23,184 results match your criteria Acute Poliomyelitis


Implication of a High Risk of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence and Transmission after the Switch from tOPV to bOPV.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

WHO WPRO Regional Reference Poliomyelitis Laboratory and NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: China implemented the globally synchronized switch from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) and introduced one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) on May 1st 2016. We assessed the impact of the switch on the immunity level against poliovirus, especially type 2.

Methods: Children born between 2014 and 2017, who were brought to the hospitals in Urumqi city, Xinjiang Province in 2017 were enrolled and blood samples were collected to test for antibody titres against poliovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa386DOI Listing

HIV-1 subtype C transmitted founders modulate dendritic cell inflammatory responses.

Retrovirology 2020 Jul 2;17(1):17. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences (IBMS), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Heterosexual transmission remains the main route of HIV-1 transmission and female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases the risk of infection. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammation facilitates infection is not fully understood. In rhesus macaques challenged with simian immunodeficiency virus, dendritic cell (DC) mediated recruitment of CD4+ T cells to the FGT was critical for infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-020-00526-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331269PMC

The risks of medical complacency towards poliomyelitis.

Med J Aust 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra, ACT.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50681DOI Listing

Prevalence and risks of hepatitis E virus infection in blood donors from the Western Cape, South Africa.

Vox Sang 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a potential risk to recipients of blood transfusions. Infection with HEV poses a high risk to immunocompromised recipients with an increased likelihood of developing chronic infection. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of past and active HEV infections in donors from the Western Cape and to identify the risk factors associated with infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12966DOI Listing

Translating COVID-19 Evidence to Maximize Physical Therapists' Impact and Public Health Response.

Phys Ther 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

School of Physiotherapy, Division of Health Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sounded alarm bells throughout global health systems. Late May, 2020, over 100,000 COVID-19 related deaths were reported in the United State, the highest number of any country. This article describes COVID-19 as the next historical turning point in the physical therapy profession's growth and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzaa115DOI Listing

Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, January 2018-March 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Jun 26;69(25):784-789. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, two of the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes (types 2 and 3) have been eradicated.* Transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) remains uninterrupted only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This report summarizes progress toward global polio eradication during January 1, 2018-March 31, 2020 and updates previous reports (1,2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6925a4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316320PMC

Risk Assessment and Virological Monitoring Following an Accidental Exposure to Concentrated Sabin Poliovirus Type 3 in France, November 2018.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 22;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Centre National de Référence des Entérovirus et Parechovirus, WHO National Poliovirus Laboratory, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Groupement Hospitalier Nord, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69317 Lyon, France.

The safe and secure containment of infectious poliovirus (PV) in facilities where live PV are handled is the condition to achieve and maintain poliomyelitis eradication. Despite precautions to minimize the risk of release of PV from such facilities to the environment, breaches of containment have already been documented. Here, we report the management of an incident that occurred on 30 November 2018 in a French vaccine manufacturing plant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020331DOI Listing

THE RISK OF BONE FRACTURES IN POST-POLIOMYELITIS PATIENTS TRANSITIONING TO MIDDLE ADULTHOOD.

Endocr Pract 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Endocrine Institute.

While osteoporotic fractures are reported in up to 40% of adults with post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), clinical guidelines regarding bone mineral density (BMD) and indications for treatment are scarce. We investigated the characteristics of PPS patients, focusing on fractures and osteoporosis as the primary outcomes. A cross-sectional retrospective data analysis from medical records of 204 PPS patients regarding their clinical characteristics and long-term outcome, with emphasis on bone metabolism status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2020-0102DOI Listing

Control of vaccine preventable diseases in Australian infants: reviewing a decade of experience with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Vaccine and Immunisation Research Group (Virgo), University of Melbourne, School of Population and Global Health and Murdoch Children's Research Institute , Melbourne, Australia.

The combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, Infanrix Hexa, GSK) has been used for childhood immunization in Australia according to a two-, four-, six-month schedule since 2009. We reviewed data available in the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, annual vaccination coverage reports, the Database of Adverse Event Notifications, and peer-reviewed literature to assess vaccine coverage rates, incidence of all six vaccine preventable diseases, and the safety profile of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Australian infants over a period of ten years of exclusive use. Between 2009 and 2018 vaccine coverage for infants aged 12 months increased from 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1764826DOI Listing

Post-Polio Syndrome Causing Late Onset Respiratory Failure.

