Hum Immunol 2017 Feb 28;78(2):120-128. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:
Naïve CD4 T cells are pleiotropically divided into various T helper (Th) cell subsets, according to their pivotal roles in the regulation of immune responses. The differentiation of Th9 cells, an interleukin (IL)-9 producing subset, can be impacted by specific environmental cues, co-stimulation with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and IL-4, and other regulatory factors. Although IL-9 has been recognized as a classical Th2-related cytokine, recent studies have indicated that IL-9-producing cells contribute to a group of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis. Read More