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    Correction to: Effects of pegvisomant and somatostatin receptor ligands on incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with acromegaly.
    Pituitary 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Pituitary Unit, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
    The original version of the article contained an error in the results section of the Abstract. The vertebral fractures (VFs) odds ratio is incorrectly published as 61.0 and the correct value is 6. Read More

    Unusualmutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018 9;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Centre for Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein () mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. Read More

    Dermatologic manifestations of acromegaly: A case in point and a focused review.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Aug 15;23(8). Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Department of Dermatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
    Acromegaly is a systemic syndrome caused by overproduction of growth hormone. Cutaneous, endocrine, cardiovascular, skeletal, and respiratory systems are affected. Cutaneous changes in acromegaly relate to overexpression of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 on skin cells and adnexa. Read More

    Clinicopathological significance of baseline T2-weighted signal intensity in functional pituitary adenomas.
    Pituitary 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Capa, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34090, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To assess baseline T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-WSI) of functional pituitary adenomas (FPA), and to investigate the relationship of baseline T2-WSI with clinical features, histopathological granulation patterns, and response to treatment in patients with acromegaly, prolactinoma and Cushing's disease (CD).

    Methods: Somatotroph adenomas (n = 87), prolactinomas (n = 78) and corticotroph adenomas (n = 29) were included in the study. Baseline T2-WSI findings (grouped as hypo-, iso- and hyperintense) were compared with hormone levels, tumor diameter, granulation patterns and response to treatment. Read More

    Endoscopic Endo-Nasal Trans-Sphenoidal Excision of Pituitary Tumors: An Institutional Experience.
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Mar 7;70(1):98-101. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab 141008 India.
    To analyze the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of patients with pituitary adenoma treated by Endoscopic Endo-nasal Trans-sphenoidal (EETS) excision. Study was conducted on the basis of medical records of 14 patients who had undergone EETS excision of pituitary adenomas. The data obtained was assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics, radiographic features and post-operative outcomes. Read More

    Germline mutations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene and somatostatin receptor 1-5 and AIP immunostaining in patients with sporadic acromegaly with poor versus good response to somatostatin analogues.
    Pituitary 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa, 34303, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Objective: To determine aryl hydrocarbon interacting protein (AIP) gene variations and AIP and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1-5 immunostaining in patients with apparently sporadic acromegaly with poor versus good response to somatostatin analogues (SRLs).

    Methods: A total of 94 patients (66 with poor and 28 with good response to SRLs) were screened for the AIP gene variations using Sanger sequencing. Immunostaining was performed in 60 tumors. Read More

    Risk category system to identify pituitary adenoma patients withmutations.
    J Med Genet 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Centre of Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Background: Predictive tools to identify patients at risk for gene mutations related to pituitary adenomas are very helpful in clinical practice. We therefore aimed to develop and validate a reliable risk category system for aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein () mutations in patients with pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: An international cohort of 2227 subjects were consecutively recruited between 2007 and 2016, including patients with pituitary adenomas (familial and sporadic) and their relatives. Read More

    Presurgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: A long-term single-center experience.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Feb 6;167:24-30. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: Acromegalic patients with macro- or giant adenomas often had poor prognosis after surgery. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) show high effectiveness in both tumor shrinkage and serum GH reduction. But the role of SSAs in pre-surgical treatment and the management among macro- and giant adenomas remains controversial. Read More

    CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery in the multimodal management of acromegaly patients with invasive macroadenoma: a single center's experience.
    J Neurooncol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Surgery is the primary treatment for acromegaly. However, surgery may not be curative of some tumors, particularly invasive macroadenomas. Adjuvant radiation, specifically robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (rSRS), may improve the endocrine outcome. Read More

    Factors affecting early versus late remission in acromegaly following stereotactic radiosurgery.
    J Neurooncol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800212, Charlottesville, VA, 22908, USA.
    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established treatment modality for patients with acromegaly. Our previously published study demonstrated a median time to remission of 29 months. This study aims to identify factors affecting the timing of remission and also to quantify the rate of late remission. Read More

