2,128 results match your criteria Achilles Tendon Injuries and Tendonitis


Nonoperative Management of the Achilles Tendon Insertion.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2022 Jul;39(3):477-487

Phoenix Foot and Ankle Institute, 7301 East 2nd Street, Suite 206, Scottsdale, AZ 85251, USA. Electronic address:

Insertional Achilles tendinopathy can be a very challenging clinical syndrome with various nonoperative measures typically attempted before surgical intervention. Associated complications are known with surgical repair and can be limb altering. Owing to the longevity of clinical symptoms before clinical presentation, changing the pathophysiologic process and halting the inflammatory changes becomes paramount. Read More

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Failed Surgery for Achilles Tendinopathy.

Foot Ankle Clin 2022 Jun 5;27(2):431-455. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, John PappaJohn Pavillion (JPP), Room 01066, Lower Level, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Treatments of Achilles tendinopathy continue to evolve. The body of literature is inadequate to provide a comprehensive guide to evaluation and treat failed surgeries. Issues related to failed surgical treatment may be divided into infection/wound issue, mechanical failure, and persistent pain. Read More

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Imaging of Tendinopathies in Advancing Age.

Radiol Clin North Am 2022 Jul 20;60(4):583-592. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), 1000 Rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec H2X 0C1, Canada. Electronic address:

Aging changes tendon biology, healing capacity, and biomechanical properties and results in increased susceptibility to injuries. With the aging population, the socio-economic burden from tendinopathies is increasing. This article discusses the structure of tendons and the physiologic changes that occur with aging. Read More

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Anatomical Classification for Plantaris Tendon Insertion and Its Clinical Implications: A Cadaveric Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 10;19(10). Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea.

The purposes of this study were to ascertain the morphological characteristics of a plantaris tendon (PT) insertion using a larger-scale dissection of Korean cadavers and to classify the types of PT insertion related to the calcaneal tendon (CT). A total of 108 feet from adult formalin-fixed cadavers (34 males, 20 females) were dissected. The morphological characteristics and measurements of the PT insertion were evaluated. Read More

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Farrerol alleviates collagenase-induced tendinopathy by inhibiting ferroptosis in rats.

J Cell Mol Med 2022 Jun 18;26(12):3483-3494. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Yuebei People's Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University Medical College, Shaoguan, Guangdong, China.

Tendinopathy is mainly characterized by local pain, functional limitation and decreased athletic ability, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients and the career of athletes. Farrerol (FA), one of the main active compounds extracted from Rhododendron and plants in the Rhododendron family, has a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects. However, the effect of FA on tendinopathy is unclear. Read More

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Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in patients with spondyloarthritis and clinical diagnosis of heel enthesitis: post hoc analysis from the phase 3 ACHILLES trial.

Arthritis Res Ther 2022 05 16;24(1):111. Epub 2022 May 16.

CIRI/Rheumatology and Fraunhofer TMP, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristics and clinically assess heel enthesitis in spondyloarthritis (SpA) by applying in a post hoc analysis the Heel Enthesitis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring system (HEMRIS) in blinded and centrally-read MRI data from the ACHILLES trial (NCT02771210).

Methods: ACHILLES included patients (≥18 years) with active psoriatic arthritis or axial SpA with clinical and MRI-positive heel enthesitis refractory to standard treatment. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous secukinumab 150/300 mg or placebo. Read More

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YouTube and the Achilles Tendon: An Analysis of Internet Information Reliability and Content Quality.

Cureus 2022 Apr 9;14(4):e23984. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Orthopedics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the educational content, quality, and reliability of YouTube videos regarding the Achilles tendon and Achilles tendon injuries.

Methods: The first 50 videos found on YouTube after searching "Achilles tendon" were evaluated and classified by content type and uploader source. Reliability and accuracy were assessed using the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria, nonspecific educational content was assessed via the Global Quality Score (GQS), and specific educational content was assessed using the Achilles Tendon Specific Score (ATSS). Read More

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Recreational runners with Achilles tendinopathy have clinically detectable impairments: A case-control study.

