2,930 results match your criteria Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement[Journal]


The Role of Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm: A Literature Review.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:201-205

Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a noninvasive technique used to detect vasospasms following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. While the gold standard to evaluate vasospasms is angiography, this technique is invasive and poses additional risks as compared to TCD. TCD is performed by insonating circle of Willis arteries to measure cerebral flow velocity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_32DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Current Open Surgical Indications for Revascularization in Cerebral Ischemia.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:195-199

Neurosurgery Department, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Cerebral revascularization was pioneered half a century ago. Gradual improvements in microsurgical instrumentation and training in microsurgical techniques have allowed significant changes that improved outcomes in neurosurgery, extrapolating this knowledge to other neurosurgical diseases (brain tumor, aneurysms, and skull base tumor surgery). But the popularity of cerebral bypass procedures was followed by their decline, given the lack of clear benefit of bypass surgery in chronic cerebrovascular ischemia after the EC-IC bypass studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_31DOI Listing
October 2019
5 Reads

The Сerebrovascular Time Constant in Patients with Head Injury and Posttraumatic Cerebral Vasospasm.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:191-194

Department of Neurosurgery, Privolzhsky Research Medical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

The aim of the study was to assess the time constant of cerebral arterial bed in TBI patients with cerebral vasospasm (CVS) with and without intracranial hematomas (ICH).We examined 84 patients with severe TBI (mean 35 ± 15 years, 53 men and 31 women). The first group included 41 patients without ICH and the second group included 43 patients with epidural (7) and subdural (36) hematomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_30DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Cerebral Arterial Compliance in Polytraumazed Patients with Cerebral Vasospasm.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:185-190

Department of Neurosurgery, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

The purpose was to determine the status of the cerebral arterial compliance (cAC) in a concomitant head injury and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) with and without the development of intracranial hematomas (ICH). In Materials and Methods, we examined 80 polytrauma patients with severe TBI and CVS. During or immediately after dynamic helical computed tomography angiography (DHCTA), the monitoring of the transcranial Doppler of the MCA was recorded bilaterally with 2-MHz probes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197405PMC
October 2019
7 Reads

Intra-arterial Administration of Verapamil for the Prevention and Treatment of Cerebral Angiospasm.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:179-183

Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, Moscow, Russia.

From 2013 to 2017, at the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, intra-arterial verapamil for treatment of cerebral vasospasm following intracranial hemorrhage after aneurysm rupture was administered to 35 patients (total 75 procedures). The age is from 8 to 77 years. All ruptured aneurysms were treated: in 26 cases with open approach-clipping-and in 9 cases with endovascular occlusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_28DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Treating Patients with Frontal Neurocognitive Deficits After SAH and Stroke.

Authors:
Michael Gilewski

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:175-178

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Five frontal systems circuits connect with the basal ganglia and other structures to control and regulate thinking and behavior. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke following anterior circulation aneurysms typically disrupt these circuits, sometimes markedly affecting a patient's function. This article reviews the primary pathways and associated brain functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_27DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

The Treatment of a Ruptured Anterior Communicating Artery (ACoA) Aneurysm with Coiling and Flow Disruptor (WEB-Device) and Management of Symptomatic Post-Interventional Delayed Vasospasm: A Case Report.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:171-174

Department of Neurosurgery, Spine Surgery and Interventional Neuroradiology DONAUISAR Klinikum Deggendorf, Deggendorf, Germany.

The article reports a clinical case illustrating a favorable outcome of endovascular treatment of a patient with a ruptured wide range neck ACoA aneurysm by WEB-Device. The peculiar characteristics of the pre-procedural period and the procedure are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_26DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Thromboelastometry as a Comprehensive Assessment of Hypercoagulation After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:165-169

Department of Neurocritical Care, N.N. Burdenko National Scientific and Practical Center for Neurosurgery, Moscow, Russia.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage after cerebral aneurysm rupture (aSAH) leads to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in 25-35% of surviving patients. It is believed that DCI has a multifactorial etiology, including vasospasm. Furthermore, aSAH is associated with the development of hypercoagulation and microthrombosis; thus, its pharmacological correction may help to prevent DCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_25DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Predicting Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Prospective Study.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:161-164

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.