    Severe prostate enlargement with severe lower urinary tract symptoms in poorly controlled acromegaly successfully treated with 5α-reductase inhibitors: A 15-year longitudinal case report.
    Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Acromegaly is a rare disease associated with an increased risk of prostate enlargement. Severe prostate enlargement with severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in an acromegalic patient is even more uncommon. Herein we report on a 55-year-old man who was diagnosed with acromegaly and prostate enlargement at 40 years of age. Read More

    Female gonadal functions and ovarian reserve in patients with acromegaly: experience from a single tertiary center.
    Endocrine 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To evaluate the gonadal functions and related factors in female patients with acromegaly at the time of diagnosis, the course of gonadal dysfunctions and pregnancies during the follow-up period, and the investigation of ovarian reserve with serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in patients with reproductive age.

    Methods: Patients who were not menopausal at the time of acromegaly diagnosis (n = 47) were included in this study. Baseline gonadal status was evaluated retrospectively. Read More

    Effects of pegvisomant and somatostatin receptor ligands on incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with acromegaly.
    Pituitary 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Pituitary Unit, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
    Purpose: Acromegalic osteopathy is an emerging complication of acromegaly characterized by increase in bone turnover, deterioration in bone microarchitecture and high risk of vertebral fractures (VFs). Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) and pegvisomant (PegV) are used for treatment of acromegaly and there is evidence that both drugs may exert direct effects on peripheral targets regardless of biochemical control of disease. However, whether or not SRLs and PegV may directly influence skeletal health its is unknown. Read More

    GH and GHR signaling in human disease.
    Growth Horm IGF Res 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.
    Along with its inherent properties in growth promotion, cell division and regeneration, growth hormone (GH) exerts a variety of miscellaneous and widespread actions on the human body after binding to its receptor (GHR). Indeed, GH influences the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; shapes body composition, influences cardiovascular profile, quality of life, and induces other direct and indirect physiologic effects. Besides this salutary actions, GH and its derived peptide insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), main product of the GH/GHR interaction, have been implicated in the genesis of diseases such as cancer and insulin-resistant diabetes. Read More

    IGF-1-based screening reveals a low prevalence of acromegaly in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
    Endocrine 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Ziemssenstraße 1, 80331, München, Germany.
    Purpose: Recent epidemiologic studies suggest a high prevalence of acromegaly. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in acromegaly patients ranges from 47 to 70%. A recent study identified 2 patients with acromegaly among 567 OSAS patients. Read More

    [Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes].
    Internist (Berl) 2018 Feb;59(2):125-133
    Medizinische Klinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Ziemssenstr. 1, 80336, München, Deutschland.
    Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. Read More

    The comprehensive impact on human body induced by resolution of growth hormone excess.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Y Zhao, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univesity, Shanghai , China.
    Context: Chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) often leads to systemic complications. The reversibility of these complications after GH resolution is not fully understood.

    Objective: To investigate when and to what extent will the comorbidities be ameliorated. Read More

    Molecular evidence and clinical importance of β-arrestins expression in patients with acromegaly.
    J Cell Mol Med 2018 Jan 27. Epub 2018 Jan 27.
    Neuroendocrinology Research Center/Endocrinology Division, Medical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    β-arrestins seem to have a role in endocytosis and desensitization of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) and could be associated with the responsiveness to somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) in patients with acromegaly. To investigate the in vivo correlation between β-arrestins 1 and 2 with sst2, sst5 and dopamine receptor subtype 2 (D2) expressions, and the association of β-arrestins with response to first-generation SRL and invasiveness in somatotropinomas. β-arrestins 1 and 2, sst2, sst5 and D2 mRNA expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR on tumoral tissue of 96 patients. Read More

    Effects of active acromegaly on bone mRNA and microRNA expression patterns.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    I Dedov, director, The National Research Center for Endocrinology, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Objective: To evaluate the response of bone to chronic long-term growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) excess by measuring the expression of selected mRNA and microRNA (miR) in bone samples of patients with active acromegaly.

