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    16465 results match your criteria Acute Liver Failure

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    FK866 attenuates acute hepatic failure through c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent autophagy.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 19;7(1):2206. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Graduate School, Southern Medical University, 1023 Shatai Nan Road, Guangzhou, 510515, China.
    FK866 exhibits a protective effect on D-galactosamine (GaIN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver failure (ALF), but the mechanism by which FK866 affords this benefit has not yet been elucidated. Autophagy has a protective effect on acute liver injury. However, the contribution of autophagy to FK866-conferred hepatoprotection is still unclear. Read More

    'Targeting the gut-liver axis in liver disease'.
    J Hepatol 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    University College London, Institute of Hepatology, London, UK.
    The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis. Read More

    Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Jun;130(11):1320-1326
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China.
    Background: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak.

    Methods: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. Read More

    Levocarnitine and vitamin B complex for the treatment of pegaspargase-induced hepatotoxicity: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Oncol Pharm Pract 2017 Jan 1:1078155217710714. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    4 Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Asparaginase is a chemotherapeutic agent that is commonly used in combination with other medications for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. An adverse effect of asparaginase includes hepatotoxicity, which can lead to severe liver failure and death. Several reports have documented successful treatment of asparaginase-induced hepatotoxicity using levocarnitine (l-carnitine) and vitamin B complex. Read More

    Forsaken Foregut: Case Report of Simultaneous Black Esophagus and Ischemic Cholangiopathy.
    Case Rep Med 2017 24;2017:8362613. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Dalhousie University, 1276 South Park Street, Rm 483 Bethune Building, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 2Y9.
    Black esophagus or acute esophageal necrosis rarely occurs after severe hemodynamic compromise or low-flow states. Other contributing factors may include corrosive injury from gastric contents and diminished mucosal repair mechanisms. Ischemic cholangitis, another rare clinical entity, is also usually the result of a significant vascular and/or hypotensive insult to the biliary tree. Read More

    The Protective Effect of Cordycepin on D-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury.
    Mediators Inflamm 2017 28;2017:3946706. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing 100193, China.
    As the major active ingredient of Cordyceps militaris, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) has been well documented to alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. To explore the potential protective effect of cordycepin in fulminant hepatic failure, mice were pretreated with cordycepin for 3 weeks followed by D-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Then we found cordycepin (200 mg/kg) administration elevated survival rate, improved liver function, and suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis in mice with severe hepatic damage by GalN/LPS treatment. Read More

    Cholesterol metabolites alleviate injured liver function and decrease mortality in an LPS-induced mouse model.
    Metabolism 2017 Jun 15;71:83-93. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University/McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23249, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Oxysterol sulfation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many biological events. Its products, 25-hydroxycholesterol 3-sulfate (25HC3S) and 25-hydroxycholesterol 3, 25-disulfate (25HCDS), have been demonstrated to be potent regulators of lipid metabolism, inflammatory response, cell apoptosis, and cell survival. In the present study, we tested these products' potential to treat LPS-induced acute liver failure in a mouse model. Read More

    Role of circulating microRNAs in liver diseases.
    World J Hepatol 2017 Apr;9(12):586-594
    Sven H Loosen, Florian Schueller, Christian Trautwein, Sanchari Roy, Christoph Roderburg, Department of Medicine III, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs regulate gene expression by inhibiting the turnover of their target mRNAs. In the last years, it became apparent that miRNAs are released into the circulation and circulating miRNAs emerged as a new class of biomarkers for various diseases. In this review we summarize available data on the role of circulating miRNAs in the context of acute and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma. Read More

    Acute Yellow Phosphorus Poisoning Causing Fulminant Hepatic Failure with Parenchymal Hemorrhages and Contained Duodenal Perforation.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Apr;21(4):238-242
    Department of Radiology, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    White phosphorus is well known as a potent hepatotoxin and a severe local and systemic toxin causing damage to gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiovascular, and renal systems. It is used in the manufacture of matches, fireworks, rodenticide, and fertilizers. Death results due to acute liver failure. Read More

    Association between MFN2 gene polymorphisms and the risk and prognosis of acute liver failure: a case-control study in a Chinese population.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 May 15;50(6):e5758. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, China.
    This study aimed to determine the role of mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene polymorphisms in the risk and prognosis of acute liver failure (ALF). A total of 298 blood samples were collected from 138 ALF patients (case group) and 160 healthy participants (control group). Coagulation function, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), total bilirubin (TB), blood ammonia and lactic acid (LA) were measured. Read More

