23,826 results match your criteria Acute Poliomyelitis


Methodology of Purification of Inactivated Cell-Culture-Grown SARS-CoV-2 Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, 108819 Moscow, Russia.

Various types of COVID-19 vaccines, including adenovirus, mRNA, and inactivated ones, have been developed and approved for clinical use worldwide. Inactivated vaccines are produced using a proven technology that is widely used for the production of vaccines for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, including influenza and poliomyelitis. The development of inactivated whole-virion vaccines commonly includes several stages: the production of cellular and viral biomass in cell culture; inactivation of the virus; filtration and ultrafiltration; chromatographic purification of the viral antigen; and formulation with stabilizers and adjuvants. Read More

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Epidemiological Interface of Sylvatic and Dog Rabies in the North West Province of South Africa.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 Jun 5;7(6). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

Rabies is a viral zoonosis that causes an estimated 59,000 preventable human fatalities every year. While more than 120 countries remain endemic for dog-mediated rabies, the burden is the highest in Africa and Asia where 99% of human rabies cases are caused by domestic dogs. One such rabies-endemic country is South Africa where an estimated 42 preventable human deaths occur every year. Read More

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Vaccine hesitancy, misinformation in the era of Covid-19: lessons from the past.

Ethics Med Public Health 2022 Jun 13:100812. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

: As the world has challenged/argued with the Covid-19 pandemic over the last two years, there has been an increase in vaccine misinformation. Although immunity against Covid-19 infection is limited to 4-6 months and requires at least three doses of vaccine to be maximally effective, the current vaccination campaign in industrialized countries shows that vaccinated citizens experience greater immunological protection against severe forms of the disease than unvaccinated citizens. A perusal of the literature was performed in order to reconstruct the communication methods applied in the managing of the Covid-19 pandemic; the management of the current pandemic was compared with the management of another scourge of the past: poliomyelitis. Read More

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A Brighton Collaboration standardized template with key considerations for a benefit/risk assessment for an inactivated viral vaccine against Chikungunya virus.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Brighton Collaboration, A Program of the Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, USA.

Inactivated viral vaccines have long been used in humans for diseases of global health threat (e.g., poliomyelitis and pandemic and seasonal influenza) and the technology of inactivation has more recently been used for emerging diseases such as West Nile, Chikungunya, Ross River, SARS and especially for COVID-19. Read More

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Group influence on attitudes towards polio vaccination in Pakistan: Role of group identification and perceived group support for polio vaccines.

J Pak Med Assoc 2022 May;72(5):802-806

National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad,Pakistan.

Objectives: To study the moderating role of perceived group normative support on the effect of group identification on scepticism and advocacy domains of attitude towards polio vaccination.

Methods: The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, in June 2020, and comprised adult residents of Pakistan who were approached through online platform Psytoolkit. Data was collected by means of Attitude towards Polio Vaccination Scale, Group Identification Scale, and a measure of Perceived Group Normative Support for Polio Vaccination. Read More

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Investigation of airport sewage to detect importation of poliovirus, Poland, 2017 to 2020.

Euro Surveill 2022 Jun;27(24)

Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Institute of Research, Warsaw, Poland.

BackgroundPolioviruses are human pathogens which may easily be imported via travellers from endemic areas and countries where oral polio vaccine (OPV) is still routinely used to polio-free countries. Risk of reintroduction strictly depends on polio immunisation coverage. Sustaining a polio-free status requires strategies that allow rapid detection and control of potential poliovirus reintroductions. Read More

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Vaccination With Oral Polio Vaccine Reduces COVID-19 Incidence.

Front Immunol 2022 30;13:907341. Epub 2022 May 30.

Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Global Virus Network Center of Excellence, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Effective response to emerging pandemic threats is complicated by the need to develop specific vaccines and other medical products. The availability of broadly specific countermeasures that could be deployed early in the pandemic could significantly alter its course and save countless lives. Live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) were shown to induce non-specific protection against a broad spectrum of off-target pathogens by stimulating innate immune responses. Read More

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Genetic Characterization of Novel Oral Polio Vaccine Type 2 Viruses During Initial Use Phase Under Emergency Use Listing - Worldwide, March-October 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 Jun 17;71(24):786-790. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

The emergence and international spread of neurovirulent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) across multiple countries in Africa and Asia in recent years pose a major challenge to the goal of eradicating all forms of polioviruses. Approximately 90% of all cVDPV outbreaks are caused by the type 2 strain of the Sabin vaccine, an oral live, attenuated vaccine; cVDPV outbreaks typically occur in areas of persistently low immunization coverage (1). A novel type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (nOPV2), produced by genetic modification of the type 2 Sabin vaccine virus genome (2), was developed and evaluated through phase I and phase II clinical trials during 2017-2019. Read More

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Wild poliovirus case in Malawi reinforces need to continue eradication efforts.