Background: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Recently, we reported the possibility that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could predict DCI in terms of the cross-sectional area and flow velocity of the ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid and distal parent arteries in a single-center retrospective study.

Methods: This is a multicenter, prospective, cohort study. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_24
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_24DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound, Perfusion Computerized Tomography, and Cerebral Angiography Identify Different Pathological Entities and Supplement Each Other in the Diagnosis of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:155-160

Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Introduction: There is still controversial discussion of the value of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in predicting vasospasms in patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH). A newer method of predicting a delayed ischemic deficit (DCI) is CT perfusion (CTP), although it is not quite understood which kind of perfusion deficit is detected by this method since it seems to also identifying microcirculatory disturbances. We compared the TCD and CTP values with angiography and evaluated TCD and CTP changes before and after patients received intra-arterial spasmolytic therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_23DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Changes on Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Are Associated with Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:149-153

Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Early identification of vasospasm prior to symptom onset would allow prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) is a noninvasive means of assessing cerebral blood flow regulation by determining independence of low-frequency temporal oscillations of systemic blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV).

Methods: Eight SAH patients underwent prospectively a median of 7 DCA assessments consisting of continuous measurements of BCFV and BP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_22DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Development of a Delayed Cerebral Infarction Load Scoring System (DCI Score).

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:145-148

Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) is related to unfavorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There lacks a clear understanding how the DCI load affects cognitive function after SAH. We conducted a literature review on the clinical classification systems on brain hemorrhages and cerebral infarction and devised a Delayed Cerebral Infarction Load Scoring System (DCI Score). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_21DOI Listing
October 2019
9 Reads

Role of Bedside Multimodality Monitoring in the Detection of Cerebral Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:141-144

Division of Neurocritical Care, Department of Neurosurgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Detection of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in patients with a poor clinical exam is challenging. Brain tissue oxygen tension monitoring (PbtO) and cerebral microdialysis (CMD) can detect ischemia and metabolic derangements. Our aim was to evaluate efficacy of these modalities in real-time detection of DCI. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_20DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Endovascular Ultraviolet Laser-Facilitated Reversal of Vasospasm Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Canines.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:127-138

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Because treatments for cerebral arterial spasm-a delayed consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-are clinically inconsistent, we describe here a new method for reversal of arterial spasm, possibly extensible to nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive microvasculature.

Methods: We subjected dogs to the intracisternal double-hemorrhage model of SAH (autologous blood injection on days 1 and 3) and began endovascular treatment of the spasmed basilar artery (BA) on Day 4. A conical-tip fused silica optical fiber was introduced via a microcatheter (inserted femorally) into the proximal vicinity of the spasmed BA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_19DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

The Time Course of Cognitive Deficits in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:121-125

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating stroke type. Approximately 50% of survivors suffer from the permanent disability, caused by the cognitive deficits. To enrich the pre-clinical research on the neurological deficits after SAH, we investigate the temporal cognitive deficits and the longitudinal course of cognitive recovery in endovascular perforation SAH murine model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_18DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

The PERK Pathway Plays a Neuroprotective Role During the Early Phase of Secondary Brain Injury Induced by Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:105-119

Department of Neurosurgery and Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

The protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway, which is a branch of the unfolded protein response, participates in a range of pathophysiological processes of neurological diseases. However, few studies have investigated the role of the PERK in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The present study evaluated the role of the PERK pathway during the early phase of ICH-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) and its potential mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_17DOI Listing
October 2019
6 Reads

Spreading Depolarization during the Acute Stage of Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:97-103

