenicity and Safety of Inactivated Sabin-Strain Polio Vaccine "PoliovacSin": Clinical Trials Phase I and II.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 29;9(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products RAS (FSBSI "Chumakov FSC R&D IBP RAS"), 108819 Moscow, Russia.

Global polio eradication requires both safe and effective vaccines, and safe production processes. Sabin oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) strains can evolve to virulent viruses and result in poliomyelitis outbreaks, and conventional inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Salk-IPV) production includes accumulation of large stocks of neurovirulent wild polioviruses. Therefore, IPV based on attenuated OPV strains seems a viable option. Read More

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Diversity and Reassortment Rate of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Ducks and Gulls.

Viruses 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Ministry of Health, 123098 Moscow, Russia.

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) evolve via point mutations and reassortment of viral gene segments. The patterns of reassortment in different host species differ considerably. We investigated the genetic diversity of IAVs in wild ducks and compared it with the viral diversity in gulls. Read More

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Impact that the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood vaccinations and challenges ahead: A narrative review.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Aim: To document the decline in vaccination coverage in the first months of 2020 as an indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We performed a literature review in medical databases. Overall, 143 articles were initially retrieved, out of which 48 were selected and included in the review. Read More

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Total hip replacement in patient with residual poliomyelitis with neglected femoral neck fracture.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 21;14(5). Epub 2021 May 21.

Orthopaedic, Benghazi Medical Center, Benghazi, Libya

A 71-year-old man with residual poliomyelitis was referred to the orthopaedic surgeons with a neglected left femoral neck fracture of the paralytic limb. He had presented at another hospital with left groin pain and inability to weight bear 4 weeks earlier after a fall from standing height, but had delayed treatment due to his insistence on waiting until he returned to his home country.Successful treatment of residual poliomyelitis fractures requires early union as well as early mobilisation and rehabilitation. Read More

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Efforts Towards Polio Eradication in Madagascar: 1997 to 2017.

J Immunol Sci 2021 Apr;Spec Issue(2):1102

World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Congo.

Background: In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. WHO AFRO is close to achieve this goal with the last wild poliovirus detected in 2014 in Borno States in Nigeria. The certification of the WHO African Region requires that all the 47 member states meet the critical indicators for a polio free status. Read More

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Health care professionals' preference for a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent vaccine in Spain.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 16;22:101376. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Sanofi Pasteur, Calle de Martínez Villergas, 52, 28027 Madrid, Spain.

Vaccination is an effective health intervention for the prevention of infectious diseases. This study aims to evaluate the response provided by nurses toward the use of ready-to-use (RTU) formulations of hexavalent vaccines and measures to prevent errors during the vaccination process. This observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study took place from March to May 2018. Read More

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Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2019-2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 7;70(18):667-673. Epub 2021 May 7.

When the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, an estimated 350,000 poliomyelitis cases were reported worldwide. In 2020, 140 wild poliovirus (WPV) cases were confirmed, representing a 99.99% reduction since 1988. Read More

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Strategies to Reach Nomadic Children During Polio SIAs: Experience in Dadaab and Fafi Sub-Counties of Kenya after the 2013-2014 Polio Outbreak.

J Immunol Sci 2021 Apr;Spec Issue(2):1110

WHO Horn of Africa Coordination Office (HOA), Nairobi KENYA.

Background: Poliomyelitis, often called polio is a viral paralytic disease caused by Polioviruses. Although all susceptible individuals are at risk of getting infected, only about 1% become paralyzed. During the 2013 Polio Outbreak in Garissa County in Kenya, 50% of the confirmed cases were from the nomadic population although it comprises of only less than 20% of the total population in the county. Read More

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Polio Outbreak Investigation and Response in The Horn of Africa: 2013-2016.

J Immunol Sci 2021 Apr;Spec Issue(2):1104

WHO Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO).

Background: There has been civil strife, spanning more than two decades in some countries and recurrent natural disasters in the Horn of Africa (HoA). This has consistently maintained these countries in chronic humanitarian conditions. More important however is the fact that these crises have also denied populations of these countries access to access to lifesaving health services. Read More

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Subtype-specific differences in Gag-protease replication capacity of HIV-1 isolates from East and West Africa.

Retrovirology 2021 May 5;18(1):11. Epub 2021 May 5.

HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is heterogeneous with diverse unevenly distributed subtypes and regional differences in prevalence. Subtype-specific differences in disease progression rate and transmission efficiency have been reported, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been fully characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the subtypes prevalent in the East Africa, where adult prevalence rate is higher, have lower viral replication capacity (VRC) than their West African counterparts where adult prevalence rates are lower. Read More

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Occurrence of paralytic scoliosis in patients with poliomyelitis reporting at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):737-739

Foundation University Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences FUIRS, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Pakistan is one of the only three countries in the world with an enduring poliovirus transmission, making poliomyelitis an important health concern for Pakistan. Paralytic scoliosis is a common musculoskeletal dysfunction associated with poliomyelitis. To determine the occurrence of paralytic scoliosis a cross-sectional study was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from 2015 to 2018. Read More

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February 2021

Bile Acids Impair Vaccine Response in Children With Biliary Atresia.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:642546. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vaccination is the best way to protect children under 5 years from death or disability. Children with biliary atresia (BA), which is the most common pediatric cholestatic end-stage liver disease (PELD), are more vulnerable to infectious diseases. However, the vaccination coverage and factors modulating vaccine responses in children with BA are largely unknown. Read More

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Long-term persistence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies in the era of polio elimination: An Italian retrospective cohort study.

Vaccine 2021 05 28;39(22):2989-2994. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Introduction: The extensive use of oral and inactivated poliovirus (PV) vaccines has driven progress toward the global eradication of wild PV2 and PV3 and the elimination of PV1 in most countries, including Italy. Although the persistence of circulating neutralizing antibodies among the vaccinated is unclear, it is estimated that > 99% of the population vaccinated according to the recommended protocol should be protected for at least 18 years.

Methods: This study evaluated the seroprevalence of anti-PV neutralizing antibodies and the long-term immunogenicity of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in a sample of medical students and residents of the University of Bari who attended the Hygiene Department for a biological risk assessment between April 2014 and October 2020. Read More

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Locking compression plate fixation of femoral intertrochanteric fractures in patients with preexisting proximal femoral deformity: a retrospective study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Apr 29;16(1):285. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Orthopedics Trauma, Xi'an Honghui Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710054, P.R. China.

Background: To investigate the clinical efficacy of locking compression plate fixation for the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fractures in patients with preexisting proximal femoral deformity.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 37 patients with femoral intertrochanteric fractures combined with preexisting proximal femoral deformity between January 2013 and July 2019. The patients included 24 males and 13 females aged from 23 to 69 years old, with an average age of 47. Read More

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Stool Serology: Development of a Non-Invasive Immunological Method for the Detection of Enterovirus-Specific Antibodies in Congo Gorilla Faeces.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 12;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, CEDEX 05, 13005 Marseille, France.

Background: The incidence of poliovirus has been significantly reduced by as much as 99.9% globally. Alongside this, however, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has emerged. Read More

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Advax-CpG Adjuvant Provides Antigen Dose-Sparing and Enhanced Immunogenicity for Inactivated Poliomyelitis Virus Vaccines.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Vaxine Pty Ltd., Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, Australia.

Global immunization campaigns have resulted in a major decline in the global incidence of polio cases, with wild-type poliovirus remaining endemic in only two countries. Live oral polio vaccine (OPV) played a role in the reduction in polio case numbers; however, the risk of OPV developing into circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus makes it unsuitable for eradication programs. Trivalent inactivated polio virus (TIPV) vaccines which contain formalin-inactivated antigens produced from virulent types 1, 2 and 3 reference polio strains grown in Vero monkey kidney cells have been advocated as a replacement for OPV; however, TIPVs have weak immunogenicity and multiple boosts are required before peak neutralizing titers are reached. Read More

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Polio survivors have poorer walking adaptability than healthy individuals.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 21;87:143-148. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Falling is a major health problem in polio survivors, often occurring as a result of tripping, slipping or misplaced steps. Therefore, reduced walking adaptability possibly plays an important role.

Research Question: Does walking adaptability, assessed on an interactive treadmill, differ between polio survivors and healthy individuals?

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 48 polio survivors with at least one reported fall in the past year and/or fear of falling and 25 healthy individuals of similar age walked at self-selected comfortable fixed speed on an instrumented treadmill. Read More

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Overcoming vaccine deployment challenges among the hardest to reach: lessons from polio elimination in India.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 04;6(4)

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

After more than 30 years of efforts to eliminate polio, India was certified polio free by WHO in 2014. The final years prior to polio elimination were characterised by concentrated efforts to vaccinate hard-to-reach groups in the state of Uttar Pradesh, including migrant workers, religious minority Muslims and impoverished communities with poor pre-existing social support systems. This article aims to describe the management strategies employed by India to improve the deployment and acceptance of vaccines among hard-to-reach groups in Uttar Pradesh in the final years prior to polio elimination. Read More

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Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2001-2018.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.

