Photodermatoses are a group of skin disorders caused by abnormal reaction to ultraviolet radiation. Photodermatoses are divided into four groups: (1) immunologically mediated photodermatoses; (2) chemical- and drug-induced photodermatoses; (3) photoaggravated dermatoses; and (4) hereditary photodermatoses. This contribution discusses differences in the approach and diagnosis of pediatric and adult patients with suspected photodermatoses, focusing on immunologically mediated photodermatoses and chemical- and drug-induced photodermatoses. Read More
Background: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4.
Objectives: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries.
Methods: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Read More
*Department of Pathology, Division of Dermatopathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; †Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Mexico City, Mexico; Departments of ‡Pathology, and §Dermatology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX; ¶Hospital General De Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; ‖Division of Dermatology and Pathology, Hospital Obrero, La Paz, Bolivia; and **Department of Pathology, Dental School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Actinic prurigo (AP) is a chronic idiopathic photodermatosis that primarily affects American Indians in the United States and Mestizos in Latin American countries. Clinically, the onset of the disease is usually in the first decade of life but may appear initially in adult life, and it is characterized by symmetric involvement of sun-exposed areas of the skin, particularly areas of the face, resulting in polymorphic erythematous papules, macules, and plaques in different stages of evolution. Lower lip involvement includes swelling, scaling, fissures, hyperpigmentation, and ulcerations of the vermilion border. Read More
Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis that affects the skin, as well as the labial and conjunctival mucosa in indigenous and mestizo populations of Latin America. It starts predominantly in childhood, has a chronic course, and is exacerbated with solar exposure. Little is known of its pathophysiology, including the known mechanisms of the participation of HLA-DR4 and an abnormal immunologic response with increase of T CD4+ lymphocytes. Read More
Studies have reported the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes with susceptibility to develop actinic prurigo (AP) in Caucasians, but there were no studies in Asian populations, including the Chinese. Our study was performed to determine if AP is associated with susceptibility or protective HLA alleles or haplotypes in Singaporean Chinese. All Chinese patients diagnosed with AP at National Skin Center, Singapore, from January 2002 to April 2015 were invited to participate in the study. Read More
Background: Actinic prurigo (AP) is a type of photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has not been determined. AP has been suggested to be a hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of eosinophils and the local production of IgE.
Material And Methods: Descriptive study, using paraffin blocks of tissue that have been diagnosed with AP from the Dermopathology department, Hospital General Dr. Read More
Background: Actinic prurigo (AP) is an idiopathic photodermatosis, this entity requires exposure to UV-B and -A to develop lesions. Apoptosis is a physiological death program that can be initiated by a permanently active mechanism (extrinsic pathway) or irreparable damage (intrinsic pathway).
Material And Methods: Descriptive study, the sample size comprised 64 paraffin blocks of tissue with a diagnosis of AP. Read More
Pruritus is a common and often times difficult to treat symptom in many dermatologic and systemic diseases. For pruritus with an inflammatory or autoimmune origin, therapies such as topical corticosteroids and antihistamines are often initiated. However, in the case that these and additional systemic therapies are ineffective, thalidomide, an immunomodulator and neuromodulator, may be a useful alternative treatment. Read More
Thalidomide is resurging in the management of adult rheumatologic skin conditions, especially lupus erythematosus. Although use in pediatric patients is reported since the 1990s, there are no systematic reviews describing treatment in children. Thalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α effects as well as antiangiogenic properties, making it useful for a broad spectrum of inflammatory disorders. Read More
Ana MO Miranda, Thiago M Ferrari, Juliana T Werneck, Arley Silva Junior, Karin SG Cunha, Eliane P Dias, Department of Pathology, Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro 24220-008, Brazil.
