Purpose: We aimed to assess the macular anatomy using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), in children born preterm who had laser-treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to investigate the relationship between structural changes in macula and visual function.
Methods: Thirty-seven 3-8 years old children were included in the study in two groups: 20 children born preterm [(<34 weeks of gestation, birthweight (BW) <2000 g)] who had laser-treated ROP in the Neonatology Department, Municipal Clinical Emergency Hospital of Timisoara, Romania; and 17 controls (children born at term, without eye disease, matched for age and gender). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging (Spectralis OCT) was performed at central fovea and 1 mm nasally. Read More
Purpose: To assess preganglionic retinal function using multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in patients affected by dominant optic atrophy (DOA) stratified by OPA1 gene mutation.
Methods: Multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) was recorded in 18 DOA patients (DOA group, 35 eyes) and 25 age-matched healthy subjects (control group, 25 eyes). Patients were stratified in two groups based on gene mutation: missense mutation (DOA-M group, 11 eyes) and mutation causing haploinsufficiency (DOA-H group, 24 eyes). Read More
Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.
Purpose: To assess the impact of combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy and sequential surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) on refractive error (RE) and macular morphology.
Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, we allocated phakic eyes with ERM to (1) cataract surgery and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (CAT group), (2) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (3) phaco-vitrectomy (COMBI group). Examinations were at baseline, one month after each surgery, and at 3 months and 12 months of follow-up. Read More
Ophthalmology Experimental Laboratory, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
Purpose: We sought to determine if specific genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition response to ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Methods: A total of 403 Caucasian patients diagnosed with exudative AMD were included. After a three-injection loading phase, a pro re nata regimen was followed. Read More
Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Purpose: To investigate long-term visual results of treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) following a treat-and-extend regimen.
Methods: Retrospective review of 155 patients who initiated treatment with bevacizumab for nAMD in one eye. At the final 8-year visit, 40 patients (26%) remained for follow-up. Read More
Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Ophthalmology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Background: To report beta-trace protein (βTP) levels in the subretinal fluid (SRF) of four patients with a macular detachment associated with optic disc pit (ODP).
Methods: Four patients with a serous retinal detachment involving the macula was operated by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with C2 F6 gas tamponade and peeling of internal limiting membrane (ILM). Patients with a follow-up period exceeding one year postoperatively were included in the study. Read More
Purpose: To evaluate long-term outcomes on efficacy and safety of severe uveitic glaucoma treated with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI).
Methods: A retrospective study of 47 eyes of 47 patients with uveitic glaucoma treated by a BGI between September 2002 and September 2015. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, course of the uveitis, visual acuity (VA) and complications. Read More
Purpose: To determine whether mode of delivery has any impact on astigmatism.
Methods: This case-control study was performed in the Department of Ophthalmology in 2015. Exposure was mode of delivery [vaginal delivery (VD) or caesarean section (CS), which here included both elective and emergency CS]. Read More
Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (sVMA) is defined as visual loss secondary to foveal damage from vitreomacular traction (VMT) and includes isolated VMT, impending macular hole (MH), and full-thickness MH with persisting vitreous attachment. Management options include pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), intravitreal ocriplasmin, intravitreal gas injection or observation. This synthesis of the literature aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of intravitreal gas for sVMA. Read More
Department of Ophthalmology, Västmanland County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
Purpose: To study the occurrence and level of diabetic retinopathy (DRP) before and after planned bariatric surgery and to investigate potential risk factors for deterioration of DRP.
Methods: The Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg) was used to identify diabetic patients who underwent gastric bypass (GBP) surgery at three centres in Sweden during 2008-2010. Information regarding DRP screening was obtained from ophthalmological patient charts. Read More
Purpose: To explore patients' obtaining and use of spectacles after routine cataract surgery.
Methods: The study included 1329 patients who underwent bilateral surgery with the second eye operated during March 2013 at 38 different clinics in Sweden. Five months after the second-eye surgery, patients completed a five-item questionnaire about their spectacle use preoperatively and postoperatively. Read More
Dry eye, an age-related condition, is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance and tear film instability. Environmental factors are also often implicated in dry eye including exposure to pollutants, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone as well as the chronic use of preserved eyedrops such as in the treatment of glaucoma. These factors increase oxidative stress and ocular surface inflammation. Read More
Purpose: To study the long-term outcome of deep sclerectomy with and without mitomycin-C (MMC) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).
Methods: We prospectively analysed consecutive patients randomized to surgery performed either with (MMC group) or without (non-MMC) MMC. Surgery was considered totally successful if, after surgery, the preoperative intra-ocular pressure (IOP) level was reduced by 25% without medication, and a qualified success if medication was required to achieve the same limits. Read More
James Wardrop (1782-1869), a young Scottish surgeon and an early ophthalmologist in Edinburgh, is credited for describing in 1809 retinoblastoma as an entity in his treatise 'Observations on Fungus Haematodes or Soft Cancer'. His treatise also reveals that Allan Burns (1781-1813), another young Scottish surgeon and anatomist, had invited Wardrop to assist in enucleating an eye from a 41-year-old Glasgow woman who, in retrospect, had a uveal melanoma. Her eye had become blind 4 months after symptoms of exudative retinal detachment had appeared, and it had become painful after a further 2-4 months. Read More
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe.
Design: A cross-sectional population-based survey.
Methods: A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. Read More
Beetham Eye Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Objective: To describe the characteristic retinal features of lipemia retinalis when using ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.