Authors:

Bull World Health Organ 2022 Jun;100(6):362-363

Despite recent challenges, polio eradication is tantalizingly close. Gary Humphreys reports. Read More

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Prolongation of the effect of a single dose of rocuronium in a patient with postpolio syndrome under desflurane anesthesia: a case report.

J Dent Anesth Pain Med 2022 Jun 27;22(3):233-237. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is widely known to manifest as muscle weakness in patients affected by poliomyelitis in early childhood. This is caused by the long-term overwork of motor nerves regenerated from surviving nerve cells. We report a characteristic delay in recovery from muscle relaxation after administering rocuronium to a patient with PPS under general anesthesia with desflurane. Read More

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Is Poliomyelitis Sequelae A Disadvantage for Recovery from Covid-19 ARDS: A Case Report.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2022 12;59(2):158-160. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Koç University Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, İstanbul, Turkey.

We present a case with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19 who had poliomyelitis sequelae. He was hospitalized in the intensive care unit and supported by non-invasive mechanical ventilation for 7 days. IL-6 inhibitor was administered due to cytokine storm. Read More

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Notes from the Field: Initial Outbreak Response Activity Following Wild Poliovirus Type 1 Detection - Malawi, February 2022.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 06 10;71(23):776-777. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Global Immunization Division, Center for Global Health, CDC.

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Describing post-polio syndrome.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 Jun 5;37(5):346-354. Epub 2021 May 5.

Servicio de Rehabilitación, Institut Guttmann, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Patients presenting sequelae of poliomyelitis may present new symptoms, known as post-polio syndrome (PPS).

Objective: To identify the clinical and functional profile and epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting PPS.

Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 400 patients with poliomyelitis attended at the Institut Guttmann outpatient clinic, of whom 310 were diagnosed with PPS. Read More

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Poliomyelitis amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa: Efforts, challenges and recommendations.

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health 2022 Jul-Aug;16:101073. Epub 2022 May 29.

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B152TT, UK.

Poliomyelitis is the leading infectious cause of acute flaccid paralysis among children under five years of age, caused by the Wild Poliovirus, with no medical cure other than prevention through vaccination. The advent of mass vaccination campaigns against polio disease worldwide has greatly decreased the number of global cases and limited the rate of transmission. However, the emergence of Vaccine-derived Poliovirus due to genetic reversions in the live attenuated oral polio vaccine has posed a significant impediment to global polio eradication efforts. Read More

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Active search for COVID-19 cases during integrated supportive supervision using an electronic platform to improve healthcare workers performance in Niger: the legacy of the polio eradication program.

Pan Afr Med J 2022 8;41:187. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Parow Valley 7501, Cape Town, South Africa.

The implementation of electronic data collection during supportive supervision visits (ISS) using the Open Data Kits (ODK) Collection in Niger has provided a factual basis for monitoring the performance of the Polio eradication program (PEP) and the immunization program. With the notification of the first case of COVID-19 on 19 March 2020, there was a rapid need for quality knowledge to monitor the pandemic. For the first time in Niger, we initiated a six-month (May to October 2020) joint ISS-COVID-19 surveillance program to improve and monitor healthcare workers' performance to efficiently investigate COVID-19 cases in eight provinces. Read More

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Modeling Medical Data by Flexible Integer-Valued AR(1) Process with Zero-and-One-Inflated Geometric Innovations.

Iran J Sci Technol Trans A Sci 2022 May 23:1-16. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Moka, 80837 Mauritius.

In this paper, we introduce a new stationary first-order integer-valued autoregressive process (INAR) with zero-and-one-inflated geometric innovations that is useful for modeling medical practical data. Basic probabilistic and statistical properties of the model are discussed. Conditional least squares and maximum likelihood estimators are proposed to estimate the model parameters. Read More

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Armed conflict in the world threatens the eradication of Poliomyelitis:risks of humanitarian crises.

Pathog Glob Health 2022 May 30:1-2. Epub 2022 May 30.

University Museum System of Siena (Simus), History of Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

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SARS-CoV-2 Lineage A.27: New Data from African Countries and Dynamics in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Viruses 2022 05 9;14(5). Epub 2022 May 9.

Institut Pasteur Dakar, 36 Avenue Pasteur, Dakar BP 220, Senegal.

SARS-CoV-2 is constantly evolving with lineages emerging and others eclipsing. Some lineages have an important epidemiological impact and are known as variants of interest (VOIs), variants under monitoring (VUMs) or variants of concern (VOCs). Lineage A. Read More

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Analysis of Coxsackievirus B5 Infections in the Central Nervous System in Brazil: Insights into Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity.