    Design: case-control study Methods: bone samples were obtained during transsphenoidal adenomectomy from the sphenoid bone (sella turcica) from 14 patients with clinically and biochemically-confirmed acromegaly and 10 patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) matched by sex and age. Expression of genes involved in the regulation of bone remodeling were studied using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) Results: Among genes involved in osteoblast and osteoclast activity, only alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA was 50% downregulated in patients with acromegaly. Read More

    Prognostic implications of telomerase expression in pituitary adenomas.
    Rev Clin Esp 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Departamento de Medicina/Endocrinología, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Unidad 747, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, España.
    Objectives: To analyse the prognostic value of telomerase expression in patients with pituitary adenomas (PAs) followed-up for at least 8 years.

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of samples from 51 PAs (40 typical and 11 atypical) from patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery between 2006 and 2008 and from 10 normal pituitary glands obtained by autopsy. Telomerase expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, correlating the expression with that of Ki-67 and p53. Read More

    Increasing Frequency of Combination Medical Therapy in the Treatment of Acromegaly with the GH Receptor Antagonist Pegvisomant.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    B Biller, Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States.
    Pegvisomant monotherapy is effective and safe in treatment of acromegaly.However, some clinicians combine pegvisomant with somatostatin analogues(SSA) or dopamine agonist(DA).In this analysis of ACROSTUDY, a long-term non-interventional study, the use of combination regimens was evaluated. Read More

    Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Acromegaly: What's the Impact of Disease Control?
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar São João, Faculty of Medicine University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319, Porto, Portugal.
    Objective: Cardiovascular disease is one of the most important causes of death in acromegalic patients. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among acromegalic patients and to evaluate the impact of disease control on these factors.

    Material And Methods: 11 acromegalic patients with active disease and 12 controlled patients were evaluated for blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, coagulation status, and lipid profile. Read More

    Efficacy of combined treatment with pasireotide, pegvisomant and cabergoline in an acromegalic patient resistant to other treatments: a case report.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2018 Jan 24;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases, Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialist Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche 2, 90127, Palermo, Italy.
    Background: The approach to acromegalic patients with persistent acromegaly after surgery and inadequate response to first-generation somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) should be strictly tailored. Current options include new pituitary surgery and/or radiosurgery, or alternative medical treatment with SRLs high dose regimens, pegvisomant (PEG) as monotherapy, or combined therapy with the addition of PEG or cabergoline to SRLs. A new pharmacological approach includes pasireotide, a second-generation SRL approved for patients who do not adequately respond to surgery and/or for whom surgery is not an option. Read More

    Biochemical efficacy of long-acting lanreotide depot/Autogel in patients with acromegaly naïve to somatostatin-receptor ligands: analysis of three multicenter clinical trials.
    Pituitary 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive, G-1500, P.O. Box 482, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106, USA.
    Purpose: In clinical research involving acromegalic patients naïve to somatostatin-receptor ligands (SRLs), 19 and 31% of those receiving the SRLs octreotide LAR and pasireotide LAR, respectively, achieved GH < 2.5 ng/mL + normalized IGF-1 concentrations. The proportions achieving control appeared higher in the post-surgery compared with the de-novo setting with pasireotide, but more similar with octreotide. Read More

