3,254 results match your criteria Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

Neuroimaging Patterns in Patients with COVID-19-Associated Neurological Complications: A Review.

Neurol India 2021 Mar-Apr;69(2):260-271

Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: A variety of neuroimaging abnormalities in COVID-19 have been described.

Objectives: In this article, we reviewed the varied neuroimaging patterns in patients with COVID-19-associated neurological complications.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and preprint databases (medRxiv and bioRxiv). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Malone antegrade continence enema adapting a transanal irrigation system in patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2021 Apr 23;7(1):34. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

General Surgery and Trauma Team, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Introduction: Patients with severe neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) may undergo the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) surgery to perform antegrade bowel irrigation (ABI). The standard approach may be prevented by a previous appendectomy or complicated by appendicular stenoses and/or stomal leakages. We present the experience by our tertiary referral center for NBD, adopting a modified surgical technique, based on a neoappendix with the terminal ileum to preserve the natural anti-reflux mechanism of the ileocecal valve and avoid stool leakage, and a largely available transanal irrigation (TAI) system to catheterize the neoappendix and perform ABI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 Patients With CNS Complications and Neuropathologic Features of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalopathy.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 06;80(6):628-631

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CNS autoimmunity in children: An unwanted wrinkle in a smooth narrative.

Med J Armed Forces India 2021 Apr 24;77(2):138-146. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.

The emerging paradigm of childhood autoimmune neurological disorders has exploded in recent times due to reliable diagnostic methods and their ease of availability, well-defined diagnostic criteria, and universal awareness about these disorders. The most important aspect of these disorders is a considerable recovery in response to early targeted immunotherapy. If left untreated and/or ill-treated, these can lead to mortality or lifelong morbidity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical and Prognostic Analysis of Autoantibody-Associated CNS Demyelinating Disorders in Children in Southwest China.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:642664. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

To analyze the positive and recurrence rates of different autoantibody-associated demyelination disorders in children in Southwest China, and describe the clinical, radiological, and prognostic features of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-ab) and aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-ab) associated disease. This study also summarizes steroid maintenance therapy approaches for MOG-ab-positive children. A total of 160 children presenting with acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) between January 2016 and December 2019 were tested for MOG-ab and AQP4-ab. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and routine childhood vaccinations - a self-controlled case series.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Apr 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune, central nervous system demyelinating disorder that follows antecedent immunologic challenges, such as infection or vaccination. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between routine childhood vaccinations and ADEM. Children under 7 years of age admitted to the two tertiary level pediatric hospitals in Victoria, Australia with ADEM from 2000-2015 had their clinical information linked to vaccination records from the Australian Childhood Immunization Register. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Herpesviruses and biomarkers in disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):138-145

Pediatric Research and Clinical Center for Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The relevance of the study of demyelinating diseases is due to their increasing frequency in children, clarification of the role of infectious agents in their genesis, as well as the possibility of transformation of disseminated encephalomyelitis into multiple sclerosis. The literature review presents the currently available information on the causes of the development of demyelinating diseases, biomarkers of disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, the causes of an unfavorable course and possible laboratory parameters indicating the transition from one disease to another, which can be used as prognostic factors. The authors also noted the experience of the authors on the importance of adequate etiopathogenetic therapy in changing the nature of the course of the disease, in particular, when confirming the relationship between the frequency of exacerbations of ADEM and MS with the activation of herpesvirus infections, courses of specific antiviral therapy are effective, as well as pathogenetic therapy aimed at correcting endothelial dysfunction using the drug cytoflavin. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment and Management of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in the Pediatric Patient.

Cynthia X Wang

Paediatr Drugs 2021 May 8;23(3):213-221. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically presents in childhood and is associated with encephalopathy and multifocal brain lesions. Although ADEM is thought to be a post-infectious disorder, the etiology is still poorly understood. ADEM is often a monophasic disorder, in contrast to other demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exome-Wide Search for Genes Associated With Central Nervous System Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases Following CHIKV Infection: The Tip of the Iceberg.

Front Genet 2021 17;12:639364. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Bioinformatics Laboratory, National Laboratory for Scientific Computing, Petrópolis, Brazil.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emergent arbovirus that causes a disease characterized primarily by fever, rash and severe persistent polyarthralgia, although <1% of cases develop severe neurological manifestations such as inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS) like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and extensive transverse myelitis. Genetic factors associated with host response and disease severity are still poorly understood. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify HLA alleles, genes and cellular pathways associated with CNS IDD clinical phenotype outcomes following CHIKV infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-Polio Enteroviruses from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance in Korea, 2012-2019.

