613 results match your criteria Acta Naturae[Journal]

3D Models of Cellular Spheroids As a Universal Tool for Studying the Cytotoxic Properties of Anticancer Compounds In Vitro.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):92-100

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997 Russia.

The aim of this work is to develop a 3D cell culture model based on cell spheroids for predicting the functional activity of various compounds in vivo. Agarose gel molds were made using 3D printing. The solidified agarose gel is a matrix consisting of nine low-adhesive U-shaped microwells of 2. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of Additional Amino Acid Replacements on the Properties of Multi-point Mutant Bacterial Formate Dehyderogenase PseFDH SM4S.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):82-91

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071 Russia.

Formate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. 101 bacterium (PseFDH, EC 1.2. Read More

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December 2021

Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis: The 40S Subunit.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):14-30

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997 Russia.

The formation of eukaryotic ribosomes is a sequential process of ribosomal precursors maturation in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. Hundreds of ribosomal biogenesis factors ensure the accurate processing and formation of the ribosomal RNAs' tertiary structure, and they interact with ribosomal proteins. Most of what we know about the ribosome assembly has been derived from yeast cell studies, and the mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes are considered quite conservative. Read More

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Genomic Estimated Breeding Value of Milk Performance and Fertility Traits in the Russian Black-and-White Cattle Population.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):109-122

Laboratory of vertebrate genomics and epigenomics, Federal Research Centre "Fundamentals of Biotechnology" of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071 Russia.

A breakthrough in cattle breeding was achieved with the incorporation of animal genomic data into breeding programs. The introduction of genomic selection has a major impact on traditional genetic assessment systems and animal genetic improvement programs. Since 2010, genomic selection has been officially introduced in the evaluation of the breeding and genetic potential of cattle in Europe, the U. Read More

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November 2021

Fifty Years of Research on Protonophores: Mitochondrial Uncoupling As a Basis for Therapeutic Action.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):4-13

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Protonophores are compounds capable of electrogenic transport of protons across membranes. Protonophores have been intensively studied over the past 50 years owing to their ability to uncouple oxidation and phosphorylation in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The action mechanism of classical uncouplers, such as DNP and CCCP, in mitochondria is believed to be related to their protonophoric activity; i. Read More

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October 2021

Chemiluminescence Detection in the Study of Free-Radical Reactions. Part 2. Luminescent Additives That Increase the Chemiluminescence Quantum Yield.

L A Romodin

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):31-39

The A. I. Burnazyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow, 123098 Russia.

The present review examines the use of chemiluminescence detection to evaluate the course of free radical reactions in biological model systems. The application of the method is analyzed by using luminescent additives that enhance the luminescence thanks to a triplet-singlet transfer of the electron excitation energy from radical reaction products and its emission in the form of light with a high quantum yield; these additives are called chemiluminescence enhancers or activators. Examples of these substances are provided; differences between the so-called chemical and physical enhancers are described; coumarin derivatives, as the most promising chemiluminescence enhancers for studying lipid peroxidation, are considered in detail. Read More

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Artificial Scaffold Polypeptides As an Efficient Tool for the Targeted Delivery of Nanostructures In Vitro and In Vivo.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):54-72

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997 Russia.

The use of traditional tools for the targeted delivery of nanostructures, such as antibodies, transferrin, lectins, or aptamers, often leads to an entire range of undesirable effects. The large size of antibodies often does not allow one to reach the required number of molecules on the surface of nanostructures during modification, and the constant domains of heavy chains, due to their effector functions, can induce phagocytosis. In the recent two decades, targeted polypeptide scaffold molecules of a non-immunoglobulin nature, antibody mimetics, have emerged as much more effective targeting tools. Read More

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Tandem Exon Duplications Expanding the Alternative Splicing Repertoire.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):73-81

Center of Life Sciences, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, 121205 Russia.

