1,187,657 results match your criteria Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis


Use of “Months of the Year Backwards” (MOTYB) as a Screening Tool for Delirium in Palliative Care Patients in the Acute Hospital Setting

Ir Med J 2018 09 10;111(8):801. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

University Hospital Waterford

Introduction Delirium is common in palliative care. It effects up to 88% of patients with advanced cancer at end of life and has a point prevalence of 20% in the acute hospital setting across all diagnoses. It is under diagnosed and not optimally treated. Read More

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September 2018

Cognitive training benefit depends on brain injury location in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living.

Aim: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence. Read More

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December 2018

Application of Daphnia magna for Nanoecotoxicity Study.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:345-352

Key Laboratory of Occupational Safety and Health, Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Daphnia magna (D. magna), an aquatic invertebrate, is the most commonly used test organism in ecotoxicological studies on manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). Although standard protocols for undertaking acute and chronic toxicity tests of dissolved chemicals with D. Read More

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January 2019

Chemical compositional standards for non-lead hunting ammunition and fishing weights.

Authors:
Vernon G Thomas

Ambio 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

The chemical composition of non-lead, non-toxic, gunshot used for hunting waterfowl is regulated only in Canada and the USA. No nation regulates the composition of non-lead fishing weights, rifle bullets, and gunshot used for upland game hunting. Compositional criteria for these non-lead products are proposed here, based on established experimental toxicity protocols. Read More

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December 2018

Serum Retinol, Vitamin D and Zinc Levels in Under Five Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

Indian J Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Nalanda Medical College, Patna, 800013, India.

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December 2018

Use, timing and outcome of coronary angiography in patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in daily clinical practice: insights from a 'real world' prospective registry.

Neth Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Isala Heart Centre, Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Background: An early invasive strategy (EIS) is recommended in high-risk patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), defined as coronary angiography (CAG), within 24 h of admission. The aim of the present study is to investigate guideline adherence, patient characteristics associated with timing of the intervention and clinical outcome.

Methods: In a prospective registry, the use and timing of CAG and the characteristics and clinical outcome associated with timing were evaluated in high-risk ACS patients. Read More

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December 2018

Single-center experience using the 3MAX or 4MAX reperfusion catheter for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with distal arterial occlusions in patients not eligible for intravenous fibrinolysis.

Radiol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention (NINT), Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico "Santa Maria alle Scotte", Viale M. Bracci 2, Siena, Italy.

Background: In acute stroke, distal cerebrovascular occlusions can be linked to severe clinical symptoms, and treatment by mechanical thrombectomy may have an important clinical impact. When intravenous fibrinolytic therapy is firmly contraindicated, it remains the only treatment option.

Methods: A total of 42 patients with isolated distal arterial occlusions and absolute contraindication for intravenous fibrinolytic therapy were retrospectively included. Read More

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December 2018

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and hypofractionated volumetric modulated arc therapy for elderly patients with breast cancer: comparison of acute and late toxicities.

Radiol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Radiation Oncology, Cancer Care Center, Ospedale Sacro Cuore don Calabria, via Don Sempreboni 5, 37034, Negrar, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate the differences between conventional fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated (HypoRT) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in elderly women affected by early-stage breast cancer (BC) in terms of RT-related acute/late side effect.

Materials And Methods: Between October 2011 and July 2015, 80 consecutive elderly BC patients were treated with IMRT for 5 weeks (40 patients) or HypoRT-VMAT for 3 weeks (40 patients). Inclusion criteria were: age ≥ 70 years, early BC (pT1-2 pN0-1), no prior neoadjuvant chemotherapy and non-metastatic disease. Read More

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December 2018

Red cell distribution width and prognosis in acute heart failure: ready for prime time!

Intern Emerg Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Service de Cardiologie, Département Coeur-Vaisseaux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Université de Lausanne, BU44_07_2208, Rue du Bugnon 44, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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December 2018

Freshwater neotropical oligochaetes as native test species for the toxicity evaluation of cadmium, mercury and their mixtures.