    High sodium continuous veno-venous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation and online dialysate generation in patients with acute liver failure and cerebral edema.
    Hemodial Int 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Introduction: Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate. Induction of plasma hypertonicity with mannitol or hypertonic saline remains the cornerstone in the management of resultant cerebral edema. Significant disadvantages of this approach include poor or unpredictable control of serum sodium concentration and volume expansion, among others. Read More

    Role and regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by nitric oxide in hepatic stellate cells during acute liver failure.
    Liver Int 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Institution of Hepatology, First Affiliated Teaching Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, 710061, P.R.China.
    Background & Aims: We previously found that hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation induced by autophagy maintains the liver architecture to prevent collapse during acute liver failure (ALF). Nitric oxide (NO) has shown to induce HSC apoptosis. Whether and how NO is involved in ALF and autophagy remains unclear. Read More

    Immune Dysfunction in Cirrhosis.
    J Clin Transl Hepatol 2017 Mar 10;5(1):50-58. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Sri Aurobindo Medical College and Post Graduate Institute, Indore, India.
    Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction leads to alterations in both innate and acquired immunity, due to defects in the local immunity of liver as well as in systemic immunity. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction is a dynamic phenomenon, comprised of both increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency, and is responsible for 30% mortality. Read More

    Heart Disease and the Liver: Pathologic Evaluation.
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2017 Jun;46(2):421-435
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, PH 15 West, Rm 1574, New York, NY 10032-3725, USA. Electronic address:
    Liver injury due to acute and chronic heart failure has long been recognized. This article discusses the concepts of acute cardiogenic liver injury (ACLI) and cardiac or congestive hepatopathy (CH) along with their clinical manifestations and sequelae. Histologically, ACLI manifests as centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, whereas CH is associated with centrilobular hepatocyte atrophy, dilated sinusoids, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, progressing to bridging fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. Read More

    Hepatitis E Virus and the Liver: Clinical Settings and Liver Pathology.
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2017 Jun;46(2):393-407
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University and University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, Zurich 8091, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, now increasingly recognized also in nonendemic regions. Clinical manifestation of hepatitis E includes mostly asymptomatic/subclinical presentations or acute, self-limiting hepatitis, but also potentially fatal liver failure or chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals. Accordingly, hepatitis E histolpathologic patterns range from an unremarkable histology over acute (cholestatic) hepatitis with variable degree of necrosis to chronic hepatitis with fibrosis. Read More

    Drug-induced Liver Injury: The Hepatic Pathologist's Approach.
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2017 Jun;46(2):273-296
    Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, Room 2S235, MSC 1500, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    The evaluation of liver biopsies in suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can be complex. The biopsy may be approached systematically, by identification of histologic lesions and then identification of the overall pattern of injury. Potential DILI must be separated from concomitant non-DILI liver disease. Read More

    Ameliorative effects of rutin on hepatic encephalopathy-induced by thioacetamide or gamma irradiation.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2017 May 8;172:20-27. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a syndrome resulting from acute or chronic liver failure. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of rutin on thioacetamide (TAA) or γ-radiation-induced HE model. Animals were received with TAA (200mg/kg, i. Read More

    Is there a role for ischaemic conditioning in cardiac surgery?
    F1000Res 2017 25;6:563. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, UK.
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the revascularisation strategy of choice in patients with diabetes mellitus and complex CAD. Owing to a number of factors, including the ageing population, the increased complexity of CAD being treated, concomitant valve and aortic surgery, and multiple comorbidities, higher-risk patients are being operated on, the result of which is an increased risk of sustaining perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) and poorer clinical outcomes. Read More

    Fulminant hepatic failure due to metastatic choroidal melanoma.
    Caspian J Intern Med 2017 ;8(1):59-62
    Department of Internal Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Background: Acute liver failure (ALF) as a consequence of metastatic disease is extremely uncommon. The liver is the most commonly affected organ by metastatic disease, but only a few cases of ALF in the setting of metastatic choroidal melanoma have been reported.

    Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 47-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain, progressive jaundice, and unintentional weight loss. Read More

    Risk Factors and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 May 21;353(5):452-458. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Liver Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF); however, few studies concerning the risk factors and recovery patterns of renal function have been published.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of 150 patients with HBV-ACLF was performed. The occurrence, risk factors and functional recovery of AKI among patients with HBV-ACLF were investigated. Read More

    Reversal of bioenergetics dysfunction by diphenyl diselenide is critical to protection against the acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.
    Life Sci 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Campus UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Physiopathological conditions such as acute liver failure (ALF) induced by acetaminophen (APAP) can often impair the mitochondrial bioenergetics. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] has been shown protects against APAP-induced ALF. The present study aimed to clarify the signaling mechanism involved in the protection of bioenergetics dysfunction associated with ALF-induced by APAP overdose. Read More