Tandem exon duplications play an important role in the evolution of eukaryotic genes, providing a generic mechanism for adaptive regulation of protein function. In recent studies, tandem exon duplications have been linked to mutually exclusive exon choice, a pattern of alternative splicing in which one and only one exon from a group of tandemly arranged exons is included in the mature transcript. Here, we revisit the problem of identifying tandem exon duplications in eukaryotic genomes using bioinformatic methods and show that tandemly duplicated exons are abundant not only in the coding parts, but also in the untranslated regions. Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of the TREC and KREC Levels in the Dried Blood Spots of Healthy Newborns with Different Gestational Ages and Weights.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):101-108

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Inborn errors of immunity can be detected by evaluating circular DNA (cDNA) fragments of T- and B-cell receptors (TREC and KREC) resulting from the receptor gene rearrangement in T and B cells. Maturation and activation of the fetal immune system is known to proceed gradually according to the gestational age, which highlights the importance of the immune status in premature infants at different gestational ages. In this article, we evaluated TREC and KREC levels in infants of various gestational ages by real-time PCR with taking into account the newborn's weight and sex. Read More

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Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer Therapy.

Acta Naturae 2022 Jan-Mar;14(1):40-53

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia.

Apoptosis plays a crucial role in chemotherapy-induced cell death. The conventional theory holding that apoptosis needs to be immunologically silent has recently been revised, and the concept of immunogenic cell death (ICD) has been proposed. This review describes the main features of ICD induction. Read More

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Mechanism of Action of Monoclonal Antibodies That Block the Activity of the Lethal Toxin of Bacillus Anthracis.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):98-104

Federal Budget Institution of Science State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology of Rospotrebnadzor, Obolensk, Moscow Region, 142279 Russia.

Neutralization of the lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis is an important topic of both fundamental medicine and practical health care, regarding the fight against highly dangerous infections. We have generated a neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1E10 against the lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis and described the stages of receptor interaction between the protective antigen (PA) and the surface of eukaryotic cells, the formation of PA oligomers, assembly of the lethal toxin (LT), and its translocation by endocytosis into the eukaryotic cell, followed by the formation of a true pore and the release of LT into the cell cytosol. The antibody was shown to act selectively at the stage of interaction between Bacillus anthracis and the eukaryotic cell, and the mechanism of toxin-neutralizing activity of the 1E10 antibody was revealed. Read More

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A Comparative Analysis of CSF and the Blood Levels of Monoamines As Neurohormones in Rats during Ontogenesis.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):89-97

Institute of Developmental Biology RAS, Moscow, 119334 Russia.

According to the literature, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral ventricles contains numerous neuron-derived physiologically active substances that can function as neurohormones and contribute to volume neurotransmission in the periventricular region of the brain. This study was aimed at carrying out a comparative analysis of CSF and the blood levels of monoamines in rats during ontogenesis as an indicator of age-related characteristics of monoamine transport to body fluids and their function as neurohormones in volume neurotransmission in the periventricular region of the brain. We have shown that CSF in the perinatal period and adulthood contains the most functionally significant monoamines: dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles from Mycoplasmas Can Penetrate Eukaryotic Cells In Vitro and Modulate the Cellular Proteome.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):82-88

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, Kazan, 420111 Russia.

The extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by bacteria transport a wide range of compounds, including proteins, DNA and RNA, mediate intercellular interactions, and may be important participants in the mechanisms underlying the persistence of infectious agents. This study focuses on testing the hypothesis that the EVs of mycoplasmas, the smallest prokaryotes capable of independent reproduction, combined in the class referred to as Mollicutes, can penetrate into eukaryotic cells and modulate their immunoreactivity. To verify this hypothesis, for the first time, studies of in vitro interaction between human skin fibroblasts and vesicles isolated from Acholeplasma laidlawii (the ubiquitous mycoplasma that infects higher eukaryotes and is the main contaminant of cell cultures and vaccines) were conducted using confocal laser scanning microscopy and proteome profiling, employing a combination of 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF, the Mascot mass-spectrum analysis software and the DAVID functional annotation tool. Read More

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Evaluation of the Antiviral Potential of Modified Heterocyclic Base and 5'-Norcarbocyclic Nucleoside Analogs Against SARS-CoV-2.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):78-81

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

The pandemic caused by the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already claimed more than 3.5 million lives. Despite the development and use of anti-COVID-19 vaccines, the disease remains a major public health challenge throughout the world. Read More