Phys Ther Sport 2022 May 6;55:241-247. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To confirm what impairments are present in runners with Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and explore the variance of AT severity in an adequately powered study.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Two private physiotherapy clinics in Australia and Spain. Read More

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Blood Flow Restriction Resistance Training in Tendon Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review on Intervention Parameters, Physiological Effects, and Outcomes.

Front Sports Act Living 2022 25;4:879860. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Aberdeen City Council, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Objective: To identify current evidence on blood flow restriction training (BFRT) in tendon injuries and healthy tendons, evaluating physiological tendon effects, intervention parameters, and outcomes.

Methods: This scoping review was reported in accordance with the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Databases searched included MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBase, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane library (Controlled trials, Systematic reviews), and five trial registries. Read More

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A Regenerated Achilles Tendon with Good Function One Year After Total Extirpation Due to Infection - A Case Report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2022 22;15:219-223. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Institute of Sports Exercise and Health, University College Hospital London, London, UK.

Background: Delayed Achilles tendon ruptures leaving large defects are difficult to treat, and the potential for tendon regeneration is thought to be limited. Furthermore, post-operative wound healing problems, sometimes including infections, can be challenging to treat and negatively affect rehabilitation.

Case Presentation: This 74-year-old lady suffered from insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Read More

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The Cincinnati incision is safe and effective for revision surgery for insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon.

Sci Rep 2022 04 22;12(1):6653. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Orthopaedic, Trauma, and Reconstructive Surgery, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

The present study reports the outcomes of revision surgery using a Cincinnati incision with tendon debridement and calcaneoplasty for insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) in a cohort of patients at 24-month follow-up. Patients undergoing revision surgery following failed previous surgery for IAT were prospectively recruited. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at 3, 6,12 and 24 months. Read More

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Friedelin Alleviates the Pathogenesis of Collagenase-Induced Tendinopathy in Mice by Promoting the Selective Autophagic Degradation of p65.

Nutrients 2022 Apr 18;14(8). Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

With the development of an aging population, tendinopathy has become a common musculoskeletal disease in the elderly with a high recurrence rate and no curative treatment. The inflammation mediated by NF-κB signaling plays an important role in tendon senescence and degeneration. Friedelin (FR) is a triterpenoid derived from green plants, which has a variety of pharmacological functions, such as analgesia, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and anti-tumor functions. Read More

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Mechanical and strain behaviour of human Achilles tendon during in vitro testing to failure.

Eur Cell Mater 2022 04 21;43:153-161. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Rehabilitation Medicine Research Center, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905,

The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the human body but its mechanical behaviour during failure has been little studied and the basis of its high tensile strength has not been elucidated in detail. In the present study, healthy, human, Achilles tendons were loaded to failure in an anatomically authentic fashion while the local deformation and strains were studied in real time, with very high precision, using digital image correlation (DIC). The values determined for the strength of the Achilles tendon were at the high end of those reported in the literature, consistent with the absence of a pre-existing tendinopathy in the samples, as determined by careful gross inspection and histology. Read More

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Injury and Illness in Elite Athletics: A Prospective Cohort Study Over Three Seasons.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2022 1;17(3):420-433. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, Oslo, Norway; Centre for Disease Burden, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Athletics (also known as track and field) is one of the most popular sports in the world and is the centrepiece of the Summer Olympic Games. Participation in athletics training and competition involves a risk of illness and injury.

Purpose: To describe injury and illness in British Olympic track and field athletes over three full training and competition seasons. Read More

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Long-term anti-inflammatory effects of injectable celecoxib nanoparticle hydrogels for Achilles tendon regeneration.

Acta Biomater 2022 05 22;144:183-194. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science and Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The treatment of chronic Achilles tendonitis (AT) often requires prolonged therapy and invasive therapeutic methods such as surgery or therapeutic endoscopy. To prevent the progression of chronic AT, excessive inflammation must be alleviated at an early stage. Corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally prescribed to control inflammation; however, the high doses and long therapeutic periods required may lead to serious side effects. Read More

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Clinical and Histologic Evaluation of Partial Achilles Tendon Injury Repair with Amniotic Membrane in Rats.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2022 Mar 16;112(1). Epub 2022 Mar 16.

†Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Medical School, Rize, Turkey.