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells slow disease progression of acute-on-chronic liver failure.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2017 May 10;91:776-787. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Cell Engineering Laboratory, La Paz University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, IDiPAZ, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    A serious complication of chronic hepatic insufficiency is acute-on-chronic liver failure, a recognized syndrome characterized by acute decompensation of cirrhosis and organ/system failure. We investigated the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in an experimental model of acute-on-chronic liver failure, developed by microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis in rats. Rats undergoing microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis were treated by intraparenchymal liver injection of human or rat AD-MSCs, undifferentiated or previously differentiated in vitro toward the hepatocyte lineage. Read More

    Adipocyte Fatty-Acid Binding Protein is Overexpressed in Cirrhosis and Correlates with Clinical Outcomes.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 12;7(1):1829. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are small intracellular proteins that coordinate lipid-mediated processes by targeting metabolic and immune response pathways. The aim of the study was to investigate plasma FABPs levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in cirrhosis. Plasma levels of L-FABP1(liver and kidney), I-FABP2(intestine), and A-FABP4(adipocyte and macrophages) were measured in 274 patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Read More

    [CMV associated acute liver failure in a patient receiving tocilizumab for systemic lupus erythematosus].
    Z Gastroenterol 2017 May 12;55(5):467-472. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Klinik II, Abteilung Gastroenterologie und Endokrinologie, Universitätsmedizin Rostock Zentrum für Innere Medizin, Rostock, Germany.
    A 41-year-old female patient was admitted because of febrile jaundice and acute liver failure. The quick and the bilirubin were 21 % and 258 µmol/l, and there was hepatic encephalopathy I°. AST and AP had a maximum of 612 and 215 U/l. Read More

    Interleukin-22 Prevents Microbial Dysbiosis and Promotes Intestinal Barrier Regeneration Following Acute Injury.
    Shock 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    *Alcohol Research Program †Burn & Shock Trauma Research Institute ‡Department of Surgery §Department of Microbiology and Immunology ||Integrative Cell Biology Program ¶Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Division, Maywood, IL, USA **Laboratory of Liver Diseases, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established. Read More

    Clinical utility of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in hemophagocytic syndromes: a systematic scoping review.
    Ann Hematol 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2775 Laurel St, 10th Floor Room 10245, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada.
    The serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2r) level is considered an important diagnostic test and disease marker in hemophagocytic syndromes/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HPS/HLH). However, this cytokine receptor is rarely measured in clinical practice and has been excluded from recent diagnostic/classification criteria such as the HScore and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) 16. We performed a systematic scoping review of 64 articles (1975-2016) examining the clinical utility of sIL-2r in HPS/HLH. Read More

    The Diagnosis-Wide Landscape of Hospital-Acquired AKI.
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France;
    Background And Objectives: The exploration of electronic hospital records offers a unique opportunity to describe in-depth the prevalence of conditions associated with diagnoses at an unprecedented level of comprehensiveness. We used a diagnosis-wide approach, adapted from phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), to perform an exhaustive analysis of all diagnoses associated with hospital-acquired AKI (HA-AKI) in a French urban tertiary academic hospital over a period of 10 years.

    Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: We retrospectively extracted all diagnoses from an i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside) clinical data warehouse for patients who stayed in this hospital between 2006 and 2015 and had at least two plasma creatinine measurements performed during the first week of their stay. Read More

    Is the Hepatic Factor a miRNA that maintains the integrity of pulmonary microvasculature by inhibiting the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor?
    Curr Cardiol Rev 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Congenital Heart Center, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, Grand Rapids, MI . United States.
    The "hepatic factor," a molecule or group of molecules present in the hepatic venous blood, essential for the prevention of the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and right-to-left shunting has been a conceptual enigma in the understanding of many related conditions. Patients with various forms of liver diseases including acute hepatic failure, and others with normal hepatic function like hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inflammatory and parasitic disorders, cardiogenic hepatopulmonary syndrome (cHPS) and skin disorders like Dyskeratosis congenita are all known to cause PAVMs. Over a period of the last two decades our understanding of the pathogenesis of PAVMs has changed, but the mechanisms are still not clearly understood. Read More

    [Changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine].
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2017 Apr;25(4):291-296
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Guizhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Guiyang 550004, China.
    Objective: To investigate the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure and identify characteristic bacteria, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acute liver failure with intestinal microbiota disorders. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were used in this study, including 25 mice in the model group and 5 mice in the control group. An acute liver failure model was induced by D-galactosamine. Read More