Ecotoxicology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905, Brazil.

The toxicity of metals, whether isolated or in mixtures, involves changes in biochemical processes as well as in cell membranes, which may lead to deleterious short- and long-term effects on the affected organisms. Among metals, cadmium and mercury stand out due to their abundance in nature, frequent use for industrial activities and biological accumulation, with high levels of residence in trophic chains. Benthic communities are particularly prone to metal pollution since metals usually accumulate in sediments. Read More

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December 2018

Low dislocation rate of Saturne/Avantage dual-mobility THA after displaced femoral neck fracture: a cohort study of 966 hips with a minimum 1.6-year follow-up.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University Clinic for Hand, Hip and Knee Surgery, Hospital Unit West, Building 8, Entrance N, 1st floor, Laegaardvej 12, 7500, Holstebro, Denmark.

Introduction: Dislocation is a serious and common complication and a great concern with the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) when treating displaced femoral neck fracture (FNF). Dual-mobility (DM) THA might reduce the dislocation risk. We aim to report the dislocation and revision rate of primary DM THA in patients with displaced FNF. Read More

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December 2018

Low-level laser therapy versus trunk stabilization exercises on sternotomy healing after coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized clinical trial.

Lasers Med Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physical Therapy for Internal Medicine, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) versus trunk stabilization exercises on sternotomy healing following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Forty-five male patients who had acute sternal instability post-CABG surgery in the age range of 45-65 years were divided randomly into three equal groups (n = 15). The laser group received LLLT, while the exercise group received trunk stabilization exercises. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Bone marrow cell homing to sites of acute tibial fracture: Zr-oxine cell labeling with positron emission tomographic imaging in a mouse model.

EJNMMI Res 2018 Dec 13;8(1):109. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, NIH, Building 10, Room B3B406, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1002, USA.

Background: Bone fracture healing is dependent upon the rapid migration and engraftment of bone marrow (BM) progenitor and stem cells to the site of injury. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 plays a crucial role in recruiting BM cells expressing its receptor CXCR4. Recently, a CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, has been used to mobilize BM cells into the blood in efforts to enhance cell migration to sites of injury presumably improving healing. Read More

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December 2018

[CARs, CRS and neurotoxicity: severe complications after administration of immunotherapy : Essentials for intensivists].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Klinik I für Innere Medizin, Uniklinik Köln, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Köln, Deutschland.

Background: The development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T‑cells has shown promising results in relapsed/refractory B‑cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL) and diffuse large cell B‑cell lymphoma. Complications, especially cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and CAR T‑cell related encephalopathy syndrome (CRES), can be life threatening. The management of both plays a key role in CAR T‑cell therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Prognosis-based definition of left ventricular remodeling after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology and Angiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Objectives: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold-standard modality for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) remodeling in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. However, the commonly used remodeling criteria have never been validated for hard clinical events. We therefore aimed to define clear CMR criteria of LV remodeling following STEMI with proven prognostic impact. Read More

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December 2018

Aneurysmal degeneration and rupture of deep vein conduit with formation of an arterial-vaginal fistula 13 years after creation of a femoral-femoral bypass.

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech 2018 Dec 4;4(4):287-291. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Surgery, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex.

The autologous deep vein is a suitable alternative to prosthetic or cadaveric grafts as a bypass conduit because of its superior durability and lower risk of complications. Aneurysmal degeneration of deep vein grafts is rarely seen but can potentially be fatal when it does occur. We describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with acute vaginal bleeding due to the rupture of an aneurysmal femorofemoral bypass vein graft into the vagina. Read More

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December 2018

Takotsubo syndrome in a stroke patient with carotid artery stenosis.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 22;13:46-48. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Juchgasse 25, A-1030 Wien, Austria.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a transient transient left ventricular dysfunction, predominantly affecting elderly women and often preceded by emotional or physical stress. TTS may be the cause as well as the consequence of stroke. We report a 82-years old female with a history of long-standing untreated arterial hypertension who was hospitalized because of a left-sided tongue paralysis and dysarthria. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Daily Electronic Laboratory Alerting on Early Detection and Clinical Documentation of Acute Kidney Injury in Hospital Settings.