Background: Adhesions after tendinopathy in individuals who perform physical work and those physically active in middle age are a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons. We evaluated the effects of human-derivated amniotic membrane on tendon healing, adhesions, angiogenesis, and the inflammatory process.

Methods: Thirty-five rats were divided evenly into five groups, and the left lower extremity was used in this study. Read More

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Kinesiophobia Severity Categories and Clinically Meaningful Symptom Change in Persons With Achilles Tendinopathy in a Cross-Sectional Study: Implications for Assessment and Willingness to Exercise.

Front Pain Res (Lausanne) 2021 1;2:739051. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

School of Allied Health, LaTrobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Center, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

(1) Validate thresholds for minimal, low, moderate, and high fear of movement on the 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11), and (2) Establish a patient-driven minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for Achilles tendinopathy (AT) symptoms of pain with heel raises and tendon stiffness. Four hundred and forty-two adults with chronic AT responded to an online survey, including psychosocial questionnaires and symptom-related questions (severity and willingness to complete heel raises and hops). Kinesiophobia subgroups (Minimal ≤ 22, Low 23-28, Moderate 29-35, High ≥ 36 scores on the TSK-11), pain MCID subgroups (10-, 20-, 30-, >30-points on a 0- to 100-point scale), and stiffness MCID subgroups (5, 10, 20, >20 min) were described as median [interquartile range] and compared using non-parametric statistics. Read More

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September 2021

Diabetes mellitus tendino-myopathy: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of an overlooked diabetic complication.

Acta Diabetol 2022 Jul 15;59(7):871-883. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.

Tendino-myopathy, an unexplored niche, is a non-vascular unstated T2DM complication, which is largely disregarded in clinical practice, thus, we aim to explore it in this review. Literature search using published data from different online resources. Epidemiologically, reported prevalence varies around 10-90%, which is marked variable and unreliable. Read More

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[Treatment and diagnosis of overuse injury in the Achilles tendon].

Lakartidningen 2022 03 15;119. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

med dr, leg fysioterapeut, sahlgrenska akademin.

Achilles tendinopathy is a common overuse injury, especially among runners. It should be divided into midportion Achilles tendinopathy and insertional Achilles tendinopathy, as the treatments are different. Achilles tendinopathy is a clinical diagnosis, which includes a combination of pain, swelling and stiffness. Read More

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Antioxidant effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide in tendinopathy.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Mar 14;23(1):249. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan.

Background: A link between tendinopathy and oxidative stress has been recently reported. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which plays an important role in cell redox homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of NMN on tendinopathy in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Management of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 May 10;30(10):e751-e759. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (Chen and Panchbhavi), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Naval Medical Center San Diego, CA (Janney), and the Oneida Orthopaedic Specialists - Oneida, NY (Khalid).

Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that can lead to chronic, debilitating heel pain in athletes and nonathletes alike. Conservative treatment options include activity and shoe wear modification, physical therapy, injections, and extracorporeal shock wave therapy. When nonsurgical treatment fails, surgical treatment is recommended. Read More

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[Application of ultra-short echo time-T* component analysis technology in monitoring morphological and biochemical changes of achilles tendon in amateur marathon athletes].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Mar;102(9):629-635

Department of Radiology, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, SUN Yat-Sen University,Zhuhai 519000, China.

To explore the value of ultra-short echo time (UTE)-T* component analysis techniques in dynamic monitoring the morphological and biochemical changes in amateur marathon athletes' achilles tendon before and after the marathon. Twenty-nine amateur marathon runners were recruited between October 2020 and March 2021 in Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province, including 25 males and 4 females, aged from 24 to 50 (40±6) years old. All volunteers underwent bilateral achilles tendon MRI examination 1 week before the marathon, 48 hours after the race, and 1 month after the race. Read More

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Dexamethasone Enhances Achilles Tendon Healing in an Animal Injury Model, and the Effects Are Dependent on Dose, Administration Time, and Mechanical Loading Stimulation.

