21,415 results match your criteria Acute Liver Failure

Bacterial Infection Related Acute on Chronic Liver Failure: the standpoint matters!

J Hepatol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology "Prof. Dr. Octavian Fodor," Anesthesia and Intensive Care Department, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu," Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care I, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

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A Case of COVID-19 Complicated by Venous Thromboembolism Despite Being on Prophylactic Anticoagulation.

J Med Cases 2020 Jul 18;11(7):189-191. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents with variable clinical syndromes, from asymptomatic disease to acute respiratory failure. Complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), secondary infection, acute cardiac injury, liver failure, renal failure, coagulable disorders and in many cases, death have been recognized. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) was found to be present in up to one-third of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Spatial Reconstruction of the Early Hepatic Transcriptomic Landscape after an Acetaminophen Overdose using Single-cell RNA Sequencing.

Toxicol Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

An acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. A hallmark characteristic of APAP hepatotoxicity is centrilobular necrosis. General, innate mechanisms such as lower amounts of GSH and higher Cyp2e1 expression in pericentral (PC) hepatocytes are known to contribute to the differences in susceptibility to cell injury between periportal (PP) hepatocytes and PC hepatocytes. Read More

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Effect of dihydromyricetin on hepatic encephalopathy associated with acute hepatic failure in mice.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):557-564

Department of Gastroenterology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China.

Context: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric disease caused by liver failure. Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is a traditional medicine used to treat liver injury.

Objective: To investigate the effects of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on hepatic encephalopathy associated with acute hepatic failure mice models established by thioacetamide (TAA) exposure. Read More

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December 2021

Clinical impact of sexual dimorphism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Liver Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Gastroenterology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, Largo del Pozzo, 71, 41125, Modena, Italy.

NAFLD/NASH is a sex dimorphic disease, with a general higher prevalence in men. Women are at reduced risk of NAFLD compared to men in fertile age, whereas after menopause women have a comparable prevalence of NAFLD as men. Indeed, sexual category, sex hormones and gender habits interact with numerous NAFLD factors including cytokines, stress, and environmental factors and alter the risk profiles and phenotypes of NAFLD. Read More

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Reply to: "Acute-on-chronic liver failure in East-Asia: an underestimated issue with limited data".

Gut 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Depatment of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA

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Liver involvement in adult-onset Still's disease: our experience in a third level liver unit and review of the literature.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Molinette Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy -

Background: Adult-onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory condition, mainly characterized by high spiking fevers, leukocytosis, skin rash, arthralgia and myalgia. Liver involvement is a frequent feature, usually presenting with hepatomegaly and mild liver enzymes abnormalities, which usually normalize after treatment with anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory drugs given for AOSD. Although uncommon, the onset of severe acute hepatitis and even of life-threatening liver failure is possible and requires a prompt diagnosis and an aggressive therapy and, in some cases, an emergency liver transplantation. Read More

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Case review of severe acute radiation syndrome from whole body exposure: concepts of radiation-induced multi-organ dysfunction and failure.

Koichi Tanigawa

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i15-i20

Futaba Medical Center, Fukushima Prefecture.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to whole body exposure (WBE) presents various clinical pictures, occasionally leading to fatal consequences. In this report, the literature providing details of the clinical course of severe ARS owing to WBE is reviewed and the lessons learned from recent accidents are discussed, to better prepare for another radiological event. Studies investigating radiological accidents that provided details of medical care for severe ARS were searched in official reports from the International Atomic Energy Agency and through the databases of PubMed, Medline, CiNii and Google Scholar and reviewed. Read More

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Excellent Outcome in Living Donor Liver Transplantation Treating Acute on Chronic Liver Failure patients.

Liver Transpl 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Liver Transplantation Center and Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Introduction: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a fatal condition and liver transplantation is a vital option for these patients. However, the result of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for ACLF is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of LDLT in patients with ACLF as compared to patients without ACLF. Read More

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An unexpected line of defense: hepatoprotective eosinophils in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Hepatology 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Hepatology & Gastroenterology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum and Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany.

Liver transplantation is a highly successful treatment for patients with acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease and primary hepatic malignancies. However, due to organ shortage, early allograft failure and a concomitant rise in chronic liver diseases, the number of patients requiring liver transplantation is disproportionately higher than organs successfully transplanted. To meet the growing demand, extended criteria donor organs (e. Read More

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Successful treatment of amiodarone-induced hepatic injury with n-acetylcysteine: A case report.

Indian J Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Feb;53(1):60-62

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lokman Hekim University, Ankara, Turkey.