    Lethal pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to Leptospira infection transmitted by pet rat.
    IDCases 2017 28;8:84-86. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, Heart Center, University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Human infection with Leptospira interrogans can be life-threatening. Multiple organ involvement frequently presents with liver and kidney failure, less commonly including severe hemolysis and pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome. Here, we present a fulminant case of leptospirosis presenting with hemolysis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Read More

    [Gastrointestinal bleeding and acute hepatic failure by leptospirosis: an entity that should not be forgotten].
    Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2017 Jan-Mar;37(1):96-99
    Servicios de Aparato Digestivo, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia. Valencia, España.
    Leptospirosis disease is caused by the spirochete Leptospira. It is a worldwide distribution zoonosis, with predominance in the tropics. In Spain, it is not frequent but some cases have been noticed especially in humid areas surrounded by rivers, lakes or ponds, such as Catalonia, Andalucia or the Valencian Community. Read More

    Immediate postoperative management and complications on the intensive care unit.
    Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2017 May;78(5):273-277
    Senior Lecturer in Perioperative and Critical Care Medicine, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2QG, and Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London.
    The postoperative management of patients immediately after liver transplantation requires knowledge of this complex surgery and the physiology that accompanies liver failure. A multidisciplinary approach to the care of these patients is essential in order to reduce postoperative complications and preserve function in the transplanted organ. By their nature, patients undergoing liver transplantation have complicated medical problems before surgery which must be borne in mind when managing them after surgery. Read More

    Liver transplantation: need, indications, patient selection and pre-transplant care.
    Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2017 May;78(5):252-259
    Consultant Hepatologist, Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London.
    Chronic or acute liver failure and primary liver cancers can be effectively managed with liver transplantation. The range of indications for liver transplantation is increasing but there is a mismatch between the numbers of available donations and current needs. Specific criteria for listing patients exist but, at minimum, the predicted mortality without transplantation must exceed that with transplantation, coupled with a 50% predicted 5-year survival following liver transplantation. Read More

    Prolonged Survival Following Pig-to-Primate Liver Xenotransplantation Utilizing Exogenous Coagulation Factors and Co-Stimulation Blockade.
    Am J Transplant 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Center for Transplantation Sciences, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Since the first attempt in 1968, survival following pig-to-primate liver xenotransplantation (LXT) has been limited. We evaluated a model utilizing α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout donors, continuous post-transplant infusion of human prothrombin concentrate complex and immunosuppression including anti-thymocyte globulin, FK-506, methylprednisone and co-stimulation blockade (belatacept, n=3 or anti-CD40mAb, n=1) to extend survival. Baboon #1 remained well until POD25 when euthanasia was required due to cholestasis and plantar ulcers. Read More

    Increased risk of portal vein thrombosis in patients with autoimmune hepatitis on the liver transplantation waiting list.
    Clin Transplant 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Liver Transplant Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Liver transplantation (LT) is indicated in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) for both acute presentation with liver failure and end-stage chronic liver disease. Few studies have suggested an association between AIH and coagulation disorders and a higher incidence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with AIH listed for LT. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of thrombotic complications, particularly PVT, in a cohort of 37 patients undergoing LT because of AIH. Read More

    A predictive formula of coma onset and prothrombin time to distinguish patients who recover from acute liver injury.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.
    Background & Aim: Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as acute liver injury (ALI) associated with coagulopathy. A follow-up strategy for ALI and characterization of ALI patients with a risk of progressing to ALF have never been established. To establish predictive markers for progression from ALI to ALF, we compared the clinical characteristics and laboratory data on the day of registration to data from a regional referral system of patients with ALI. Read More

    Severe symptomatic acute hyponatremia in traumatic brain injury responded very rapidly to a single 15 mg dose of oral tolvaptan; a Mayo Clinic Health System hospital experience - need for caution with tolvaptan in younger patients with preserved renal function.
    J Renal Inj Prev 2017 1;6(1):26-29. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    North East London NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Tolvaptan is now well established as a potent pharmaceutical agent for symptomatic hyponatremia from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis. Previous studies had recruited older (63-65 years) patients with mild renal impairment (serum creatinine, 1.3-1. Read More

    Long-Term Cardiac Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Aortic Valve Disease Following Liver Transplantation: A Case Matching Study.
    Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2017 May 1:1089253217708034. Epub 2017 May 1.
    1 Department of Anesthesiology, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Introduction: This retrospective study examined the role of aortic valve (AV) disease in patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) to determine the incidence of postoperative cardiac morbidity and mortality when compared with a matched control group without AV disease.