Acad Pathol 2018 Jan-Dec;5:2374289518816502. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY, USA.

Acute kidney injury, especially early-stage disease, is a common hospital comorbidity requiring timely recognition and treatment. We investigated the effect of daily laboratory alerting of patients at risk for acute kidney injury as measured by documented diagnoses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted at 8 New York hospitals between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Risk Factors for Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Children With STEC-HUS/D HUS: A Single-Center Experience.

Glob Pediatr Health 2018 4;5:2333794X18816920. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USA.

. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the common causes for acute kidney injury in childhood. . Read More

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December 2018

Do Tibial Eminence Fractures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Have Similar Outcomes?

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Dec 7;6(12):2325967118811854. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Avulsion fractures involving the tibial eminence are considered equivalent in terms of the cause to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears; however, there are limited data comparing the outcomes of adolescent patients undergoing surgical fixation of a tibial eminence fracture (TEF) with those undergoing ACL reconstruction.

Purpose: To compare the clinical outcomes, subsequent ACL injury rates, and activity levels between adolescent patients who underwent TEF fixation with patients with midsubstance ACL tears who required acute reconstruction.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Read More

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December 2018

A Comparative Review of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Sepsis.

Front Vet Sci 2018 28;5:291. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis Davis, CA, United States.

Sepsis is the leading cause of critical illness and mortality in human beings and animals. Neutrophils are the primary effector cells of innate immunity during sepsis. Besides degranulation and phagocytosis, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), composed of cell-free DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins. Read More

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November 2018

Phase II Trial of Pure Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Localized Carcinoma of the Prostate.

Cureus 2018 Oct 9;10(10):e3435. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Radiation Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry - Western University, London, CAN.

Purpose To evaluate acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and the biochemical control of pure hypofractionated radiotherapy (without acceleration) for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and materials This phase II prospective trial evaluated low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received hypofractionated radiotherapy. Fifty-three patients with low-risk prostate cancer received 50 Gy in 15 fractions, 156 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer received 60 Gy in 20 fractions over eight weeks. Read More

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October 2018

A Case of Acute Granulomatous Conjunctivitis Caused by Cat-transmitted Sporothrix schenckii.

Cureus 2018 Oct 8;10(10):e3428. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences/Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, MYS.

In human, sporotrichosis infection commonly manifests as skin lesions through direct inoculation. It is rarely associated with ocular manifestation via a zoonotic transmission. We describe a young lady who presented with acute left eye granulomatous conjunctivitis who had a history of exposure to her sick cat diagnosed with sporotrichosis infection. Read More

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October 2018

A Rare Case of Laryngopyocele with Airway Obstruction.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:42. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.

Laryngocele is a rare entity and can be defined as an abnormal cystic dilatation of saccule of the laryngeal ventricle with communication to the lumen of larynx. Laryngopyocele is a rare complication of laryngocele when it is infected. Patients may present with fever, neck swelling, shortness of breath, and hoarseness. Read More

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November 2018

Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma with perineural metastasis in a cat.

JFMS Open Rep 2018 Jul-Dec;4(2):2055116918815323. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Case Summary: A 15-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for hyporexia and acute development of L4-Cd myelopathy (urinary incontinence, pelvic limb paresis with hyporeflexia and absent tail tone). Humane euthanasia was elected owing to the rapid neurological deterioration and necropsy was performed. Post-mortem examination identified a right-sided anal sac mass and medial iliac lymphadenopathy. Read More

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December 2018

Atrial fibrillation following treatment with paclitaxel: A case report.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 12;9(6):540-544. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Third Hospital of Mianyang (Sichuan Mental Health Center), Mianyang, Sichuan 621000, P.R. China.