Isr Med Assoc J 2020 Jun;22(6):395-396

Department of Internal Medicine C, Shamir Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel.

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Self-reported impairments among people with late effects of polio: a Mixed-methods study.

J Rehabil Med 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. E-mail:

Objective: To determine how much people with late effects of polio (LEoP) are bothered by various impairments and their influence on everyday life.

Design: A mixed-methods design.

Subjects/patients: Seven women and 7 men (mean age 70 years) with LEoP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2706DOI Listing

[Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Ivory Coast between 2007 and 2016: Significance and epidemiological profile of non-poliovirus enteroviruses].

Sante Publique 2019 November December;31(6):837-843

Introduction: Côte d'Ivoire's status as a polio-free country requires high quality surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of non-poliovirus enteroviruses found in the surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in Côte d'Ivoire and to study their distribution according to individual characteristics and associated factors.

Method: We conducted an exhaustive descriptive and analytical cross-sectional retrospective study on 3597 cases of acute flaccid paralysis notified in the context of surveillance of AFP from 2007 to 2016 in Côte d'Ivoire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.196.0837DOI Listing

Impact of Lamivudine-Based Antiretroviral Treatment on Hepatitis B Viremia in HIV-Coinfected South Africans.

Viruses 2020 Jun 11;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

HIV and Hepatitis Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and National Health Laboratory Service, MEDUNSA, Pretoria 0204, South Africa.

This prospective study investigated the impact of lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) on HIV-positive patients in South Africa with baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Follow-up samples from 56 HBV/HIV co-infected patients, 25 with occult HBV infection (OBI) and 31 with chronic HBV infection (CHB), were available for analysis. HBV viral loads were quantified at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-ART initiation by the COBAS TaqMan HBV Test 48 assay, and the HBV polymerase gene was amplified with an in-house nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060634DOI Listing

Corticomotor Excitability in Two Kinds of Motor Neuron Diseases: A Study on the Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Poliomyelitis Survivors.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Neurology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To examine upper motor neuron functions comparatively in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and poliomyelitis survivors using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) methods.

Methods: Single- and paired-pulse TMS with conventional methods and the triple-stimulation technique were performed by recording from the abductor digiti minimi and abductor pollicis brevis muscles in 31 patients with ALS, 18 patients with poliomyelitis survivors, and 21 controls. Nine patients were diagnosed as having postpoliomyelitis syndrome after a 6-month follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNP.0000000000000707DOI Listing

Estimating population immunity to poliovirus in Lebanon: Results from a seroprevalence survey, 2016.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 1;38(31):4846-4852. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Introduction: Circulation of poliovirus in neighboring countries and mass population movement places Lebanon at risk of polio and other vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. Determining population immunity levels is essential for guiding program planning and implementation of targeted supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in governorates and subpopulations with low seroprevalence.

Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage cluster survey was conducted during February-December 2016 in all six governorates of Lebanon adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Expanded Progamme on Immunization (EPI) methodology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.052DOI Listing

Prosocial polio vaccination in Israel.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 26;117(23):13138-13144. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520.

Regions with insufficient vaccination have hindered worldwide poliomyelitis eradication, as they are vulnerable to sporadic outbreaks through reintroduction of the disease. Despite Israel's having been declared polio-free in 1988, a routine sewage surveillance program detected polio in 2013. To curtail transmission, the Israel Ministry of Health launched a vaccine campaign to vaccinate children-who had only received the inactivated polio vaccine-with the oral polio vaccine (OPV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1922746117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293608PMC

Environmental surveillance complements the case-based AFP surveillance in the polio endgame strategy.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention; Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 16992 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong, 250014, People's Republic of China

The Polio Endgame Strategy 2019-2023 has been developed. However, more effective and efficient surveillance activities should be conducted with the preparedness of emergence for vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) or wild poliovirus (WPV). We reviewed the impact of the case-based acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance (1991-2018) and environmental surveillance (2011-2018) in polio eradication in Shandong province of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00702-20DOI Listing

Uncovering the First Atypical DS-1-like G1P[8] Rotavirus Strains That Circulated during Pre-Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction Era in South Africa.