Viruses 2021 03 5;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Viral Diseases, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju 28159, Korea.

The risk of polio importation and re-emergence persists since epidemic polio still occurs in some countries, and the resurgence of polio occurring almost 20 years after polio eradication was declared in Asia has been reported. We analyzed the results of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Korea to assess the quality of AFP surveillance and understand the etiology of non-polio enterovirus (NPEV)-associated central nervous system diseases in a polio-free area. We investigated 637 AFP patients under 15 years of age whose cases were confirmed during 2012-2019 by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and VP1 gene sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigating Different Forms of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Various Neurological Disorders.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Basic Biotechnological Sciences, Intensivological and Perioperative Clinics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Over the past 30 years a considerable amount of data has accumulated on the multifaceted role of hydrogen sulfide (HS) in the central nervous system. Depending on its concentrations, HS has opposite actions, ranging from neuromodulator to neurotoxic. Nowadays, accurate determination of HS is still an important challenge to understand its biochemistry and functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterizing the incidence of adverse events of special interest for COVID-19 vaccines across eight countries: a multinational network cohort study.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Background: As large-scale immunization programs against COVID-19 proceed around the world, safety signals will emerge that need rapid evaluation. We report population-based, age- and sex- specific background incidence rates of potential adverse events of special interest (AESI) in eight countries using thirteen databases.

Methods: This multi-national network cohort study included eight electronic medical record and five administrative claims databases from Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States, mapped to a common data model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL)].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):376-382

Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Tumefactive demyelinating lesion(TDL)is defined as a large lesion, size >2 cm, mass effect, perilesional edema and/or ring enhancement. TDL could occur in multiple sclerosis(MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder(NMOSD), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis(ADEM)or other immunological diseases. Non-invasive methods including MR imaging and assay of several autoantibodies(e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Post-COVID-19 Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in a 17-Month-Old.

Pediatrics 2021 06 24;147(6). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Nemours Children Specialty Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida; and

Neurologic manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric patients have been reported in the acute and postinfectious stages of coronavirus disease 2019. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) typically presents in children after a viral illness at a mean age of 3 to 7 years. A total of 60% to 90% of literature-reported pediatric patients with ADEM have minimal to no neurologic deficits at long-term follow-up. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiological manifestation of familial acute necrotizing encephalopathy with RANBP2 mutation in a Far-East Asian family: Case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25171

Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea.

Rationale: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a specific type of encephalopathy usually followed by febrile infection. It has an aggressive clinical course; however, it usually does not recur after recovery in cases of spontaneous ANE. Nevertheless, there are several studies reporting recurrences in familial ANE with RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) mutation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Spectrum of Underlying Diseases in Children with Torticollis.

Turk Neurosurg 2021 ;31(3):389-398

Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kayseri, Turkey.

Aim: To investigate the underlying conditions in children with torticollis.

Material And Methods: Between May 2016 and December 2019, 24 patients (10 girls and 14 boys; mean age, 8 years) presenting with twisted neck, neck pain, weakness of extremities, imbalance, and gait disorder were evaluated retrospectively.

Results: Five of the patients had cranial pathologies (cerebellar anaplastic ependymoma and medulloblastoma, brain stem glioma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis), and five of the patients had spinal pathologies (idiopathic intervertebral disc calcification, vertebral hemangiomatosis, compression fracture, multiple hereditary exostoses, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis at C4). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Fulminant ADEM treated with cyclophosphamide: Case report and review of the literature.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 7;51:102882. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pediatric inflammatory demyelinating disorders and mimickers: How to differentiate with MRI?

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 14;20(5):102801. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Neuroradiology of the Radiology Department UNICAMP, Brazil; UNICAMP, Brazil.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS).While the clinical symptoms of MS most commonly manifest between 20 and 40 years of age, approximately 3 to 10% of all MS patients report that their first inaugural events can occur earlier in life, even in childhood, and thus include the pediatric population. The prevalence of MS onset in childhood/adolescence varies between 2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spinal cord involvement in COVID-19: A review.

J Spinal Cord Med 2021 Mar 11:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Context: Recent literature points towards myelitis, like encephalitis, as a common central nervous system complication of COVID-19. This review elaborates on disorders of the spinal cord caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Objectives: To review the published data about SARS-CoV-2-associated spinal cord disorders and assess their clinical, neuroimaging, treatment, and prognostic aspects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hospital-diagnosed infections before age 20 and risk of a subsequent multiple sclerosis diagnosis.