Main Points: We report a case series of three subjects with ultrawide field retinal images showing cream discoloration of the fundus, light salmon-coloured posterior retinal vessels and greyish pink peripheral vasculature. On green-only imaging, many of the vessels appear light rather than typically dark. Read More
Purpose: To investigate the effects of an antioxidant dietary supplement that includes Ginkgo biloba, on retinal and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG).
Methods: Forty-five patients with confirmed OAG were enroled in a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Baseline and postadministration measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), retrobulbar blood flow, and retinal capillary blood flow were non-invasively measured (ultrasound and laser Doppler modalities, respectively) before and one month after antioxidant nutraceuticals and placebo administration. Read More
Centro Oftalmológico Virgilio Galvis, Floridablanca, Colombia.
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) was one of the most important scientists of the nineteenth century in optics and ophthalmology. One of his significant contributions in the field of vision sciences was the invention of the ophthalmometer in 1850, which was the precursor of the keratometers still used in clinical practice today. However, this development tends to be little recognized, and to be overshadowed by others of the achievements of this singular scientist. Read More
Department of Ophthalmology, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Purpose: This study sought to determine whether isolated third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies (NPs) are associated with increased short- and long-term risk of a subsequent stroke.
Methods: This was a nationwide retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study. A cohort of patients with NP (n = 466) and a randomly selected, propensity-matched control cohort (n = 2281) were extracted from the Korean national insurance claim database. Read More
Purpose: To investigate efficacy of prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics in reducing incidence of endophthalmitis after repair of open globe injuries. At King Abdulaziz University Hospital, a standard protocol of intravenous vancomycin and ceftazidime was used in all cases.
Methods: Charts of 353 patients who presented between January 2010 and January 2014 with open globe injury were retrospectively reviewed. Read More
The aim of this study was to review the most recent data about corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) evaluated with the use of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). For this purpose, an electronic search was conducted based on PubMed and Google Scholar and Web of Science databases from 2008 up to the end of 2016. Ninety-eight articles in English were cited, as well as abstracts in other languages, concerning the morphology and function of corneal SNP in various diseases. Read More
Purpose: To assess the impact of sequential and combined surgery [cataract surgery and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling] on corneal endothelium cell density (CED) and corneal biomechanical characteristics.
Methods: Phakic eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM) were prospectively allocated to (i) cataract surgery and subsequent PPV (CAT group), (ii) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (iii) phacovitrectomy (COMBI group). Eyes were examined at baseline, 1 month after each surgery, and at 3 and 12 months follow-up. Read More
Purpose: To investigate the central and paracentral astigmatism and the significance of centration and measurement zone diameter compared to a 3-mm pupil-centred measurement zone in keratoconus and in healthy eyes.
Methods: Twenty-eight right eyes from 28 KC patients with an inferotemporal cone were selected according to specified criteria based on Oculus Pentacam HR(®) measurements and were matched with healthy control eyes. The flat (K1) and steep (K2) keratometry readings were registered from the 'Total Corneal Refractive Power' (TCRP) display as well as the anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism displays (ACA and PCA, respectively). Read More
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of visual impairment in developed countries. Several improvements in the visualization of posterior segment of the eye together with the introduction of intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment have revolutionized the prognosis of the wet form of AMD (wAMD). Increasing incidence of wAMD together with the limited resources of society and of the healthcare system poses challenges for the provision and development of care. Read More
Purpose: To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea.
Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) groups. Read More
Purpose: We investigated the surgical results of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) with a modified C-shaped temporal inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap to reconstruct the foveolar architecture in highly myopic eyes.
Methods: Eighteen highly myopic eyes with MHRD in 17 patients who underwent a vitrectomy with a modified C-shaped temporal inverted ILM flap were followed for 12 months. Anatomic outcomes were evaluated by fundus examinations and optical coherence tomography. Read More
Purpose: The aims of this prospective experimental study were to explore the influence of the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) on retinal venous pressure (RVP) in human volunteers in a university setting and to establish correlations for RVP with the increase in airway pressure (∆AirP) and in intraocular pressure (∆IOP).
Methods: In total, 31 healthy young volunteers (age: 24 ± 1.7 years) were investigated. Read More
Purpose: To determine associations between physical activity (PA) and myopia in Danish school children and investigate the prevalence of myopia.
Methods: This is a prospective study with longitudinal data on PA in a Danish child cohort. Physical activity (PA) was measured objectively by repeated ActiGraph accelerometer measurement four times with different intervals (1-2. Read More
Purpose: This study aims to determine risk factors for retinal haemorrhage (RH) in high-risk infants.
Methods: A total of 3123 cases with high-risk pregnancy and/or neonatal asphyxia 72 hr after delivery were enrolled into this study. Fundus examinations were performed on newborns utilizing a wide-angle imaging system (RetCam III). Read More
Purpose: This retrospective cohort study examines the association between cataract surgery and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) during 5-year follow-up using population-based claims data.
Methods: We analysed data sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The study included 3465 patients who had undergone cataract operations and did not have a diagnosis of AMD before or on the surgery date (study group), and 10 395 age- and sex-matched comparison patients selected randomly from the remaining patients without an AMD diagnosis before the index date. Read More
Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of negative dysphotopsia after sequential cataract surgery.
Methods: Retrospective cohort study. The incidence of negative dysphotopsia was assessed by retrospective reviewing of medical records and interviews with patients between 2 and 4 months after sequential cataract surgery. Read More
Purpose: Craniopharyngioma often causes visual loss due to the close relation to the anterior visual pathways. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of visual outcomes in patients with craniopharyngioma.
Methods: Data from sixty-six patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma from 2009 to 2013 in Denmark were reviewed. Read More