525 results match your criteria Accountability in research[Journal]


The Perceived Prevalence of Research Fraud among Faculty at Research-Intensive Universities in the USA.

Account Res 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

RTI International.

Survey-based studies on research fraud often feature narrow operationalizations of misbehavior and use limited samples. Such factors potentially hinder the development of strategies aimed at reducing the frequency of wrongdoing among researchers. This study asked full-time faculty members in the natural, social, and applied sciences how frequently six types of research fraud (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1772060DOI Listing

Is research in peril in Nepal? Publication trend and research quality from projects funded by the University Grants Commission-Nepal.

Account Res 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Sunita Foundation, Gaurighat, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Institutions of higher learning are critical in promoting a knowledge-driven economy through research and training. Nepali universities receive funding from the University Grants Commission, Nepal (UGC-N) to support for impactful research. UGC-N requires grantees to publish research results as journal articles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1768374DOI Listing

Perceptions of occurrence of research misconduct and related factors among Kenyan investigators engaged in HIV research.

Account Res 2020 May 13:1-18. Epub 2020 May 13.

Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, Eldoret, Kenya.

We report on occurrence and correlates of self-reported research misconduct (RM) by 100 Kenyan researchers who had received ethics approval for an HIV research in the 5 years preceding the survey. The survey used the Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire-Revised tool uploaded on a Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCAP) platform. The response rate was low at 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1759425DOI Listing

Civil disobedience in scientific authorship: Resistance and insubordination in science.

Account Res 2020 May 14:1-25. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Health, Ethics & Society, Care and Public Health Research Institute (Caphri), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The distribution of credit, resources and opportunities in science is heavily skewed due to unjust practices and incentives, hardwired into science's rules, guidelines and conventions. A form of resistance widely available is to break those rules. We review instances of rule-breaking in scientific authorship to allow for a redefinition of the concept of civil disobedience in the context of academic research, as well as the conditions on which the label applies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1756787DOI Listing

How Chinese scientific societies should promote the construction of research integrity.

Authors:
Fei Wang Yingjie Li

Account Res 2020 Apr 22:1-13. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, CN, China.

Scientific societies play an important role in promoting and fostering research integrity. Through a comparative study between China and the United States based on information published over the internet, this article lays out some problems existing in Chinese scientific societies concerning the promotion of research integrity. Research integrity assumes only a minor presence in societies' policy texts, terms that are incorporated tend to be too general, and concrete action often remains superficial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1756265DOI Listing

A comparative analysis of retracted papers in Health Sciences from China and India.

Account Res 2020 Apr 18:1-16. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of International Business Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India.

Academics are expected to publish their research work. Hence, during the past few years, the scientific community has witnessed an ever-increasing growth and output in scientific papers. However, a large number of authors have violated ethical norms of research leading to retractions of their research works as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1754804DOI Listing

A review of the literature on ethical issues related to scientific authorship.

Account Res 2020 Apr 16:1-41. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Institute of Ethics, School of Theology, Philosophy and Music, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

The article at hand presents the results of a literature review on the ethical issues related to scientific authorship. These issues are understood as questions and/or concerns about obligations, values or virtues in relation to reporting, authorship and publication of research results. For this purpose, the Web of Science core collection was searched for English resources published between 1945 and 2018, and a total of 324 items were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1750957DOI Listing

A comparison of policy provisions for managing "financial" and "non-financial" interests across health-related research organizations: A qualitative content analysis.

Account Res 2020 May 9;27(4):212-237. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Charles Perkins Centre, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

It is largely taken-for-granted, and sometimes advocated that the same strategies to identify, assess, and manage financial conflicts of interest may also be applied to so-called non-financial conflicts of interest. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 22 conflict of interest policies from prominent organizations engaged in health-related research to compare and critically analyze the range of policy approaches for managing financial and non-financial interests. We extracted and analyzed policy content using an instrument based on the normative framework for evaluating conflict of interest policy proposed by the Institute of Medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1748015DOI Listing
May 2020
0.717 Impact Factor

Toward global standardization of conducting fair investigations of allegations of research misconduct.

Account Res 2020 May 12:1-20. Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Research Integrity and Ethics, School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan.