Paclitaxel (PTX) is an antimicrotubule agent, and is effective in treating a wide range of solid tumors. However, its use may lead to cardiovascular toxicities, the manifestations of which include arrhythmia, heart failure, acute myocardial ischemia and atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is among the severe reactions to the PTX cardiotoxicity, and a cause for substantial morbidity and mortality. Read More

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December 2018

Predictive value of combining the level of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and antithrombin III for acute coronary syndrome risk.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 19;9(6):517-522. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221002, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to observe the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and antithrombin III (AT-III) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the combination of Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score to determine the value of coronary heart disease risk stratification. A total of 309 patients admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: The ACS (183 cases) and control (126 cases) groups. Read More

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December 2018

Energy handling in renal tubular epithelial cells of the hamster, a native hibernator, under warm anoxia or reoxygenation.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 12;9(6):503-510. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41110 Larissa, Greece.

Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury causes several diseases, including acute kidney injury. Hibernating mammals survive periods of torpor with a marked drop in tissue perfusion, interspersed with periods of arousal, and consequently I-R injury. In the present study, sensitivity to anoxia and/or reoxygenation and alterations in cellular ATP and homeostasis of the two most energy consuming processes, protein translation and Na-K-ATPase function, were evaluated in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells of mouse or native hibernator hamster origin. Read More

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December 2018

The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib decreases angiogenesis and improves portal hypertension.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36220-36237. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background And Aims: Angiogenesis is critically involved in the development of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension (PHT) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Regorafenib is a novel second-line therapy for HCC, but might also be beneficial in fibrosis and PHT even in absence of HCC. This study investigated the effects of regorafenib in experimental models without HCC. Read More

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November 2018

Inhibition of heparanase protects against chronic kidney dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36185-36201. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in patients undergoing renal transplantation and with acute kidney injury and is responsible for the development of chronic allograft dysfunction as characterized by parenchymal alteration and fibrosis. Heparanase (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that regulates EMT and macrophage polarization, is an active player in the biological response triggered by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. I/R was induced by clamping left renal artery for 30 min in wt C57BL/6J mice. Read More

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November 2018

Decreased levels of regulatory B cells in patients with acute pancreatitis: association with the severity of the disease.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 3;9(90):36067-36082. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, 310004, China.

Early stratification of the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) is clinically important. Regulatory B cells have been found to be associated with disease activity of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of Regulatory B cells in AP remains unknown. Read More

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November 2018

Optimizing medical care for geriatric patients in Austria: defining a top five list of "Choosing Wisely" recommendations using the Delphi technique.

Eur Geriatr Med 2018 27;9(6):783-793. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

14Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Purpose: Inappropriate use of diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures is common and potentially harmful for older patients. The Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology defined a consensus of five recommendations to avoid overuse of medical interventions and to improve care of geriatric patients.

Methods: From an initial pool of 147 reliable recommendations, 20 were chosen by a structured selection process for inclusion in a Delphi process to define a list of five top recommendations for geriatric medicine. Read More

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September 2018

Dynamic instability of the acromioclavicular joint: A new classification for acute AC joint separation.

Obere Extrem 2018 28;13(4):279-285. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

2Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Campus Virchow, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Acute acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation is classified according to Rockwood (RW). Although of clinical relevance, dynamic horizontal translation (DHT) is not listed in this classification or in frequently used clinical evaluation tools. The aim of this study was (a) to evaluate vertical and horizontal AC joint instabilities and assess their combined occurrence and clinical appearance in a consecutive group of patients, as well as (b) to develop a new classification of acute AC joint dislocation. Read More

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Methylation level of Rap1GAP and the clinical significance in MDS.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 26;16(6):7287-7294. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Key Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis of Ministry of Health, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China.