Viruses 2022 04 26;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) is one of the most prevalent enteroviruses types in humans and causes annual epidemics worldwide. In the present study, we explored viral genetic diversity, molecular and epidemiological aspects of CVB5 obtained from cerebrospinal fluid and stool samples of patients with aseptic meningitis or acute flaccid paralysis, information that is still scarce in Brazil. From 2005 to 2018, 57 isolates of CVB5 were identified in the scope of the Brazilian Poliomyelitis Surveillance Program. Read More

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Vaccination Coverage against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis and Poliomyelitis and Validity of Self-Reported Vaccination Status in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

J Pers Med 2022 Apr 23;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Neuroimmunology Section, Rostock University Medical Center, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, 18147 Rostock, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease with a neurodegenerative component of the central nervous system. Immunomodulatory therapy can increase the risk of infection, which is a particular risk for MS patients. Therefore, a complete vaccination status is of utmost importance as protection against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Read More

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The Meaning of Sense of Coherence (SOC) in Persons with Late Effects of Polio-A Qualitative Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 23;19(10). Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden.

Sense of Coherence (SOC), comprising comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness, is important for the sense of living a good life with Late Effects of Polio (LEoP). However, there is a lack of knowledge about the meaning of these three components. The aim of this study was to explore in-depth the meaning of SOC among persons living with LEoP, in terms of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. Read More

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Effect of bovine lactoferrin on seroconversion following polio vaccine administration in children: protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 05 24;12(5):e050849. Epub 2022 May 24.

Center of Excellence in Women & Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Introduction: The oral polio vaccine (OPV) has substantial results in eliminating wild poliovirus and the vaccine of choice in polio eradication. However, the mucosal immunity induced by the OPV is still uncertain. Literature has shown that bovine lactoferrin (BLF) is a safe and useful protein found in cow's milk with extraordinary antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory and immune-modulatory functions that help children's gut to fight against micro-organisms like poliovirus. Read More

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Correction of a Complex Foot Deformity With V and Y Osteotomy and Ilizarov Method.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2022 Feb 15. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Orthopaedic Clinic, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Many authors consider the Ilizarov method as the best choice for correction of complex multiplanar foot deformities. Fifty-one patients, for a total of 55 feet, underwent V or Y osteotomy (respectively 32 and 23), 12 were due to congenital clubfoot outcomes, 11 were from post-traumatic pathologies, 9 from hemimelia, 7 from Charcot-Marie-Tooth, 5 from poliomyelitis, 3 from spina bifida, 2 from myopathy, 2 from poly-epiphyseal dysplasia, 1 from achondroplasia, 1 from arthrogryposis, 1 patient from Charcot's foot and 1 rheumatoid arthritis. All patients were contacted to undergo AOFAS and EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Read More

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February 2022

Preventing erosion of oral polio vaccine acceptance: A role for vaccinator visits and social norms.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 20;40(27):3752-3760. Epub 2022 May 20.

Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, USA; John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: With continued challenges to the timeline for polio transmission interruption in Pakistan, including COVID-19, there is a risk of oral polio vaccine campaign fatigue among caregivers of young children. Renewed efforts to minimize oral polio vaccine acceptance erosion may be needed. This study examines the possible role of social norms in protecting against acceptance erosion and the role of vaccinators in promoting these social norms. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 restrictions and border closures on vaccine preventable diseases in Victoria, Australia, 2020-2021.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2022 May 19;46. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Health, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In 2020, Victoria introduced multiple interventions aimed at containing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examine the effect of these restrictions on other vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs).

Methods: We analysed the mandatory reporting data, notified to the Victorian Department of Health, for VPDs from January 2015 to December 2021. Read More

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[Discovery of Foci of Type-2 Poliovirus Derived from Oral Polio Vaccine in Central African Republic in 2019].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 06 20;1(2). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Ministère de la santé et de la population, service de la vaccination, République centrafricaine.

Objective: In 2019, the Central African Republic identified foci of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus 2 (PVDV2c). The objective of this work is to describe the vaccination status of children paralyzed by PVDV2c and their contacts and to assess the circulation of this strain in these contacts.

Patients And Method: The study population of this retrospective survey consists of children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and their contacts. Read More

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The role of time-varying viral shedding in modelling environmental surveillance for public health: revisiting the 2013 poliovirus outbreak in Israel.

J R Soc Interface 2022 05 18;19(190):20220006. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Environmental pathogen surveillance is a sensitive tool that can detect early-stage outbreaks, and it is being used to track poliovirus and other pathogens. However, interpretation of longitudinal environmental surveillance signals is difficult because the relationship between infection incidence and viral load in wastewater depends on time-varying shedding intensity. We developed a mathematical model of time-varying poliovirus shedding intensity consistent with expert opinion across a range of immunization states. Read More

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The impact of surveillance and other factors on detection of emergent and circulating vaccine derived polioviruses.

Gates Open Res 2021 5;5:94. Epub 2022 May 5.

Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks remain a threat to polio eradication. To reduce cases of polio from cVDPV of serotype 2, the serotype 2 component of the vaccine has been removed from the global vaccine supply, but outbreaks of cVDPV2 have continued. The objective of this work is to understand the factors associated with later detection in order to improve detection of these unwanted events. Read More

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