In the United States, through nation-wide discussions, the procedures for handling allegations of research misconduct are now well established. Procedures are geared toward carefully treating both complainants and respondents fairly in accordance with the US framework. Other countries, which have their own cultural and legal framework, also need fair and legally compatible procedures for conducting investigations of allegations of research misconduct. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1747019DOI Listing

"No more than one day per week" seems simple enough: So why is conflict of commitment so confusing?

Authors:
Gregory Samsa

Account Res 2020 May 28;27(4):240-245. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Duke Office of Scientific Integrity - Conflict of Interest, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Conflict of interest (COI) and conflict of commitment (COC) are similar in that both concern the "risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest" (Institute of Medicine). The Institute of Medicine recommends that the circumstances, risks, and evaluative frameworks for COI and COC warrant separate consideration. Here, we discuss some principles (and thus an evaluative framework) underlying COC and hope to provide a clarifying framework which extends across institutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1746187DOI Listing

Collecting and characterizing existing and freely accessible research integrity educational resources.

Account Res 2020 May 9;27(4):195-211. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

KU Leuven,Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Leuven, Belgium.

In addition to effective training practices, well-structured educational resources are important for developing successful research integrity training programs. A considerable amount of educational material has been developed in the last years, but there is a necessity to find better ways to assess and categorize the already existing resources. We collected 237 freely available online RI educational resources with the aim to describe them in as much detail as possible using a set of well-defined criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1736571DOI Listing

Acknowledging editing and translation: A pending issue in accountability.

Account Res 2020 May 10;27(4):238-239. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Translator and Editorial Consultant, Granada, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1737525DOI Listing

Anti-doping research and the Helsinki Declaration: (mis)match?

Account Res 2020 May 20;27(4):179-194. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The fight against doping in sport is internationally coordinated by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Through its World Anti-Doping Code, WADA aims to harmonize anti-doping policies, rules and regulations. One key reference document bound to the Code is the International Standard for Laboratories (ISL), which mainly specifies the criteria that must be met for laboratory accreditation, as well as standards to adopt for the production of valid test results and evidentiary data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1733426DOI Listing

Academic research integrity: Exploring researchers' perceptions of responsibilities and enablers.

Account Res 2020 04 3;27(3):146-177. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Division of Research, UNSW - Sydney, Australia.

In this paper, we explore academic researchers' perceptions of the relative importance of the individual responsibilities in the "Singapore Statement on Research Integrity". The way researchers view those responsibilities affects the role that research integrity enablers can play in achieving responsible research conduct. Hence, we also explore researchers' perceptions of five such integrity enablers in this paper: country and university codes of conduct, staff training, mentoring and peer pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1732824DOI Listing

Evaluation of length and complexity of written consent forms in English and Hebrew for participation in clinical trials authorized in one medical institution in Israel: A descriptive study.

Account Res 2020 04 20;27(3):138-145. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Surgery (Emeritus), Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Informed consent forms (ICFs) in clinical trials are the only objective testimony whether the information provided to participants is comprehensive and presented in an accessible language. We evaluated the length of Hebrew ICFs and their English translations and evaluated the readability of the latter. In fifteen clinical trials (5 with pharmacogentic sub-study), the median number (IQR) of pages and words were: English clinical ICFs - 16 pages (13,18) and 7360 words (6959,8289); Hebrew clinical ICFs - 12 pages (10,14), 5807 words (5258,6403); English pharmacogenetics ICFs - 7 pages (4,11), 2930 words (2234,5100); Hebrew pharmacogenetics ICFs - 5 pages (4,8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1731311DOI Listing
April 2020
0.717 Impact Factor

Science's moral economy of repair: Replication and the circulation of reference.

Account Res 2020 02 27;27(2):107-113. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA.

Responding to the so-called reproducibility crisis, various disciplines have proposed - and some have implemented - changes in research practices and policies. These changes have been aligned with a restricted and rather uniform conceptualization of what science is, and knowledge is made. However, knowledge-making is not a uniform affair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1720659DOI Listing
February 2020

Survey of equal contributions in biomedical research publications.