Previous studies on the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have identified multiple associated gene mutations, including mutations of tetmethylcytosinedioxygenase 2, isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP(+)] 1 cytosolic, isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP(+)] 2 mitochondrial and additional sex combs like 1 transcriptional regulator, all of which may be considered epigenetic regulators. Furthermore, mutations of RAS type GTPase family genes have been identified in 10-15% patients with MDS. The authors' previous study on the gene expression profile of cluster of differentiation 34 cells using microarray analysis identified elevated expression of RAP1GTPase activating protein 1 (Rap1GAP) in patients with MDS compared with that in non-malignant blood diseases (NM) control group. Read More

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December 2018
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Clinical diagnosis of adult patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 25;16(6):6988-6997. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Worldwide Medical Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, P.R. China.

Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is challenging to diagnose due to frequent myelofibrosis (MF) and a low percentage of blast cells. In the present study, clinical characteristics and experimental observations in 9 adult patients diagnosed with AMKL, who were recruited by the Sino-U.S. Read More

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December 2018

Differential roles of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in angiopoietin-2-mediated rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 1;16(6):4729-4736. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

ICU, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230061, P.R. China.

Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a Tie-2 ligand that destabilizes vascular structures, enhances vascular permeability and induces vascular regression and endothelial cell apoptosis. Although there is evidence for the involvement of the Ang/Tie2 axis in acute lung injury (ALI), the underlying mechanisms involved in Ang-2-induced cell apoptosis are not well understood. In this study, whether Ang-2 contributes to microvascular endothelial cell injury and mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and its associated signaling pathways was investigated. Read More

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December 2018

Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Induces Acute Bacterial Dysbiosis Within the Fecal Microbiome.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2757. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Neuroregeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States.

The secondary injury cascade that is activated following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces responses from multiple physiological systems, including the immune system. These responses are not limited to the area of brain injury; they can also alter peripheral organs such as the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota play a role in the regulation of immune cell populations and microglia activation, and microbiome dysbiosis is implicated in immune dysregulation and behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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November 2018
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Proteasomal Protein Degradation: Adaptation of Cellular Proteolysis With Impact on Virus-and Cytokine-Mediated Damage of Heart Tissue During Myocarditis.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2620. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Institute of Biochemistry, Berlin, Germany.

Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle triggered by direct virus-induced cytolysis and immune response mechanisms with most severe consequences during early childhood. Acute and long-term manifestation of damaged heart tissue and disturbances of cardiac performance involve virus-triggered adverse activation of the immune response and both immunopathology, as well as, autoimmunity account for such immune-destructive processes. It is a matter of ongoing debate to what extent subclinical virus infection contributes to the debilitating sequela of the acute disease. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of National Implementation of Telephone CPR Program to Improve Outcomes from Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: an Interrupted Time-Series Analysis.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Dec 26;33(51):e328. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: In cardiac arrest, the survival rate increases with the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), of which the initial response and treatment are critical. Telephone CPR is among the effective methods that might increase the provision of bystander CPR. This study aimed to describe and examine the improvement of neurological outcomes in individuals with out-of-hospital acute cardiac arrest by implementing the nationwide, standardized telephone CPR program. Read More

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December 2018

The predictivity of mandibular third molar position as a risk indicator for pericoronitis: A prospective study.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jul-Dec;9(2):215-221

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Army College of Dental Sciences, Secunderabad, Telangana, India.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the mandibular third molar at highest risk for acute pericoronitis using clinical and radiographic analysis.