Am J Sports Med 2022 04 2;50(5):1306-1316. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background: Corticosteroid treatments such as dexamethasone are commonly used to treat tendinopathy but with mixed outcomes. Although this treatment can cause tendon rupture, it can also stimulate the tendon to heal. However, the mechanisms behind corticosteroid treatment during tendon healing are yet to be understood. Read More

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Evaluating daily physical activity and biomechanical measures using wearable technology in people with Achilles tendinopathy: A descriptive exploratory study.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2022 Apr 22;58:102534. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Physiotherapy, School of Primary and Allied Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Load management is considered an important factor for prevention and treatment of Achilles tendinopathy. However, little attention has been given to monitoring daily load objectively in this population.

Objectives: We aimed to explore patterns in proxies of daily load derived from a six-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) over a one-week period and the concordance between day-to-day fluctuation in pain intensity and IMU measures. Read More

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Association between matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphisms and tendon-ligament injuries: evidence from a meta-analysis.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2022 Feb 16;14(1):26. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Orthopedic Center, People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, No. 91 Tianchi Road, Urumqi, 830001, Xinjiang, China.

Background: Tendon-ligament injuries (TLIs), including Achilles tendinopathy, cruciate ligament injury, tennis elbow, rotator cuff injury, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial tendinopathy, are common musculoskeletal soft injuries during physical activity. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in the etiology of TLIs in several genetic association studies with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to collect and synthesize the current evidences on the association of MMP-3 polymorphisms and TLIs. Read More

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February 2022

Insertional versus non-insertional tendoachilles tears: a comparative analysis of various predisposing factors and outcome following a repair.

Int Orthop 2022 05 15;46(5):1009-1017. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Orthopedics and Spine Surgery, Ganga Medical Center & Hospital, 313, Mettupalayam Road, Coimbatore, 641043, India.

Background: Association of tendon degeneration, pre-existing posterior heel pain, Haglund's bump, retrocalcaneal spur, and mode of injury varies for the insertional and non-insertional type of tendoachilles tears (TA).

Purpose: The study compares the various predisposing factors that determine the distinct type of TA tear and the outcome following a repair.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of the patients who underwent tendoachilles repair during January 2012-June 2018. Read More

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Free Achilles tendon strain during selected rehabilitation, locomotor, jumping, and landing tasks.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2022 04 10;132(4):956-965. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Griffith Centre of Biomedical and Rehabilitation Engineering, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, and Advanced Design and Prototyping Technologies Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

A better understanding of the strains experienced by the Achilles tendon during commonly prescribed exercises and locomotor tasks is needed to improve efficacy of Achilles tendon training and rehabilitation programs. The aim of this study was to estimate in vivo free Achilles tendon strain during selected rehabilitation, locomotor, jumping, and landing tasks. Sixteen trained runners with no symptoms of Achilles tendinopathy participated in this study. Read More

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Neuromechanical changes in Achilles tendinopathy and the effects of exercise-induced mechanical tendon loading: a protocol for a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2022 Feb 8;12(2):e050186. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Centre of Precision Rehabilitation for Spinal Pain (CPR Spine), School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Introduction: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a debilitating overuse injury characterised by pain, impaired functional performance, morpho-mechanical changes to the Achilles tendon and triceps surae neuromuscular alterations. Loading-based exercise has become the principal non-surgical choice for the treatment of AT; however, mechanistic evidence by which loading-based treatment may help to resolve tendon pain remains unclear. This systematic review aims to summarise the evidence of the neuromechanical changes produced by AT and by exercise-induced mechanical loading. Read More

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February 2022

HIF-1α inhibition attenuates severity of Achilles tendinopathy by blocking NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 May 5;106:108543. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, No.639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Tendinopathy is a common disease influencing life quality and tendon function of patients, especially in the elderly and athletes. Inflammation is an important pathologic process of tendinopathy. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) participates actively in inflammatory process. Read More

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The effect of combined action observation therapy and eccentric exercises in the treatment of mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy: study protocol for a feasibility pilot randomised controlled trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2022 Feb 7;8(1):30. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

UCD School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common overuse injury which can be difficult to successfully rehabilitate. Whilst peripherally directed treatment approaches that strengthen the Achilles tendon complex can be efficacious for some individuals, others will continue to experience long-standing pain and functional deficits. Expanding our rehabilitation approach beyond the tendon mechanical properties to include techniques which target the central neurophysiological changes which can occur in chronic injuries, including mid-portion AT, may improve our rehabilitation outcomes. Read More

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February 2022