Brain 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

The involvement of specific viral and bacterial infections as risk factors for multiple sclerosis has been studied extensively. However, whether this extends to infections in a broader sense is less clear and little is known about whether risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis is associated with other types and sites of infections, such as of the CNS. This study aims to assess if hospital-diagnosed infections by type and site before age 20 years are associated with risk of a subsequent multiple sclerosis diagnosis and whether this association is explained entirely by infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia, and CNS infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurological Manifestations of Scrub Typhus: A Case Series from Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern East Rajasthan.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2020 Nov-Dec;23(6):808-811. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India.

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile infectious illness caused by rickettsia species . In recent years, scrub typhus has reemerged as a life-threatening disease in India Scrub typhus has diverse clinical manifestations ranging from a nonspecific febrile illness to severe multiorgan dysfunction, and neurological complications are also common. Spectrum of neurological complications varies from common complications such as aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis to rare complications such as myelitis, cerebral hemorrhage, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and cerebral infarction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Estimating Baseline Incidence of Conditions Potentially Associated with Vaccine Adverse Events: a Call for Surveillance System Using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Data.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Mar 8;36(9):e67. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Artificial Intelligence and Big-Data Convergence Center, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Background: Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are raising concerns about vaccine safety, particularly in the context of large-scale immunization. To address public concerns, we measured the baseline incidence rates of major conditions potentially related to vaccine-related adverse events (VAEs). We aimed to provide a basis for evaluating VAEs and verifying causality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Coronavirus Infections in the Nervous System of Children: A Scoping Review Making the Case for Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Surveillance.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 04 29;117:47-63. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Background: The objective of this study was to describe the case literature of human coronavirus infections in the nervous system of children, including from SARS-CoV-2, and to provide guidance to pediatric providers for managing the potential long-term effects on neurodevelopment of human coronavirus infections in the nervous system.

Methods: Using a structured strategy, the PubMed and Ovid:Embase databases were queried for articles about the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of coronavirus infections in the nervous system of children and young adults, aged 0 to 24 years.

Results: Of 2302 articles reviewed, 31 described SARS-CoV-2 infections in the nervous system of children and 21 described other human coronaviruses: HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Incidence and Mortality of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in China: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jun 6;37(6):804-808. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Potential Role of CHI3L1+ Astrocytes in Progression in MS.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 05 3;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

From the Neuroimmunology Unit (L.C.-N., S.G.-P., J.C.-V., V.L., R.G., S.C., C.A., F.P.-M., B.C.), Polytechnic and University Hospital La Fe; Neurology Department (L.S.T.), University Hospital Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; and Department of Neuroimmunology (H.L.), Center for Brain Research, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Neurofilament light protein (NfL) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) are biomarkers for acute neuroaxonal damage and local inflammation, respectively. Thus, we set out to evaluate how these biomarkers were associated with clinical features of demyelinating diseases in parallel with the expression in brain autopsies from patients with similar disease stages, assuming their comparability.

Methods: NfL and CHI3L1 in CSF and serum CHI3L1 were assessed retrospectively in a cross-sectional cohort of controls (n = 17) and patients diagnosed with MS (n = 224), relapsing (n = 163) or progressive (n = 61); neuromyelitis optica (NMO, n = 7); and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, n = 15). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Neuroimmunology of COVID-19].

Nervenarzt 2021 Jun 2;92(6):521-530. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Klinik für Neurologie und Experimentelle Neurologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland.

Many neuroimmunological diseases, such as encephalopathy, encephalitis, myelitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have occurred more frequently after infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which indicates a parainfectious or postinfectious association. The most likely underlying mechanisms include virus-triggered overactivation of the immune system with hyperinflammation and cytokine storm but potentially also the development of specific autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS) tissue. These were predominantly detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of MOG autoimmunity in children with acquired demyelinating syndromes.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 10;50:102837. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Neuroscience Department, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome 00168, Italy.

Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) have been recently reevaluated as a biomarker of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we describe the clinical and neuroimaging features, and the long-term outcome of children with ADS of the CNS associated with MOG-IgG. Methods All patients underwent brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and MOG-IgG and aquaporin-4 IgG (AQP4-IgG) testing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Related to a Cytomegalovirus Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient.

Cureus 2021 Jan 19;13(1):e12795. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Alto, Rio do Sul, BRA.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). However, it is rare in immunocompetent people. We describe a 17-year-old patient who was brought with flu-like symptoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

MRI Spectrum of Meningoencephalitis in Children.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2020 Sep-Oct;23(5):616-620. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Medanta, The Medicity, Gurugram, NCR, Haryana, India.

Background And Purpose: type b (Hib) infection occurs mostly in children and is transmitted from person to person through the respiratory pathway. Hib strain is associated with meningitis or encephalitis. It is not an uncommon infection, particularly, in the developing world. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019