    Coronary microvascular dysfunction may be related to IGF-1 in acromegalic patients and can be restored by therapy.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Feb 24;269:100-105. Epub 2017 Dec 24.
    Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Acromegaly increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Data on the cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic acromegaly are limited. In particular, data on coronary microvascular abnormalities are lacking. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Personalized medicine in the treatment of acromegaly.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Mar 16;178(3):R89-R100. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Neuroendocrinology Research Center/Endocrine Section and Medical SchoolHospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Acromegaly is associated with high morbidity and elevated mortality when not adequately treated. Surgery is the first-line treatment for most patients as it is the only one that can lead to immediate cure. In patients who are not cured by surgery, treatment is currently based on a trial-and-error approach. Read More

    Variable skeletal anatomical features of acromegaly in the skull and craniocervical junction.
    Acta Med Acad 2017 Nov;46(2):162-168
    Department of Anatomy and Surgical Anatomy, Medical School, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Objective: This study adds important information regarding the morphological alterations caused by growth hormone hypersecretion in the skull and craniocervical junction (CCJ). A variably asymmetric skull due to acromegaly coexists with expansion of the paranasal sinuses and multiple Wormian bones.

    Case Report: A pathologically asymmetric dry skull of a European male, aged 38 years at death, with cranial vault and skull base thickening is described. Read More

    Endokrynol Pol 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Department of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Mikolaja Kopernika 17, 31-501 Krakow, Poland; Katedra i Klinika Endokrynologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum, Mikołaja Kopernika 17, 31-501 Kraków, Poland.
    IntroductionIn the search for markers of invasiveness of pituitary adenomas, we studied the expression of Ki-67 antigen, TOPO 2A (topoisomerase 2 alpha), AIP (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Interacting Protein) and VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) in somatotropinomas.Material and MethodsWe retrospectively studied a group of 31 patients who underwent pituitary tumour surgery. Expression of Ki-67, TOPO 2A, AIP and VEGF in surgical specimens was determined by immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Cantú syndrome with coexisting familial pituitary adenoma.
    Endocrine 2018 Mar 11;59(3):677-684. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Context: Pseudoacromegaly describes conditions with an acromegaly related physical appearance without abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH) axis. Acromegaloid facies, together with hypertrichosis, are typical manifestations of Cantú syndrome.

    Case Description: We present a three-generation family with 5 affected members, with marked acromegaloid facies and prominent hypertrichosis, due to a novel missense variant in the ABCC9 gene. Read More

    Elevated serum IGF-1 level enhances retinal and choroidal thickness in untreated acromegaly patients.
    Endocrine 2018 Mar 10;59(3):634-642. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Purpose: 1) To compare the retinal, choroidal, Haller's layer, and Sattler's/choriocapillaris thicknesses of untreated acromegaly patients without chiasm compression or diabetes mellitus and healthy controls. 2) To evaluate the correlations of retinal and choroidal thicknesses with serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF) burden.

    Methods: This prospective, case-control study included 27 untreated acromegaly patients and 27 sex-matched and age-matched controls. Read More

    Increased Risk of Persistent Glucose Disorders After Control of Acromegaly.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Dec 24;1(12):1531-1539. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CRN2M Unité Mixte de Recherche 7286 and Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Endocrinology, La Conception Hospital, National Reference Center for Rare Pituitary Diseases, 13005 Marseille, France.
    Purpose: Combining surgery and medical treatments allows the control of growth hormone hypersecretion in 80% of cases. Our objective was to determine the rate of acromegaly comorbidities once hypersecretion of growth hormone is controlled.

    Methods: Our retrospective monocentric study was based on 130 patients followed on a regular basis, with acromegaly controlled by medical treatments or cured by surgery or radiation technique. Read More

    Silent somatotroph pituitary adenomas: an update.
    Pituitary 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Silent growth hormone adenomas (SGHA) are a rare entity of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnosis is invariably made post-operatively of a tumor immunopositive for GH (and Pit-1 in selected cases) but without clinical acromegaly. Mainly young females are affected, and tumors are often uncovered by investigation for headaches or oligoamenorrhea. Read More