Department of Neurosurgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Spreading depolarization (SD) has been suggested as a pathomechanism for delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the role of SD during the acute phase of SAH is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate (a) the occurrence of SD with intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging, (b) the effect of ketamine on SD, and (c) the resulting brain edema (brain water content (BWC)) during the acute stage of experimental SAH in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_16DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Tenascin-C Signaling in Cerebral Vasospasm and Brain Injuries After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:91-96

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed in various cell types in the central nervous system and exerts maximal inflammatory responses among the TLR family members. TLR4 can be activated by many endogenous ligands having damage-associated molecular patterns including heme and fibrinogen at the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm, and therefore its activation is reasonable as an initial step of cascades to brain injuries after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). TLR4 activation induces tenascin-C (TNC), a representative of matricellular proteins that are a class of inducible, nonstructural, secreted, and multifunctional extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_15DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pattern Predicts Acute Cerebral Blood Flow Response in the Rat.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:83-89

Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

There is considerable variability in the presentation of patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Evidence suggests that a thick, diffuse clot better predicts the development of delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcomes. In a rodent model of acute SAH, we directly measured the effects of the volume of blood injected versus the pattern of distribution of hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space on markers of early brain injury, namely, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of P450 eicosanoids and catecholamines, and cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_14DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

TAK-242, Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist, Attenuates Brain Edema in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mice.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:77-81

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.

Background: Brain edema is a common and critical pathology following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation may exacerbate brain edema. The purpose of this study was to clarify if TAK-242, a TLR4 antagonist, suppresses brain edema formation and neurological impairments after SAH in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_13DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

17-Allylamino-Demethoxygeldanamycin Ameliorate Microthrombosis Via HSP90/RIP3/NLRP3 Pathway After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:69-75

Department of Neurosurgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe and emergent cerebrovascular disease, the prognosis of which usually very poor. Microthrombi formation highlighted with inflammation occurs early after SAH. As the main cause of DCI, microthrombosis associated with the prognosis of SAH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_12DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

The Role of Galectin-3 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Preliminary Study.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:65-68

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.

Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), combined morbidity and mortality rate in SAH patients accounted for greater than 50%. Many prognostic factors have been reported including delayed cerebral ischemia, cerebral vasospasm-induced infarction, and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus as potentially preventable or treatable causes. Recent experimental studies emphasize that early brain injury, a concept to explain acute pathophysiological events that occur in brain before onset of cerebral vasospasm within the first 72 h of SAH, may be more important than cerebral vasospasm, a classically important determinant of poor outcome, in post-SAH outcome. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_11DOI Listing
October 2019
4 Reads

Aquaporin4 Knockout Aggravates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Through Impairment of the Glymphatic System in Rat Brain.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:59-64

Department of Anatomy and Histology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: It is reported that the expression of aquaporin4 (AQP4) in the brain is increased and leads to the brain edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, by using AQP4 knockout rat model, the opposite role of AQP4 in early brain injury following SAH through modulation of interstitial fluid (ISF) transportation in the brain glymphatic system had been explored.

Methods: The SAH model was established using endovascular perforation method, the AQP4 knockout rat model was generated using TALENs (transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases) technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_10DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Link Between Receptors That Engage in Developing Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:55-58

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.

Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been studied, but the mechanisms remain to be unveiled. Tenascin-C (TNC), which is a matricellular protein and reported to increase in spastic cerebral artery wall after SAH, is a ligand for both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Our previous studies suggested the involvement of TNC and these receptors in vasoconstriction or vasospasm after SAH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_9DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

Nox2 and Nox4 Participate in ROS-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Brain Injury During Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:47-54

Department of Neurosurgery and Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Previously studies have shown that Nox2 and Nox4, as members of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase, Nox), participate in brain damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of specific chemical inhibitors of Nox2 and Nox4 on cerebral I/R-induced brain injury in rats.