Pathogens 2020 May 20;9(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Next Generation Sequencing Unit, Division of Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

Emergence of DS-1-like G1P[8] group A rotavirus (RVA) strains during post-rotavirus vaccination period has recently been reported in several countries. This study demonstrates, for the first time, rare atypical DS-1-like G1P[8] RVA strains that circulated in 2008 during pre-vaccine era in South Africa. Rotavirus positive samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281366PMC

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2018-2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 May 22;69(20):623-629. Epub 2020 May 22.

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988, the number of polio cases worldwide has declined approximately 99.99%; only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) have never interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission (1). The primary means of detecting poliovirus circulation is through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years with testing of stool specimens for WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) (genetically reverted strains of the vaccine virus that regain neurovirulence) in World Health Organization (WHO)-accredited laboratories (2,3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6920a3DOI Listing

[Poliomyelitis in the Spanish press (1960-1975)].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2020 May 21;94. Epub 2020 May 21.

Facultad de Enfermería y Podología. Universidad de Valencia. Valencia. España.

Objective: Vaccination has been one of the most effective preventive measures to reduce the number of diseases that affect humans. The primary objective of this study is to describe the informative treatment of polio in the written press at a time when it was of great importance.

Methods: From the digital newspaper archive of the ABC and La Vanguardia newspapers, all the information in which the concept "polio", published during the period between 1960 and 1975 was selected. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Revaccination against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Hepatitis B Virus in a Prospective Cohort of Adult Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France; Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, INSERM U1111, Université́ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Univ Lyon, Lyon, France; INSERM, F-CRIN, Innovative Clinical Research Network in Vaccinology (I-REIVAC), Paris Cedex, France.

Data on immunogenicity and safety of the recommended revaccination schedule against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and hepatitis B in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients are limited. This prospective single-center cohort study (April 2014 to March 2018) included adult allo-HSCT recipients referred to a dedicated vaccinology consultation and vaccinated with the pediatric combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B virus, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP(±HB)-IPV-Hib) vaccine (3 doses 1 month apart, booster dose 1 year later). The proportion of responders to tetanus, diphtheria, Hib, and hepatitis B vaccine and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibodies were assessed before and up to 24 months after vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.006DOI Listing

Infant vaccine co-administration: review of 18 years of experience with GSK's hexavalent vaccine co-administered with routine childhood vaccines.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 May 18;19(5):419-443. Epub 2020 May 18.

GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: The benefits of vaccine co-administration include improved vaccine acceptance and uptake resulting in an increased coverage and protection against multiple childhood diseases, with minimal medical visits. The diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis- type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) has been available for more than 19 years and is recommended for co-administration with several other infant vaccines.

Areas Covered: This is a comprehensive review (34 studies, 21,000 participants) describing the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib when co-administered with 12 different vaccines in infants including pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1758560DOI Listing
May 2020
4.210 Impact Factor

CD4 Deficiency Causes Poliomyelitis and Axonal Blebbing in Murine Coronavirus-Induced Neuroinflammation.

J Virol 2020 Jul 1;94(14). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, India

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a murine betacoronavirus (m-CoV) that causes a wide range of diseases in mice and rats, including hepatitis, enteritis, respiratory diseases, and encephalomyelitis in the central nervous system (CNS). MHV infection in mice provides an efficient cause-effect experimental model to understand the mechanisms of direct virus-induced neural-cell damage leading to demyelination and axonal loss, which are pathological features of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common disabling neurological disease in young adults. Infiltration of T lymphocytes, activation of microglia, and their interplay are the primary pathophysiological events leading to disruption of the myelin sheath in MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00548-20DOI Listing

A Forgotten Episode of Marburg Virus Disease: Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1967.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2020 May 13;84(2). Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute of Virology, Vaccines and Sera "Torlak," Belgrade, Serbia

SUMMARYIn 1967, several workers involved in poliomyelitis vaccine development and production fell ill at three different locations in Europe with a severe and often lethal novel disease associated with grivets () imported from Uganda. This disease was named Marburg virus disease (MVD) after the West German town of Marburg an der Lahn, where most human infections and deaths had been recorded. Consequently, the Marburg episode received the most scientific and media attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.00095-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233485PMC

Biomedical Research in Times of Emergency: Lessons From History.

Ann Intern Med 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (J.B.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-2076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233188PMC

A game-theoretical analysis of poliomyelitis vaccination.