Intravenous amiodarone treatment may cause hepatic toxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a powerful antioxidant, reduces the level of free radicals by increasing glutathione levels, and is used in acetaminophen intoxication. An 83-year-old female Caucasian patient who had congestive heart failure and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted to the hospital with palpitations and confusion. Read More

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Paracetamol poisoning: a population-based study from Iceland.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 May 11:1-8. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Landspítali, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Objective: To examine the incidence and severity of paracetamol poisoning in a population-based cohort in Iceland. A previous study showed a decrease in the incidence during a financial crisis in Iceland, by approximately half (16/100,000 annually). The aims of the study were to assess the incidence and nature of paracetamol poisoning after economic recovery in Iceland and to compare intentional and accidental poisoning. Read More

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Autoimmune Processes Involved in Organ System Failure Following Infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:355-368

Biological Safety and Security, Frederick, MD, USA.

During the COVID-19 pandemic associated with high incidence, transmissibility, and mortality, this chapter focuses on three phases of the disease: initial exposure, initiation of the immune response to the agent, and finally, an inflammatory/autoimmune-like presentation with pulmonary, neurological, and renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation which occurs in a small proportion of the patients. The elegant demonstration of the site of interaction between the spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of COVID-19, and the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 receptor of cells distributed throughout the body has enabled research efforts to develop pharmacological and immune countermeasures to the viral phase of the disease. This chapter rapidly reviews the molecular and structural organization of SARS-CoV-2 and its interaction with ACE2. Read More

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Acute on chronic liver failure by SARS-CoV-2 in active alcohol use disorder cirrhotic patient: a case report.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy.

World Gastroenterology Organization define acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) a syndrome in patients with chronic liver disease with or without previously diagnosed cirrhosis, characterized by acute hepatic decompensation resulting in liver failure and one or more extrahepatic organ failures, associated with increased mortality up to three months. A-56-year-old gentleman with alcohol related liver cirrhosis (ARLC) and history of variceal bleeding with insertion of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent shunt presented with two days history of fever, dry cough and worsening of the sensory. The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharingeal C-reactive protein test was positive. Read More

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Valproic acid for myoclonic epilepsy in POLG1 carriers can be fatal.

Josef Finsterer

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):17-18

Klinik Landstrasse, Messerli Institute, Vienna, Austria.

With interest we read the article by Tarka et al. about the autopsy findings of an 8-year-old female with mitochondrial disorder (MID) due to the compound heterozygous variants c.2243G>C and c. Read More

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January 2021

Fresh Frozen Plasma Transfusion in Acute Variceal Hemorrhage: Results from a Multicenter Cohort Study.

Liver Int 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion is often used in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH) despite best practice advice suggesting otherwise.

Objective: We investigated if FFP transfusion affects clinical outcomes in AVH.

Design, Setting And Patients: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 244 consecutive, eligible patients admitted to 5 tertiary health care centers between 2013 - 2018 with AVH. Read More

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Patients with cirrhosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: Current evidence and future perspectives.

World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(13):2951-2968

Department of Emergency Medicine, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global public health emergency. Patients with cirrhosis were deemed more susceptible to viral infection because of their dysregulated immune response. Similar to the general population, cirrhotic patients exhibit various degrees of COVID-19-related liver injury, which could be attributed to direct virus cytotoxicity, systemic immune system activation, drug-related liver injury, reactivation of pre-existing liver disease, and hypoxic hepatitis. Read More

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Cholestasis and behavioral disorders.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(2):95-107

Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acute and chronic failure in liver function may give rise to cognitive and non-cognitive impairments in the brain, namely hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Liver diseases may cause cholestasis, which is defined as the impaired secretion of bile. It is characterized by the accumulation of substances in plasma that are normally excreted in bile such as bile acids. Read More

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January 2021

Potential Networks Regulated by MSCs in Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure: Exosomal miRNAs and Intracellular Target Genes.

Front Genet 2021 23;12:650536. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe syndrome associated with high mortality. Alterations in the liver microenvironment are one of the vital causes of immune damage and liver dysfunction. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been reported to alleviate liver injury via exosome-mediated signaling; of note, miRNAs are one of the most important cargoes in exosomes. Read More

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Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi Formula Suppresses RIPK1/RIPK3-Complex-Dependent Necroptosis of Hepatocytes Through ROS Signaling and Attenuates Liver Injury and .