    Methods: Patients were included in the AV group if diagnosed with aortic stenosis (AS) or aortic regurgitation or had received AV replacement prior to OLT. The AV group (n = 53) was matched to a control group (n = 212) with the following preoperative variables: type of organ transplanted, age, gender, race, body mass index, MELD, redo-transplantation, preoperative renal replacement therapy, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, viral hepatitis, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Read More

    Risk of different precipitating events for progressing to acute-on-chronic liver failure in HBV-related cirrhotic patients.
    J Dig Dis 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, 145 Middle Shandong Road, Shanghai, 200001, China.
    Objective: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct syndrome that develops in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation (AD). This study focused on the precipitating events (PEs) of HBV related cirrhotic ACLF diagnosed by CLIF-OF score.

    Methods: 890 hospitalized HBV related cirrhotic patients with AD were retrospectively included from Renji hospital, Shanghai, China. Read More

    [Extracorporeal therapies in hepatic diseases].
    Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Klinik für Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Deutschland.
    Acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure have different underlying causes and are associated with hepatic or extrahepatic organ failure. Depending on etiology, up to 20% of critically ill patients suffer from hepatic dysfunction, which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of extracorporeal procedures including renal replacement therapies, artificial and bioartificial liver support, and plasma exchange are used in the management of patients with liver diseases. Read More

    Blockade of Neutrophil's Chemokine Receptors CXCR1/2 Abrogate Liver Damage in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.
    Front Immunol 2017 24;8:464. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Neutrophils serve as critical players in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are required for neutrophil chemotaxis to the site of inflammation/injury and are crucial in hepatic inflammatory response. However, key mechanism of neutrophil-mediated liver injury in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) remains highly elusive; which could be targeted for the development of new therapeutic interventions. Read More

    [Therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rg1 in treating acute hepatic failure in mice].
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2017 Mar;25(3):217-222
    Department of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.
    Objective: To examine the regulatory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) on endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effect on hepatocellular apoptosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: Forty healthy, adult male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into normal saline control (NS) group, G-Rg1 blank control (G-Rg1) group, CCl(4) model (CCl(4)) group, and G-Rg1 preventive treatment (CCl(4)+G-Rg1) group, and an ALF mouse model was established by CCl(4) induction. Blood and liver specimens were collected from all mice upon sacrifice at 12 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Read More

    [Protective effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation in mice with acute liver failure].
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2017 Mar;25(3):211-216
    Beijing You'an, Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.
    Objective: To investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling pathway in acute liver failure and related mechanisms in a mouse model of acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS). Methods: C57BL/6 mice were given intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN/LPS to establish a mouse model of acute liver failure. SB216763 was used to inhibit the activity of GSK3β and PPARα siRNA was used to inhibit the expression of PPARα. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate acute liver injury by altering ratio between IL-17 producing and regulatory NKT cells.
    Liver Transpl 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    University of Kragujevac, Serbia, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Microbiology and immunology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research.
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are, due to immunomodulatory characteristics, considered as novel agents in the treatment of immune-mediated acute liver failure. Although it is known that MSCs can regulate activation of T lymphocytes, their capacity to modulate function of neutrophils and NKT cells, major interleukin (IL)-17 producing cells in acute liver injury, is still unknown. By using two well established murine models of neutrophil and NKT cell mediated acute liver failure (induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) and alphagalactoceramide (α-GalCer)), we investigated molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in MSC-mediated modulation of IL-17 signaling during acute liver injury. Read More

    Post-transplant withdrawal of lamivudine results in fatal hepatitis flares in kidney transplant recipients, under immune suppression, with inactive hepatitis B infection.
    Afr Health Sci 2016 Dec;16(4):1094-1100
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the consequences of lamivudine withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients, under immunosuppression, with inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

    Introduction: HBV infection is more frequent in kidney transplant recipients than in the general population mainly due to the high risk of acquisition during dialysis, before kidney transplantation.

    Methods: The records of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients, where lamivudine was withdrawn after transplantation along with reduction in immunosuppressant dose, admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2012, were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

    Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2017 May 4;105:448-455. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Virbac Corporation, Ft. Worth, TX, USA.
    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Read More

    Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive Mac-2-binding protein level increases in patients with acute liver injury.
    J Gastroenterol 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Applied Life Science, Institute of Biomedical and Health Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.
    Background: Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive human Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel serum glycomarker for liver fibrosis. However, it is not known whether or not M2BPGi reflects only liver fibrosis. We measured serum M2BPGi levels in patients with acute liver injury. Read More

    Imaging of hepatic toxicity of systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer centre: chemotherapy, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, molecular targeted therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
    Clin Radiol 2017 May 2. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Imaging, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure. Read More

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