Account Res 2020 04 8;27(3):115-137. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,540 researchers concerning their experiences with and attitudes toward the ethics of equal contribution (EC) designations in publications. Over half the respondents (58.3%) said they had been designated as an EC at least once. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1722947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065943PMC

The norms of authorship credit: Challenging the definition of authorship in The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity.

Account Res 2020 02 29;27(2):80-98. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Institute of Ethics, School of Theology, Philosophy and Music, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

The practice of assigning authorship for a scientific publication tends to raise two normative questions: 1) "who should be credited as an author?"; 2) "who should not be credited as an author but should still be acknowledged?". With the publication of the revised version of The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (ECCRI), standard answers to these questions have been called into question. This article examines the ways in which the ECCRI approaches these two questions and compares these approaches to standard definitions of "authorship" and "acknowledgment" in guidelines issued by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1721288DOI Listing
February 2020

First meeting in Asia of the Asia Pacific Research Integrity network.

Account Res 2020 02 14;27(2):99-106. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University.

In 2017, the University of Hong Kong and the University of California San Diego co-hosted the first Asian meeting of the recently formed Asia Pacific Research Integrity (APRI) network in Hong Kong. Aligned with planning meetings in 2015 and 2016 funded in part by the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI), the Hong Kong meeting was designed by a multi-national planning committee to address pressing challenges in research integrity: improving multi-national communication; exchanging information on managing misconduct investigations; and sharing best practices to promote research integrity. To create a sustainable, robust international partnership to promote research integrity in the region, the purpose of this 2017 meeting was to foster multi-national awareness, understanding, and opportunities for collaboration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2020.1715220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041487PMC
February 2020
0.717 Impact Factor

From cold fusion to cold storage: A comparative case study of how organizational champions caused two scientific megaprojects to fail.

Authors:
Anthony Larsson

Account Res 2020 02 6;27(2):57-79. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Stockholm, Sweden.

"Big science" has prompted scientific collaboration, ultimately leading to multidisciplinary, co-operative science. This has paved the way for organizational "champions", leading experts with the ability of driving organizational change. This study investigates the involvement of how "champions" contributed to the rapid failures of the 1980s case of the cold fusion initiative NCFI in Utah, and the 2000s case of BBMRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1709449DOI Listing
February 2020

How research ethics boards should monitor clinical research.

Account Res 2020 01 17;27(1):49-56. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Center for Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Canada.

The objective of this commentary is to provide a framework and ethical justification for a more proactive model of continual, active monitoring of research. We outline what the increased monitoring should consist of, and the practical constraints associated with executing these monitoring functions. We also defend the idea that adequate post-initial-review monitoring requires greater REB involvement, rather than trust and researcher's assurances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1706048DOI Listing
January 2020

Using routine, independent, scientific-data audits as an early-warning for potentially fraudulent toxic-site cleanup: PCE, TCE, and other VOCs at the former Naval-Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, California.

Account Res 2020 01 15;27(1):1-31. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Department of Preprofessional Studies, Center for Health Sciences, Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Two of the most prevalent Superfund-site contaminants are carcinogenic solvents PCE (perchloroethylene) and TCE (trichloroethylene). Because their cleanup is difficult and costly, remediators have repeatedly falsified site-cleanup data, as Tetra Tech apparently did recently in San Francisco. Especially for difficult-to-remediate toxins, this paper hypothesizes that scientific misrepresentations occur in toxic-site assessments, before remediation even begins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1695200DOI Listing
January 2020

Impact of pressure, self-efficacy, and self-competency on students' plagiarism in higher education.

Account Res 2020 01 11;27(1):32-48. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Writing Lab, TecLabs, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, NL, Mexico.

To explore students' plagiarism in higher level education, we designed a quantitative study and collected data from enrolled university students from Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. This was done by distributing a web-link for an online survey (Google form) through WhatsApp social media mobile software. We applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques by using IBM SPSS AMOS 24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1699070DOI Listing
January 2020

The risk-benefit ratio of studying psychiatric symptoms via daily diary methods.