Actinic prurigo is a photodermatosis that can affect the skin, conjunctiva and lips. It is caused by an abnormal reaction to sunlight and is more common in high-altitude living people, mainly in indigenous descendants. The diagnosis of actinic prurigo can be challenging, mainly when lip lesions are the only manifestation, which is not a common clinical presentation. Read More
Actinic prurigo is a chronic photodermatosis with onset in childhood or before 20 years of age. It is most prevalent in Amerindians and Latin American mestizos, although it has been reported worldwide. Patients present with photodistributed, erythematous excoriated papules, cheilitis, and conjunctivitis. Read More
The systematic evaluation of photosensitive patients involves a comprehensive history, physical examination, phototesting, and, if necessary, photopatch testing and laboratory evaluation. Polymorphous light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, solar urticaria, and photosensitivity secondary to systemic medications are the most commonly encountered photodermatoses in dermatology clinics worldwide. Read More
The pathogenesis of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) has been linked to a lack of UV-induced immune suppression. To determine the role of Langerhans cells (LC), mast cells and regulatory T cells, biopsies from PLE patients were taken from exposed sites in spring before and after photohardening with 311 nm or PUVA as well as again in summer. Skin sections were assessed for the presence of Langerin/CD1a+ LC and CD3+, CD4+, CD25+ or FoxP3+ T cells and mast cells. Read More
Polymorphic light eruption (PMLE) is the most common of the immunologically mediated photodermatoses. Onset is typically within the first three decades of life and affects females two to three times more than males. It occurs 30 minutes to 1-3 days after sun exposure and usually resolves in 7 to 10 days. Read More
Background: Actinic prurigo (AP) is an idiopathic photodermatosis that usually onsets during childhood and predominates in women. It is characterized by the symmetrical involvement of sun-exposed areas of the skin, lips, and conjunctiva.
Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the risk factors associated with AP using a case-control design. Read More
Thalidomide is a synthetic glutamic acid derivative first introduced in 1956 in Germany as an over the counter medications. It was thought to be one of the safest sedatives ever produced as it was effective in small doses, was not addictive, and did not have acute side-effects such as motor impairment, but was quickly removed from market after it was linked to cases of severe birth defects. The Food and Drug Administration approved use in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Read More
Purpose Of Review: Although rare in the pediatric population, photosensitive dermatoses may begin prior to adulthood. The causes of photosensitivity are diverse, ranging from primary, immunologically mediated disorders of photosensitivity to inherited genetic or metabolic disorders. This review will highlight the key features of these disorders to familiarize the pediatric practitioner with their symptoms and any associated extracutaneous clinical or laboratory findings that may accompany them. Read More
Background/purpose: Abnormal cutaneous sensitivity to the ultraviolet and/or visible radiation in sunlight characterizes photosensitivity disorders. Little is known regarding their impact in childhood. Our objective was to characterize childhood photosensitivity disorders presenting to a photoinvestigation unit, evaluating their impact on quality of life (QoL). Read More
Photodermatoses are a group of skin diseases primarily caused by, or exacerbated by exposure to ultraviolet and or visible radiation. The effect of sunlight on skin depends on a number of factors including skin colour, skin phototype and the content and type of melanin in the skin. There are only a few studies describing photodermatoses in populations with dark skin. Read More
The complex and fascinating spectrum of inflammatory skin disease, and the comprehension of it, is ever expanding and evolving. During the first decade of the 21st century, numerous advances in the understanding of inflammatory disease mechanisms have occurred, particularly in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Continuation of this trend will assure a future in which molecular tests for biomarkers of immediate clinical relevance are used in routine patient care, not only for diagnosis but also for prognosis and management. Read More
Background: Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is a very common condition whose pathogenesis may involve immunological abnormalities. Vitamin D sufficiency is thought to be important for normal immune function.