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October 2021

The Different Impact of ERK Inhibition on Neuroblastoma, Astrocytoma, and Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Differentiation.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):69-77

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Aberrant ERK activity can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation, immortalization, and impaired cell differentiation. Impairment of normal cell differentiation is one of the critical stages in malignant cell transformation. In this study, we investigated a relationship between ERK tyrosine kinase activity and the main differentiation features (changes in cell morphology and expression of genes encoding differentiation markers and growth factor receptors) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, U-251 astrocytoma, and TE-671 rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Read More

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Circulating Actin-Binding Proteins in Laryngeal Cancer: Its Relationship with Circulating Tumor Cells and Cells of the Immune System.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):64-68

Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634050 Russia.

We previously exposed the role of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) in cancer development and progression. In this paper, we studied the relationship between circulating ABPs and the number of ABP-expressing leukocytes and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with highly aggressive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). The levels of cofilin (CFL1), profilin (PFN1), ezrin (EZR), fascin (FSCN1), and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) were determined using enzyme immunoassay. Read More

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Nanobodies Are Potential Therapeutic Agents for the Ebola Virus Infection.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):53-63

Federal State Budgetary Institution "National Research Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after the Honorary Academician N. F. Gamaleya" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 123098 Russia.

Ebola fever is an acute, highly contagious viral disease with a mortality rate that can reach 90%. There are currently no licensed therapeutic agents specific to Ebola in the world. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with viral-neutralizing activity and high specificity to the Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GP) are considered as highly effective potential antiviral drugs. Read More

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A Sorbent with Synthetic Ligand for Removing Pro-atherogenic and Pro-inflammatory Components from Human Blood Plasma.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):47-52

Federal State Budgetary Institution «National Medical Research Center of Cardiology» Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 121552 Russia.

Elevated levels of apoB-100 containing lipoproteins and markers of systemic inflammation are often observed in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The concentrations can be reduced by pharmacotherapy or extracorporeal treatment. The sorbent, which removes CRP and atherogenic lipoproteins, simultaneously reduces the bloodstream concentration of these components. Read More

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The rs1800470 Polymorphism of the TGFB1 Gene Is Associated with Myocardial Fibrosis in Heart Transplant Recipients.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):42-46

Shumakov National Medical Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Moscow, 123182 Russia.

The transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), whose level may depend on the polymorphism of the TGFB1 gene, is involved in the formation of myocardial fibrosis. Myocardial fibrosis in a cardiac allograft may lead to a heart's structural and functional remodeling and subsequent dysfunction. The frequency of occurrence of alleles and genotypes of the TGFB1 gene polymorphic regions rs1800469, rs1800470, and rs1800471 in heart transplant recipients and their association with graft myocardial fibrosis were analyzed. Read More

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Development of Neutralizing Nanobodies to the Hemagglutinin Stem Domain of Influenza A Viruses.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):33-41

FSBI "National Research Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after Honorary Academician N.F. Gamaleya" of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, 123098 Russia.

The influenza virus infection claims ~650,000 lives annually. Taking into account the evolving resistance of the pathogen to antiviral drugs and the waning effectiveness of vaccination among certain populations, new approaches to the treatment of influenza are needed. The current study is aimed at obtaining single-domain antibodies (Nanobodies®) to the highly conserved stem domain of influenza A virus hemagglutinin by phage display. Read More

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Molecular Tools for Targeted Control of Nerve Cell Electrical Activity. Part II.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):17-32

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow, 117997 Russia.

In modern life sciences, the issue of a specific, exogenously directed manipulation of a cell's biochemistry is a highly topical one. In the case of electrically excitable cells, the aim of the manipulation is to control the cells' electrical activity, with the result being either excitation with subsequent generation of an action potential or inhibition and suppression of the excitatory currents. The techniques of electrical activity stimulation are of particular significance in tackling the most challenging basic problem: figuring out how the nervous system of higher multicellular organisms functions. Read More

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The Hydrodynamics of a Swirling Blood Flow in the Left Heart and Aorta.

Acta Naturae 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):4-16

Bakulev National Medical Research Center of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 121552 Russia.