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:658811. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is described as a characteristic of acute jaundice and coagulation dysfunction. Effective treatments for ACLF are unavailable and hence are urgently required. We aimed to define the effect of Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi Formula (YQJPF) on liver injury and further examine the molecular mechanisms. Read More

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Association of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 3 Receptor Antagonists With the Prognosis of Liver Failure.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:648736. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Liver failure is a severe clinical syndrome with high mortality. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) can reduce liver damage in animal models. We investigated whether 5-HT3RAs may improve the prognosis of liver failure. Read More

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Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with a large pseudocyst of the pancreas as the first manifestation: a rare case report and literature review.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 8;21(1):208. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas with pseudocysts, especially diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), is extremely rare.

Case Presentation: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our department for abdominal distension. Two months ago, he experienced abdominal pain for 1 day and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis in another hospital. Read More

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Evaluation of cardiovascular events in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib in the clinical practice. The CARDIO-SOR study.

Liver Int 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Liver Unit, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

Background And Aims: The effectiveness of systemic treatment in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on the selection of patients, management of cirrhosis complications and expertise to treat adverse events. The aims of the study are to assess the frequency and management of cardiovascular events in HCC patients treated with sorafenib (SOR) and to create a scale to predict the onset of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).

Method: observational retrospective study with consecutive HCC patients treated with SOR between 2007 and 2019 in a western centre. Read More

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Indication of Liver Transplantation in the Treatment of Newly Categorized Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure In Japan.

Transplant Proc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepato-Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe City, Hyogo, Japan.

Aim: This study aims to validate Japanese diagnostic criteria for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and confirm the feasibility of performing transplantation.

Methods: We included 60 patients with acute liver injury. Demographic and clinical features were retrospectively collected, and the primary outcome was compared among 4 types: acute liver failure (ALF) with hepatic coma (n = 23), ALF without hepatic coma (n = 12), acute liver injury (n = 20), and ACLF (n = 5). Read More

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Loss of FOXO Transcription Factors in the Liver Mitigates Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia.

Mol Metab 2021 May 5:101246. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Physiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Objective: Stress-induced hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcomes in nearly all critical illnesses. This acute elevation in glucose after injury or illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality including multiple organ failure. Stress-induced hyperglycemia is often attributed to insulin resistance as controlling glucose levels via exogenous insulin improves outcomes, but mechanisms are unclear. Read More

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Treatment of liver failure post one anastomosis gastric bypass by revising to normal anatomy: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;82:105914. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome are global health problems. Significant weight loss after bariatric surgery can cause a substantial difference in those comorbidities in obese patients. In this case, we described a rare complication of a patient who developed acute liver failure after an uneventful one anastomosis gastric bypass treated conservatively and revision of the one anastomosis gastric bypass to normal anatomy. Read More

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Tissue-Based SARS-Cov-2 Detection in Fatal COVID-19 Infections: Sustained Direct Viral-Induced Damage is Not Necessary to Drive Disease Progression.

Hum Pathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departments of Pathology, Molecular and Cell-Based Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although viral infection is known to trigger inflammatory processes contributing to tissue injury and organ failure, it is unclear whether direct viral damage is needed to sustain cellular injury. An understanding of pathogenic mechanisms has been handicapped by the absence of optimized methods to visualize the presence and distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in damaged tissues. Read More

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Propranolol-induced hallucinations mimicking encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 May 7:1-3. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, gastroenterology and hepatology unit, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, which is mostly characterized by psychomotor slowing. However, psychotic symptoms such as visual and olfactory hallucinations may sometimes also be present. In contrast, auditory hallucinations are uncommon in chronic liver disease. Read More

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Colchicine and the heart.

Eur Heart J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

GenesisCare, 3/140 Mounts Bay Rd, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Colchicine is a unique, sophisticated anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for decades for the prevention of acute inflammatory flares in gout and familial Mediterranean fever. In recent years, clinical trials have demonstrated its potential in a range of cardiovascular (CV) conditions. Colchicine is avidly taken up by leucocytes, and its ability to bind to tubulin and interfere with microtubular function affects the expression of cytokines and interleukins, and the ability of neutrophils to marginate, ingress, aggregate, express superoxide, release neutrophil extracellular traps, and interact with platelets. Read More

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Predictive Value of Blood Ammonia in the Prognosis of Acute Liver Failure Evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;32(2):164-168

Critical Care Center, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: To investigate the predictive value of blood ammonia (BLA) quantification in the prognosis of acute liver failure (ALF).

Methods: Seventy-one patients with ALF were enrolled and BLA concentration was measured in all patients. After following up for 28 days, patients were divided into two groups: the surviving group (n = 21) and the deceased group (n = 50). Read More

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February 2021