Methods: At 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_8DOI Listing
October 2019
4 Reads

Possible Involvement of Caspase-Independent Pathway in Neuronal Death After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:43-46

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan.

Early brain injury is now considered as an important cause of delayed neurological deterioration after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and neuronal apoptosis is one of the constituents of early brain injury. Caspase family is popular proteases in apoptotic pathways, but there also exist caspase-independent cell death pathways in many pathologic states. In this study, we investigated the ratio of caspase-related and caspase-unrelated neuronal deaths in a mice endovascular perforation SAH model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_7DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Rat Model of Intracranial Aneurysm: Variations, Usefulness, and Limitations of the Hashimoto Model.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:35-41

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Research Institute, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita City, Osaka, Japan.

Given the poor outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and high prevalence of IAs in general public, elucidation of mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disease and development of effective treatment are mandatory for social health. Recent experimental findings have revealed the crucial contribution of macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation to and greatly promoted our understanding of the pathogenesis. Also a series of studies have proposed the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_6DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Cell Culture Model to Study Cerebral Aneurysm Biology.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:29-34

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Mechanisms governing cerebral aneurysm (CA) formation, progression, and rupture remain incompletely understood. However, understanding such mechanisms is critical to improving treatment for patients harboring CA. In vitro studies facilitate dissecting molecular mechanisms underlying vascular pathology and allow screening of therapies that can be subsequently explored in vivo. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_5DOI Listing
October 2019
8 Reads

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Related Epilepsy.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:21-25

Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Epilepsy is a significant worldwide public health problem that leads to reduced quality of life and negative psychosocial consequences and significantly increases mortality rates in those who are affected. The development of epilepsy from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has an important negative impact on long-term survival, functional status, and cognitive recovery in patients following aneurysmal rupture. Anticonvulsant medication (AED) administration to prevent the development of epilepsy following SAH is controversial, and studies to date have not shown effectiveness of AED use as prophylaxis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_4DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Heparin Treatment in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Human Studies.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:15-19

Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remains a significant cause of stroke disability despite gradual reductions in physical morbidity and mortality. Heparin is an effective anti-inflammatory agent and may potentially prevent delayed neurological injury in the days to weeks after the hemorrhage. Various human studies have shown the safety of a continuous infusion of low-dose unfractionated heparin in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage as well as its efficacy in minimizing delayed neurological deficits including symptomatic cerebral vasospasm, vasospasm-related infarction, and cognitive dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_3DOI Listing
October 2019
3 Reads

History of Vasospasm Research in Japan: Commemoration of Professor Tomio Ohta.

Authors:
Kenji Kanamaru

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:11-13

Kanamaru Neurosurgical Clinic, Iga, Japan.

In the 1960s Professor Setsuro Ebashi, a physiologist from the University of Tokyo, discovered calcium ion plays a pivotal role in muscle contraction for the first time. However, he was confounded by icy neglect of the society of physiologists. The International Conference on Physiology was held in Boston in 1962, and Dr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_2DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Vasospasm: A Personal Odyssey.

Authors:
Bryce Weir

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2020 ;127:1-10

Neurosurgery, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Key references on the history of vasospasm, a selected bibliography of B.K.A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04615-6_1DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Management of Anaesthesia.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:381-386

Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Surgical treatment of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) requires excellent management by the anaesthetist. Patients undergoing this type of surgery have a wide range of concomitant diseases. Therefore, before proceeding to CVJ surgery, it is recommended to analyse the clinical aspects of the patient that could complicate the outcome of the surgical procedure. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_54
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_54DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Craniovertebral Junction Surgery.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:369-380

Institute of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Verona, Italy.

