Dig Liver Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.
Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; UOC Gastroenterologia ed Endoscopia, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via F Sforza, 35, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
High resolution manometry (HRM), developed from conventional manometry, is the gold standard for assessment of esophageal motor function worldwide. The Chicago Classification, now in its fourth iteration, is the modern standard for HRM categorization of esophageal motility disorders. The HRM protocol has expanded from the original 10 supine swallow standard, to include upright swallows, and provocative maneuvers such as multiple rapid swallows, rapid drink challenge and standardized test meal. Read More