This paper proposes a new approach to the quantitative analysis of the hydrodynamic structure of a blood flow in the flow channel running from the left atrium to the end of the aorta. This approach is based on the concept of the structural organization of tornado-like swirling jets in channels with a given geometric configuration. Considering the large amount of experimental data in our possession, it was shown that along the entire length of the flow channel, conditions exist for the generation and maintenance of a swirling structure of the jet throughout the entire cardiac cycle. Read More

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A Method for Assessing the Efficiency of the Nucleotide Excision Repair System Ex Vivo.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):122-125

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia.

The nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the main repair systems present in the cells of living organisms. It is responsible for the removal of a wide range of bulky DNA lesions. We succeeded in developing a method for assessing the efficiency of NER in the cell (), which is a method based on the recovery of TagRFP fluorescent protein production through repair of the damage that blocks the expression of the appropriate gene. Read More

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February 2021

Targeting Extracellular Vesicles to Dendritic Cells and Macrophages.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):114-121

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry RAS, Moscow, 117997 Russia.

Targeting protein therapeutics to specific cells and tissues is a major challenge in modern medicine. Improving the specificity of protein therapeutic delivery will significantly enhance efficiency in drug development. One of the promising tools for protein delivery is extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are enveloped by a complex lipid bilayer. Read More

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A Mouse Model of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Axonal Degeneration As a Tool for Testing Neuroprotectors.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):110-113

Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia.

Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease begins from the axonal terminals in the striatum and, then, in retrograde fashion, progresses to the cell bodies in the substantia nigra. Investigation of the dynamics of axonal terminal degeneration may help in the identification of new targets for neuroprotective treatment and be used as a tool for testing potential drugs. We have shown that the degeneration rate of dopaminergic axonal terminals changes over time, and that the striatal dopamine concentration is the most sensitive parameter to the action of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Read More

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A Monoiodotyrosine Challenge Test in a Parkinson's Disease Model.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):106-109

Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow,119334 Russia.

Early (preclinical) diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major challenge in modern neuroscience. The objective of this study was to experimentally evaluate a diagnostic challenge test with monoiodotyrosine (MIT), an endogenous inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Striatal dopamine was shown to decrease by 34% 2 h after subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg MIT to intact mice, with the effect not being amplified by a further increase in the MIT dose. Read More

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Inactivating Gene Expression with Antisense Modified Oligonucleotides.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):101-105

Yale University New Haven CT USA.

Modified nucleotides, including phosphoramidates and mesyl nucleotides, are very effective in inactivating gene expression in bacteria. is the target gene in several organisms, including . Antisense reactions with bacteria infecting citrus plants are promising but incomplete. Read More

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Chemiluminescence Detection in the Study of Free-Radical Reactions. Part 1.

L A Romodin

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):90-100

Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MVA named after K.I. Skryabin, Departmental affiliation is Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 109472 Russia.

The present review, consisting of two parts, considers the application of the chemiluminescence detection method in evaluating free radical reactions in biological model systems. The first part presents a classification of experimental biological model systems. Evidence favoring the use of chemiluminescence detection in the study of free radical reactions, along with similar methods of registering electromagnetic radiation as electron paramagnetic resonance, spectrophotometry, detection of infrared radiation (IR spectrometry), and chemical methods for assessing the end products of free radical reactions, is shown. Read More

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Genetic Diversity and Evolution of the Biological Features of the Pandemic SARS-CoV-2.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):77-88

Mechnikov Research Institute for Vaccines and Sera, Moscow, 105064 Russia.

The new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) represents a challenge for global health. Since the outbreak began, the number of confirmed cases has exceeded 117 million, with more than 2.6 million deaths worldwide. Read More

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January 2021

The p53 Protein Family in the Response of Tumor Cells to Ionizing Radiation: Problem Development.

Acta Naturae 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):65-76

ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, 191002 Russia.

Survival mechanisms are activated in tumor cells in response to therapeutic ionizing radiation. This reduces a treatment's effectiveness. The p53, p63, and p73 proteins belonging to the family of proteins that regulate the numerous pathways of intracellular signal transduction play a key role in the development of radioresistance. Read More

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September 2020