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) surgery encompasses a wide spectrum of neurosurgical procedures ranging from transoral approaches for CVJ bone anomalies to surgery for intramedullary tumours. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has been increasingly used in recent years because of its ability to prevent neurological complications during surgery. In CVJ surgery the risk of neurological injuries is related first to the positioning of the patient and then to the surgical procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_53DOI Listing
August 2019
13 Reads

Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Pain after Occipitocervical Fusion.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:365-367

Department of Neurosurgery, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is electric stimulation of the distal branches of the greater occipital nerve by cylindrical or paddle leads implanted in subcutaneous occipital tissue. This surgical option has emerged as a promising treatment for different types of disabling medical refractory headache and recently also for residual occipital and nuchal pain after previous occipitocervical fusion. The mechanisms of action have not yet been clearly explained: electrical stimulation of the occipital nerve has both peripheral and central effects on the nervous system, which may modulate nociception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_52DOI Listing
August 2019
34 Reads

Complications of Halo Placement.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:355-361

Department of Neurosurgery, AO Niguarda Ca'Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: The halo vest is widely used throughout the world to manage craniovertebral and cervical instabilities. It can be used for postoperative immobilization or as an alternative to surgical fixation.

Method: In this paper we present some cases of severe complications from our own practice and review the literature on halo complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_51DOI Listing
August 2019
8 Reads

Extensive Spinal Epidural Abscesses Resolved with Minimally Invasive Surgery: Two Case Reports and Review of the Recent Literature.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:345-353

Spine Surgery Division, Agostino Gemelli Hospital, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: An extensive spinal epidural abscess is a rare condition and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Few authors have described this uncommon entity, which requires early diagnosis and optimal treatment to avoid devastating complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a minimally invasive technique for treatment of an extensive spinal epidural abscess by describing two cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_50DOI Listing
August 2019
10 Reads

Management of Craniovertebral Junction Tuberculosis Presenting with Atlantoaxial Dislocation.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:337-344

Department of Neurosurgery, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Tuberculosis (TB) rarely involves the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is one of the most commonly encountered lesions in craniocervical TB. The incidence of TB and its craniovertebral manifestation is increasing even in developed countries because of intercontinental migration and increased prevalence rates of immunosuppression conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_49DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Functional Outcome After Odontoid Fractures in the Elderly.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:329-333

Neurosurgery, Sant'Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy.

While several papers on mortality and the fusion rate in elderly patients treated surgically or non-surgically for odontoid fractures exist, little information is available on quality of life after treatment. The aim of treatment in these patients should not be fracture healing alone but also quality of life improvement.A literature search using PubMed identified seven papers including information on functional evaluation of 402 patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_48
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_48DOI Listing
August 2019
30 Reads

Learning Curve in Surgical Treatment of Odontoid Fixation for a Series of Type II C2 Fractures.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:325-327

Neurosurgical Clinic, AOUP "Paolo Giaccone", PostGraduate Residency Program in Neurologic Surgery, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is a complex anatomical area upon which most of the motion of the upper cervical spine depends [1]. Because of its unique range of motion, the CVJ is subject to several types of traumatic injury; it has been shown that odontoid fractures are the most common ones in the general population and are the most common isolated spinal fractures [2]. Accounting for up to 18% of all cervical fractures, odontoid fractures are the most common ones in elderly patients [3], in whom they account for up to 60% of spinal cord injuries [4]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_47DOI Listing
August 2019
9 Reads

Type II Odontoid Fracture: a case series highlighting the treatment strategies.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:317-324

Neurosurgical Clinic, AOUP "Paolo Giaccone", PostGraduate Residency Program in Neurologic Surgery, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Background: A type II odontoid fracture, if unstable, can cause spinal cord damage. In this case, it is essential to choose the correct treatment-but the issues of what the correct treatment is and which of the different surgical options is best are quite controversial. In this paper we present strategies for treatment of type II odontoid fracture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_46DOI Listing
August 2019
10 Reads

The Decision-Making Process in Traumatic Lesions of the Craniovertebral Junction: An Evidence-Based Approach? Part II.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:313-316

Institute of Bio-imaging, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.