    Pregnancy in a woman with acromegaly after transsphenoidal partial resection of pituitary macroadenoma - a case report.
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2017 Dec;43(258):268-271
    Department of Maternal and Child Health , Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of the Medical University.
    Acromegaly is a systemic disease caused by an excessive release of growth hormone and the hypopituitarism, which is induced by macroadenoma local mass effect. The gynecological and obstetric disorders include irregular menstrual cycles, anovulatory cycles and infertility. Therefore, pregnancy in patients affected by the disease is rare. Read More

    Runx2 overexpression compromises bone quality in acromegalic patients.
    Endocr Relat Cancer 2018 Mar 2;25(3):269-277. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of MedicineInternal Medicine, Section D, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Acromegalic patients, characterized by excessive secretion of GH and IGF-1, show a high fracture risk but bone mineral density is a poor predictor for bone fractures in these patients. The effects of an excess of GH/IGF1 on skeleton as well as on osteogenic progenitors, i.e. Read More

    Aggressive somatotrophinomas lacking clinical symptoms: neurosurgical management.
    Neurosurg Rev 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Department of Neurosurgery, International Neuroscience Institute-Hannover, Rudolf Pichlmayr Str. 4, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    We report our experience about somatotrophinomas without clinical manifestation of acromegaly having radiological- and surgical-verified invasion of the cavernous sinus. We present the clinical, radiological and hormonal status of three patients affected by invasive GH-secreting pituitary adenomas without clinical signs and symptoms of acromegaly with elevation of serum IGF-1 from a series of 142 pituitary adenomas operated in our institute with the aid of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Total tumor removal was possible in two of the three cases; the patients show normal hormonal status and no recurrence at long-term follow-up. Read More

    Correction to: Pegvisomant in acromegaly: an update.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2018 Feb;41(2):267
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Unfortunately, in page 584, second column, the first sentence under the heading "Type of switch" has been published incorrectly. The complete correct sentence is given below. Read More

    Effects of growth hormone on thyroid function are mediated by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in humans.
    Endocrine 2018 Feb 22;59(2):353-363. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.
    Purpose: Growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults alters thyroid function, and acromegaly often involves thyroid disease. The present study aimed to elucidate roles and mechanisms of GH in regulating thyroid function.

    Methods: We performed two retrospective observational studies, which focused on consecutive patients with severe adult GH deficiency who received recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy (n = 20) and consecutive patients with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) (n = 25). Read More

    Age- and Sex-Specific Differences as Predictors of Surgical Remission among Patients with Acromegaly.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Context: Sex and age are factors conferring resistance to medical treatment in patients with acromegaly. However, their impact on outcomes of transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) has not been evaluated.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze age- and sex-related differences concerning surgical outcomes of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. Read More

    Automatic Detection of Acromegaly From Facial Photographs Using Machine Learning Methods.
    EBioMedicine 2018 Jan 15;27:94-102. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan Hutong, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Automatic early detection of acromegaly is theoretically possible from facial photographs, which can lessen the prevalence and increase the cure probability.

    Methods: In this study, several popular machine learning algorithms were used to train a retrospective development dataset consisting of 527 acromegaly patients and 596 normal subjects. We firstly used OpenCV to detect the face bounding rectangle box, and then cropped and resized it to the same pixel dimensions. Read More

    Expression of E-cadherin, Slug and NCAM and its relationship to tumor invasiveness in patients with acromegaly.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 Dec 11;51(2):e6808. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.
    Pituitary adenomas account for 10-15% of primary intracranial tumors. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas account for 13% of all pituitary adenomas and cause acromegaly. These tumors can be aggressive, invade surrounding structures and are highly recurrent. Read More

    Association between dopamine and somatostatin receptor expression and pharmacological response to somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.
    J Cell Mol Med 2018 Mar 21;22(3):1640-1649. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
    Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder resulting from excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion frequently produced by pituitary adenomas and consequent increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). Elevated GH and IGF-I levels result in a wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and gastrointestinal morbidities. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) form the basis of medical therapy for acromegaly and are currently used as first-line treatment or as second-line therapy in patients undergoing unsuccessful surgery. Read More