Materials And Methods: A total of 120 patients ranging in age from 18 to 55 years suffering from pericoronitis were examined. Subjective and objective observations were recorded that included the age, gender, angulation of partially impacted mandibular third molar, the frequency of pericoronitis in a year, the presence of impinging maxillary third molar, the extent of soft tissue coverage over the impacted mandibular third molar, the clinical signs evaluated in the patient, the class and position of the impacted mandibular third molar, and the presence of distal radiolucency with respect to the impacted mandibular third molar. Read More

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December 2018

Optimized induction of mitochondrial apoptosis for chemotherapy-free treatment of BCR-ABL+acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Leukemia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Hematology, Hemostasis, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

BCR-ABL+acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults has a poor prognosis with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) considered the best curative option for suitable patients. We here characterize the curative potential of BH3-mimetics differentially targeting mitochondrial BCL2-family members using a combination therapy approach with dexamethasone and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BCR-ABL. In BCR-ABL + ALL BH3-mimetics act by redistribution of mitochondrial activator BIM, which is strongly required for cytotoxicity of the BCL2-specific BH3-mimetic ABT-199, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and dexamethasone. Read More

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December 2018

Vagus-macrophage-hepatocyte link promotes post-injury liver regeneration and whole-body survival through hepatic FoxM1 activation.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 13;9(1):5300. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan.

The liver possesses a high regenerative capacity. Liver regeneration is a compensatory response overcoming disturbances of whole-body homeostasis provoked by organ defects. Here we show that a vagus-macrophage-hepatocyte link regulates acute liver regeneration after liver injury and that this system is critical for promoting survival. Read More

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December 2018

Somatic and germline genomics in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Advances in genomic research and risk-directed therapy have led to improvements in the long-term survival and quality of life outcomes of patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The application of next-generation sequencing technologies, especially transcriptome sequencing, has resulted in the identification of novel molecular subtypes of ALL with prognostic and therapeutic implications, as well as cooperative mutations that account for much of the heterogeneity in clinical responses observed among patients with specific ALL subtypes. In addition, germline genetic variants have been shown to influence the risk of developing ALL and/or the responses of non-malignant and leukaemia cells to therapy; shared pathways for drug activation and metabolism are implicated in treatment-related toxicity and drug sensitivity or resistance, depending on whether the genetic changes are germline, somatic or both. Read More

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December 2018

Late onset neonatal acute kidney injury: results from the AWAKEN Study.

Pediatr Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Golisano Children's Hospital, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Most studies of neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on the first week following birth. Here, we determined the outcomes and risk factors for late AKI (>7d).

Methods: The international AWAKEN study examined AKI in neonates admitted to an intensive care unit. Read More

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December 2018
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Ultrastructural pathology of oligodendrocytes adjacent to microglia in prefrontal white matter in schizophrenia.

NPJ Schizophr 2018 Dec 13;4(1):26. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Mental Health Research Centre, Zagorodnoe shosse 2, 117152, Moscow, Russia.

Microglial activation has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). We hypothesized that dystrophic alterations of oligodendrocytes previously reported in the prefrontal white matter in SCZ might be associated with microglial activation in the acute state of SCZ. White matter of the prefrontal cortex (BA10) was studied in post-mortem brain tissue from 21 SCZ cases and 20 normal controls. Read More

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December 2018

Internal Hernia Associated with Colostomy After Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Malignancy: A Report of 3 Thought-Provoking Cases.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Dec 14;19:1488-1494. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan.

BACKGROUND Colostomy creation via intraperitoneal route is often performed during laparoscopic Hartmann's operation or abdominoperineal resection (APR). Herein, we report 3 rare cases of internal hernia associated with colostomy (IHAC). CASE REPORT The first case involved a 70-year-old man with IHAC after laparoscopic APR. Read More

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December 2018

Do All Patients With Polycythemia Vera or Essential Thrombocythemia Need Cytoreduction?

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 Dec;16(12):1539-1545

Department of Medicine, and Division of Hematology and Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine; and Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), characterized by expansion of normal blood counts, bleeding, thrombosis, and the potential for transformation to myelofibrosis (MF) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The primary goals of treatment for MPNs are to reduce the risk of thrombosis, alleviate systemic symptom burden (eg, fatigue, pruritus, microvascular symptoms, and symptomatic splenomegaly), and to prevent transformation to MF/AML. Preventing transformation is clearly important, but not expected with current therapies. Read More

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December 2018
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