This paper is Part II of a two-part report. Part I of the report covered atlanto-occipital dislocation or dissociation, and isolated condylar fractures. This part of the report covers isolated and combination fractures of the atlas and axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_45DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

The Decision-Making Process in Traumatic Lesions of the Craniovertebral Junction: An Evidence-Based Approach? Part I.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:309-311

Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.

Evidence-based medicine is a rather young concept, which entered the scientific literature in the early 1990s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_44DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Posttraumatic Anatomical Injuries of the Craniovertebral Junction and Treatment Implications: Part II.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:303-307

Institute of Bio-imaging, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.

This paper is Part II of a two-part report. In Part I of the report, injuries of the occipital bone, atlanto-occipital dissociation and the atlanto-occipital joint space were discussed. This part of the report discusses atlantoaxial dislocation and fractures of the atlas and axis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_43
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_43DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Posttraumatic Anatomical Injuries of the Craniovertebral Junction and Treatment Implications: Part I.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:297-302

Institute of Bio-imaging, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.

Please check the hierarchy of the section headings and correct if necessary. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_42
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_42DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Odontoid Fusion.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:289-294

Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Anterior odontoid screw fixation allows for the internal fixation of unstable odontoid fractures with low morbidity, good fusion rates, and preservation of the atlanto-axial range of motion when applied in appropriate clinical cases. Advances in surgical techniques have allowed for safer, more minimally invasive approaches that reduce the risk of injury to vital prevertebral structures and minimize soft tissue retraction. Moreover, improvements in surgical image guidance technology for spinal surgery that have been applied to odontoid screw placement have helped improve surgeon confidence about exact screw trajectories. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_41
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_41DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Grisel's Syndrome: Non-traumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation-Report of Five Cases and Review of the Literature.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:279-288

, New York, USA.

Background: In children, when unresponsive neck rigidity and distress are observed after ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgical treatment or nasopharyngeal inflammation, Grisel's syndrome should be suspected. This is a rare syndrome involving non-traumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint. Conservative management with external cervical orthoses and empirical antibiotic, muscle relaxant and analgesic therapy should be the first choice of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_40DOI Listing
August 2019
15 Reads

Realignment of Basilar Invagination by C1-C2 Joint Distraction: A Modified Approach to a Paradigm Shift.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:273-277

Department of Neurosurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), Pisa, Italy.

Background: Distraction of the C1-C2 joint and maintenance thereof by introduction of spacers into the articular cavity can successfully and durably reduce basilar invagination (BI). Thus, with the adjunct of instrumented fusion and decompression, BI-induced myelopathy can be efficiently treated with a one-stage posterior approach. This intervention is technically challenging, and in this paper we describe a procedural variation to facilitate the approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_39DOI Listing
August 2019
10 Reads

Insights into the Past and Future of Atlantoaxial Stabilization Techniques.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:265-271

Alshafai Neurosurgical Academy (ANA), Toronto, ON, Canada.

Over the past century, atlantoaxial stabilization techniques have improved considerably. To our knowledge there has been a scarcity of articles published that focus specifically on the history of atlantoaxial stabilization. Examining the history of instrumentation allows us to evaluate the impact of early influences on current modern stabilization techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_38DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Retro-odontoid Degenerative Pseudotumour Causing Spinal Cord Compression and Myelopathy: Current Evidence on the Role of Posterior C1-C2 Fixation in Treatment.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:259-264

Department of Neurological Surgery, Policlinico "Gaspare Rodolico" University Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Background: A retro-odontoid pseudotumour compressing the spinal cord and causing myelopathy is often associated with an inflammatory condition such as rheumatoid arthritis. A degenerative non-inflammatory retro-odontoid pseudotumour responsible for clinically relevant spinal cord compression is a rare condition described in small clinical series and is likely associated with craniovertebral junction hypermobility or instability-like conditions. For several years, direct removal of the lesion through an anterior or lateral approach has been advocated as the best surgical option. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_37DOI Listing
August 2019
10 Reads