J Theor Biol 2020 Aug 1;499:110298. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-2014, USA. Electronic address:

Poliomyelitis is a worldwide disease that has nearly been eradicated thanks to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Nevertheless, the disease is currently still endemic in three countries. In this paper, we incorporate the vaccination in a two age-class model of polio dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110298DOI Listing

Reflections on Modeling Poliovirus Transmission and the Polio Eradication Endgame.

Risk Anal 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Kid Risk, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA.

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners engaged modelers during the past nearly 20 years to support strategy and policy discussions and decisions, and to provide estimates of the risks, costs, and benefits of different options for managing the polio endgame. Limited efforts to date provided insights related to the validation of the models used for GPEI strategy and policy decisions. However, modeling results only influenced decisions in some cases, with other factors carrying more weight in many key decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/risa.13484DOI Listing

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the distal femoral and talar cartilage thicknesses in patients with poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional observational study.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Sequelae of poliomyelitis, coupled with asymmetric impairment and weight- bearing, typically alter walking biomechanics which can be associated with the knee and ankle osteoarthritis.

Aim: We aimed to investigate whether the distal femoral and talar cartilage thicknesses were different in patients with poliomyelitis.

Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.20.06127-4DOI Listing

Mucosal immunity and the eradication of polio.

Science 2020 04;368(6489):362-363

Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, VA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8588DOI Listing

Update on Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks - Worldwide, July 2019-February 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Apr 24;69(16):489-495. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) can emerge in areas with low poliovirus immunity and cause outbreaks* of paralytic polio (1-5). Among the three types of wild poliovirus, type 2 was declared eradicated in 2015 (1,2). The use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV; types 1, 2, and 3 Sabin strains) ceased in April 2016 via a 1-month-long, global synchronized switch to bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3 Sabin strains) in immunization activities (1-4). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6916a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188410PMC

Phylogenetic characteristics and molecular epidemiological analysis of novel enterovirus EV-B83 isolated from Tibet, China.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 20;10(1):6630. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

WHO WPRO Regional Polio Reference Laboratory, National Labortory for Poliomyelitis and National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Biosafety, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Enterovirus B83 (EV-B83) is a new member of the enterovirus B group. Currently, there are only two full-length genomic sequences of EV-B83 in the GenBank database and few VP1 region sequences. The aetiology and epidemiology of EV-B83 is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63691-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171079PMC

Vaccines for Older Travelers.

Authors:
Wolfgang Jilg

Interdiscip Top Gerontol Geriatr 2020 9;43:158-181. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany,

People who travel to countries where they are at risk of contracting specific infections often need specific vaccines. To make correct recommendations in this respect several points have to be considered. The state of health of the traveler should be known as well as his or her destination and travel style. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504492DOI Listing

Childhood infections, vaccinations, and tonsillectomy and risk of first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination in the Ausimmune Study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jul 18;42:102062. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The association between childhood vaccinations and infections and risk of multiple sclerosis is unclear; few studies have considered age at vaccination/infection.

Objective: To explore age-related associations between childhood vaccinations, infection and tonsillectomy and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination.

Methods: Data on case (n = 275, 76. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102062DOI Listing

Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2018.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 Apr 15;44. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia.

Australia monitors its polio-free status by conducting surveillance for cases of AFP in children less than 15 years of age, as recommended by the WHO. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2018, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.26DOI Listing

Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2017.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 Apr 15;44. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia.

Australia monitors its polio-free status by conducting surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2017, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.32DOI Listing

Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2016.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 Apr 15;44. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia.

Australia monitors its polio-free status by conducting surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2016, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.25DOI Listing

Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2015.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 Apr 15;44. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia.

Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the main method to monitor its polio-free status. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2015, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.24DOI Listing

Preconception helminth infection alters offspring microbiota and immune subsets in a mouse model.

Parasite Immunol 2020 Apr 11:e12721. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Both maternal microbiota and helminth infection may alter offspring immunity but the relationship between these is underexplored. We hypothesized that maternal helminth exposure prior to pregnancy has lasting consequences on offspring intestinal microbiota and consequent immunity. Female BALB/c adult mice were infected with 500L3 Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N brasiliensis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12721DOI Listing
April 2020
2.143 Impact Factor

Public health strategies adopted to manage the increase of accesses to vaccination services, as a result of the application of the law 119/2017.

Acta Biomed 2020 Apr 10;91(3-S):35-40. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

University of Palermo - Department of Health Promotion, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (PROMISE).