Objective: To determine whether PLE patients are vitamin D deficient and to study how photohardening with 311 nm UVB affects the vitamin D status of PLE patients. Read More
A 13-year-old black boy had pruritic papular and nodular lesions on his forearms associated to edema of the lower lip, photophobia, conjunctivitis and pterygium. Skin biopsy of the lower lip revealed acanthosis, spongiosis with dermal perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration composed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils consistent with actinic prurigo. Lesions improved considerably with the use of thalidomide 100mg/ day. Read More
Thalidomide is approved for treating erythema nodosum leprosum and multiple myeloma, but it has also emerged as a useful treatment option for many refractory dermatologic disorders. Some of the innovative but off-label uses of thalidomide include aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's disease, lupus erythematosus, prurigo nodularis, sarcoidosis, actinic prurigo, graft-versus-host disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, erythema multiforme, lichen planus, Kaposi sarcoma, Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate, uremic pruritus, pyoderma gangrenosum, scleroderma, scleromyxedema, and necrobiosis lipoidica. This article reviews the background, pharmacology, and innovative uses of thalidomide in dermatology. Read More
In diagnosing actinic prurigo (AP), the patients' ethnic background is very helpful as this condition is associated with very specific ethnic groups. We discuss a patient with an unknown family history who presented with a rash that initially seemed like lupus, but was subsequently diagnosed as AP upon further evaluations. Read More
Actinic prurigo is a rare form of light sensitivity not previously described with hypodontia in the dental literature. The purpose of this report was to describe both the medical and dental management of a 12-year-old boy presenting with actinic prurigo, hypodontia, crowding, caries, and tooth tissue loss. The phases of dental treatment and the multidisciplinary treatment of hypodontia are discussed. Read More
Electromagnetic radiation may cause distinct skin conditions. The immunologically mediated photodermatoses (IMP, previous term: idiopathic photodermatoses) represent a heterogenous group of disorders presenting with pathologic skin reactions caused by optical radiation, particularly in the UVA wavelength region. The exact pathomechanism in IMP remains to be elucidated; however, it is very likely (auto)-immunologic in nature. Read More
Background: Actinic Prurigo (AP) is a chronic pruritic dermatosis of unknown cause affecting sun exposed skin in defined ethnic groups with characteristic MHC alleles. However, the cutaneous dendritic cells have not been assessed.
Objective: To assess in situ the epidermal Langerhans Cell (LC) status in Actinic Prurigo. Read More
Background: Photosensitivity to Chlamydia trachomatis has been described in almost 50% of chronic cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) caused by L1, L2 or L3 serovars. Photosensitivity in non LGV strains of C trachomatis has not been studied. We studied the association of various photosensitive dermatoses with C trachomatis infection in non LGV cases. Read More
Actinic Prurigo (AP), an uncommon idiopathic photodermatosis, presents a distinct clinical picture and can be severely debilitating. The clinical features, investigation and treatment of AP are reviewed. We report the experience of an Australian photobiology unit with this condition. Read More
Background: Polymorphic light eruption and erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) have been demonstrated to have a moderate and large impact on the quality of life (QoL) of patients, respectively. However, there is little information available about the impact of other photodermatoses on QoL.
Objectives: To assess and compare the impact of all forms of photodermatoses on patients' QoL using the standard 1-week Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire and a modified questionnaire to assess the impact over the previous year. Read More
A 7-year-old girl of Colombian descent was referred for diagnosis and treatment. She initially presented signs of universal itchy eczema in the spring of 2003. She responded to local treatment with topical steroids, but her symptoms rapidly re-emerged after discharge. Read More
Background: Actinic prurigo (AP) is one of the rare idiopathic photodermatosis. It is said to be a familial disease and is usually seen in certain specific geographical areas. The adult-onset type of AP is reported less frequently in the Asian population and has never been reported in Thailand. Read More
Thalidomide is a beneficial agent for treating a variety of refractory dermatologic disorders including erythema nodosom leprosum, lupus erythematosus, prurigo nodularis, actinic prurigo, pyoderma gangrenosum and aphthous stomatitis. Two thalidomide analogues, lenalidomide and CC-4047, are considerably more potent with decreased side effects when compared to thalidomide. They are currently undergoing trials and show promise, as they have increased immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activity. Read More
Recently, a number of medications approved for nondermatologic use have proved useful against dermatologic diseases. This article reviews the dermatologic uses and effects of deferasirox, bortezomib, dasatinib, and cyclosporine eye drops. Deferasirox--an oral iron chelator--could be an effective treatment against porphyria cutanea tarda, hemochromatosis, and pathogens such as mucor that thrive in iron rich environments. Read More
Case Report: A 14-year-old girl from Peru suffered severe limbitis and conjunctivitis. She also presented with clinical skin features diagnosed as actinic prurigo (AP). Her symptoms were successfully controlled with sustained topical therapy of 2% Cyclosporine A. Read More