Background: Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are predisposed to highly contagious, severe and fatal, emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), and re-emerging infectious diseases (RIDs). This paper reviews the epidemiological situation of EIDs and RIDs of global concern in the EMR between 2001 and 2018.

Methods: To do a narrative review, a complete list of studies in the field was we prepared following a systematic search approach. Read More

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Challenging definitions and diagnostic approaches for ancient rare diseases: The case of poliomyelitis.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Apr 21;33:113-127. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria.

Objective: This paper aims to contribute to the definition of ancient rare diseases in skeletons displaying pathologies associated with paralysis. It uses a new suite of methods, which can be applied to challenging cases of possible paralysis in archaeologically-derived human skeletal material, specifically applied to the identification of poliomyelitis.

Materials: An adult male skeleton from Roman Halbturn, Austria. Read More

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Interaction analysis of statistically enriched mutations identified in Cameroon recombinant subtype CRF02_AG that can influence the development of Dolutegravir drug resistance mutations.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 23;21(1):379. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

South African Medical Research Council Bioinformatics Unit, South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Rd, Bellville, P.O. Box X17, Cape Town, 7535, South Africa.

Background: The Integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), Dolutegravir (DTG), has been given the green light to form part of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by the World Health Organization (WHO). DTG containing regimens have shown a high genetic barrier against HIV-1 isolates carrying specific resistance mutations when compared with other class of regimens.

Methods: We evaluated the HIV-1 CRF02_AG IN gene sequences from Cameroon for the presence of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) against INSTIs and naturally occurring polymorphisms (NOPs), using study sequences (n = 20) and (n = 287) sequences data derived from HIV Los Alamos National Laboratory database. Read More

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Analysis of vaccination coverage of children under one year old in Roraima, Brazil, 2013-2017.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2021 19;30(2):e2020195. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Universidade Federal de Roraima, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Boa Vista, RR, Brasil.

Objective: To analyze vaccination coverage of children under 1 year old in the State of Roraima, Brazil, between 2013 and 2017, and show health professionals' perception, regarding the barriers that influence the achievement of higher vaccination coverage, 2017.

Methods: This was a descriptive study that analyzed vaccination coverage for bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), rotavirus, poliomyelitis, yellow fever, pentavalent, meningococcal C conjugate and 10-valent pneumococcal, based on data from immunization information systems. The barriers identified by the professionals were measured by a questionnaire with Likert scale answer options. Read More

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Effects of muscle strengthening and cardiovascular fitness activities for poliomyelitis survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Rehabil Med 2021 04 27;53(4):jrm00184. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Polio Australia Incorporated, University of New England, The University of Adelaide, Australia

Objective: To evaluate and assess the effectiveness of muscle strengthening and cardiovascular interventions in improving outcomes in poliomyelitis (polio) survivors.

Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for experimental and observational studies. Study selection and extraction: Screening, data-extraction, risk of bias and quality assessment were carried out independently by the authors. Read More

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Polio switch strategy: An obituary in the making?

Med J Armed Forces India 2021 Apr 28;77(2):125-128. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

DADH, HQ 41 Arty Div, C/o 56 APO, India.

India was certified free of polio in 2014. Until now, the oral polio vaccine (OPV) was being used in India. As the OPV is a live vaccine, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis may occur after its use. Read More

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Current status of poliomyelitis in Latin America.

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Dec;37(6):701-709

Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Ciudad de México, México.

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been instrumental in controlling the polio epidemic, and stands out for its safety, efficacy, ease of oral administration, and low cost. However, despite these advantages, as it is a live attenuated virus vaccine, there is the possibility of mutations that confer neurovirulence. Therefore, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is important, whether associated with live vaccines (VAPP) or vaccine-derived viruses (VDPV). Read More

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December 2020

FUS/TLS Suppresses Enterovirus Replication and Promotes Antiviral Innate Immune Responses.

J Virol 2021 05 24;95(12). Epub 2021 May 24.

Centre for Heart and Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

During viral infection, the dynamic virus-host relationship is constantly in play. Many cellular proteins, such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), have been shown to mediate antiviral responses during viral infection. Here, we report that the RBP FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) acts as a host-restricting factor against infection with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). Read More

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Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Management of Pain in Patients with Postpolio Syndrome.

Pain Res Manag 2021 20;2021:6637705. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Many patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS) experience pain. In this study, we aimed to review previous studies to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for managing pain in patients with PPS. We performed a narrative review. Read More

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