Background And Aim Of The Work: In response to the alarming reduction of vaccination coverage rates, Italian Ministry of Health approved the law number 119/2017, which has extended the number of mandatory vaccinations, for school attendance, from four to ten. The present study aims to evaluate accesses to the vaccination services of the Palermo Local Health Unit (LHU) and the variation of the vaccination coverage rates for hexavalent and measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccines, after the implementation of the law 119/2017.

Methods: An extent of opening hours and an involvement of other health-care professionals in the vaccination services of the Palermo LHU have been adopted to manage the excess of accesses after the introduction of 119/2017 law and to limit the discomfort of general population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i3-S.9413DOI Listing

Pandemic brings mass vaccinations to a halt.

Authors:
Leslie Roberts

Science 2020 04;368(6487):116-117

Leslie Roberts is a science writer in Washington, D.C.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.368.6487.116DOI Listing

[Areas with declining vaccination coverage for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR in Brazil (2006-2016): maps of regional heterogeneity].

Cad Saude Publica 2020 6;36(4):e00015619. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil.

Immunization is known to be one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, resulting in the eradication and control of various diseases in the world. However, Brazil has experienced a worrisome drop in vaccination coverage, associated with the resurgence of various previously controlled or eradicated diseases. This study thus conducted a situational diagnosis weighing Brazil's different regions and time trends in vaccination coverage in order to identify areas with reduction in vaccination coverage for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00015619DOI Listing

The case for replacing live oral polio vaccine with inactivated vaccine in the Americas.

Lancet 2020 04;395(10230):1163-1166

Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30213-0DOI Listing

Polio Policy-Reaffirmed With Reference & Data Updates.

Authors:

Pediatrics 2020 04;145(4)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0581DOI Listing

Spatio-temporal games of voluntary vaccination in the absence of the infection: the interplay of local versus non-local information about vaccine adverse events.

Math Biosci Eng 2019 11;17(2):1090-1131

International Prevention Research Institute, 95 Cours Lafayette 69006 Lyon, France.

Under voluntary vaccination, a critical role in shaping the level and trends of vaccine uptake is played by the type and structure of information that is received and used by parents of children eligible for vaccination. In this article we investigate the feedbacks of spatial mobility and the spatial structure of information on vaccination dynamics, by extending to a continuous spatially structured setting existing behavioral epidemiology models for the impact of vaccine adverse events (VAEs) on vaccination choices. We considered the simplest spatial setting, namely classical 'Fickian' diffusion, and focused on the noteworthy case where the infection is absent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2020058DOI Listing
November 2019

Assessment of immunity to polio among Rohingya children in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 2018: A cross-sectional survey.

PLoS Med 2020 03 31;17(3):e1003070. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: We performed a cross-sectional survey in April-May 2018 among Rohingya in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, to assess polio immunity and inform vaccination strategies.

Methods And Findings: Rohingya children aged 1-6 years (younger group) and 7-14 years (older group) were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling in makeshift settlements and simple random sampling in Nayapara registered camp. Surveyors asked parents/caregivers if the child received any oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in Myanmar and, for younger children, if the child received vaccine in any of the 5 campaigns delivering bivalent OPV (serotypes 1 and 3) conducted during September 2017-April 2018 in Cox's Bazar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108688PMC

Isolation and Characterisation of Alongshan Virus in Russia.

Viruses 2020 Mar 26;12(4). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Biology of Arboviruses, Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, FSBSI Chumakov FSC R&D IBP RAS, 108819 Moscow, Russia.

In recent decades, many new flavi-like viruses have been discovered predominantly in different invertebrates and, as was recently shown, some of them may cause disease in humans. The Jingmenvirus (JMV) group holds a special place among flaviviruses and flavi-like viruses because they have a segmented ssRNA(+) genome. We detected Alongshan virus (ALSV), which is a representative of the JMV group, in ten pools of adult ticks collected in two geographically-separated Russian regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232203PMC

Assessment of Exercise Stroke Volume and Its Prediction From Oxygen Pulse in Paralympic Athletes With Locomotor Impairments: Cardiac Long-Term Adaptations Are Possible.

Front Physiol 2019 8;10:1451. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

The determinants of cardiac output (CO) during exercise, i.e., stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR), could differ in Paralympic athletes (PAthl) with spinal cord injury (SCI) with respect to PAthl with locomotor impairments caused by different health conditions (HCs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079670PMC
January 2020