    Pregnancy in women after successful acromegaly treatment, including surgical removal of pituitary adenoma and postoperative therapy using lanreotide acetate.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 ;33(sup1):50-51
    b International Clinical Center of the Reproductology "PERSONA" , Astana , Republic of Kazakhstan.
    Acromegaly is one of the most common syndromes in pituitary adenomas. Naturally, women with this condition have trouble with their reproductive function. The difficulty in diagnosing acromegaly progression in pregnancy is that there is also production of placental growth hormone observed, making it impossible to differentiate from neoplastic growth hormone production using conventional methods of investigation. Read More

    Pseudoacromegaly: A Differential Diagnostic Problem for Acromegaly With a Genetic Solution.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Aug 14;1(8):1104-1109. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom.
    Acromegaly is usually not a difficult condition to diagnose once the possibility of this disease has been raised. However, a few conditions present with some aspects of acromegaly or gigantism but without growth hormone (GH) excess. Such cases are described as "pseudoacromegaly" or "acromegaloidism". Read More

    Pachydermoperiostosis Masquerading as Acromegaly.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Feb 16;1(2):109-112. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, OXE 7LE, United Kingdom.
    Context: Acromegaly usually is suspected on clinical grounds. Biochemical confirmation is required to optimize therapy, but there are other differential diagnoses.

    Case Description: We describe a 24-year-old Uzbek man who presented with many clinical symptoms and signs of apparent acromegaly. Read More

    Somatotroph-Specific-Deficient Mice Display Pretumorigenic Alterations in Cell-Cycle Signaling.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Feb 13;1(2):78-95. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine and.
    Patients with familial isolated pituitary adenoma are predisposed to pituitary adenomas, which in a subset of cases is due to germline inactivating mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein () gene. Using Cre/lox and Flp/Frt technology, a conditional mouse model was generated to examine the loss of the mouse homolog,, in pituitary somatotrophs. By 40 weeks of age, >80% of somatotroph specific Aip knockout mice develop growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas. Read More

    Harvey Cushing Treated the First Known Patient With Carney Complex.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Oct 28;1(10):1312-1321. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Section of Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
    Context: Carney complex (CNC) is a syndrome characterized by hyperplasia of endocrine organs and may present with clinical features of Cushing syndrome and acromegaly due to functional adrenal and pituitary gland tumors. CNC has been linked to mutations in the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A type I-alpha () gene.

    Design: Tissue samples were taken from the hypothalamus or thalamus or tumors of patients with pituitary adenomas seen and operated on by neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing between 1913 and 1932. Read More

    Mapping AcroQoL scores to EQ-5D to obtain utility values for patients with acromegaly.
    J Med Econ 2018 Jan 5:1-8. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    f Endocrinology/Medicine Departments , Hospital Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER Unit 747) ISCIII, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) , Barcelona , Spain.
    Aims: To estimate a preference-based single index for the disease-specific instrument (AcroQoL) by mapping it onto the EQ-5D to assist in future economic evaluations.

    Materials And Methods: A sample of 245 acromegaly patients with AcroQoL and EQ-5D scores was obtained from three previously published European studies. The sample was split into two: one sub-sample to construct the model (algorithm construction sample, n = 184), and the other one to confirm it (validation sample, n = 61). Read More

    [Functional diagnostics in endocrinology].
    Internist (Berl) 2018 Jan;59(1):38-47
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Campus Innenstadt, Ziemssenstraße 1, 80366, München, Deutschland.
    When investigating many endocrinological diseases, basal laboratory parameters are not sufficient to distinguish between physiological and pathological hormone secretion. Functional diagnostics plays a decisive role in this context. Stimulation and suppression tests are used depending on whether under- or over-function needs to be diagnosed. Read More

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