Account Res 2019 11 21;26(8):498-511. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Ethics committee members and researchers have deliberated about the risk-benefit ratio of researching sensitive issues such as psychiatric symptoms. Although research has suggested that inquiring about psychiatric symptoms in research generally does not cause harm, these findings have primarily arisen from cross-sectional studies. We examined whether this generalized to repeated, daily assessments of psychiatric symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1694913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6913872PMC
November 2019

Breaking barriers to ethical research: An analysis of the effectiveness of nonhuman animal research approval in Canada.

Account Res 2019 11 13;26(8):473-497. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Philosophy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

In Canada, all institutions that conduct publicly funded, animal-based research are expected to comply with the standards of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC). The CCAC promotes the use of animal alternatives, and uses the "3Rs" principles of , and as a guiding ethical framework. To ensure these standards are strictly enforced, internal ethics committees at each institution are tasked with creating "Animal Use Protocol" (AUP) forms to be filled out by researchers and evaluated by the committees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1684906DOI Listing
November 2019

Enriching our understanding of vulnerability through the experiences and perspectives of individuals living with mental illness.

Account Res 2019 10 18;26(7):439-459. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Pragmatic Health Ethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal , Montréal , Québec , Canada.

Vulnerability is a central concept in research ethics and typically serves to identify individuals or groups whose participation in research prompts specific concerns or warrants special consideration. While theoretical discussions on vulnerability have contributed valuable insights to discussions of mental health research and care, they have not been enriched thus far by stakeholder perspectives. This oversight has important consequences for the ways in which we frame vulnerability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1679121DOI Listing
October 2019

Is the trend to publish reviews and clinical trials related to the journal impact factor? Analysis in dentistry field.

Account Res 2019 10 18;26(7):427-438. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Dentistry, University of Granada , Granada , Spain.

It is generally accepted that the Journal Impact Factor is a quality criterion. The objective was to determine the evolution along the period 2010-2016 of number of different types of papers, reviews and clinical trials, published by dental journals, as well as if they are related with the quartile occupied in the Journal Impact Factor 2017 ranking. To this end, ten journals per quartile belonging to the field in the 2017 Journal Citation Reports were randomly selected. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1672541DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Canadian policy on reporting breaches of research integrity: When should Research Ethics Boards be informed?

Account Res 2019 10 30;26(7):460-471. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Faculty of Law, University of Calgary , Calgary , Canada.

In Canada, institutions that receive research funding from the three federal granting agencies must establish research ethics boards (REBs) to review the ethical acceptability of research involving humans. Institutions are also expected to promote the responsible conduct of research, fostering researchers' abilities to act with integrity in the conduct of their research. Where a researcher fails to act with integrity in research with humans, institutional policies and procedures of the U15, Canada's most research-intensive universities, vary in the extent to which they involve their REBs in response to such breaches. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1661243DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Perceptions of research integrity and the Chinese situation: In-depth interviews with Chinese biomedical researchers in Europe.

Account Res 2019 10 10;26(7):405-426. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven , Leuven , Belgium.

Research misconduct has been a threat to Chinese biomedical research. Despite many publications dealing with research integrity in China, little empirical data is available concerning Chinese biomedical researchers' perceptions of research integrity and misconduct. To learn more about this issue, we interviewed Chinese biomedical researchers in Europe to investigate their perceptions of this issue. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1652096DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Managing the science in the presence of financial conflict of interest.

Account Res 2019 08 26;26(6):397-403. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Duke Office of Scientific Integrity - Conflict of Interest, Duke University , Durham , NC , USA.

We consider the question of why (primarily) and how (secondarily) to perform scientific oversight of research performed by investigators with a financial conflict of interest (COI). One way to frame the trade-off of having investigators with financial COI participate in research is through a decision rule: "". A key component of COI management is the demonstration that the underlying science is sufficiently rigorous and transparent, and in turn, a scientific oversight plan is a key element of that demonstration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1636652DOI Listing

Academic integrity: Challenges and strategies for Asia and the Middle East.

Authors:
Khawlah Ahmed

Account Res 2019 Jul 25:1-15. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

a English Department, American University of Sharjah , Sharjah , United Arab Emirates.

There seems to be an awakening in Asia and the Middle East (ME) region in the fields of research and publication. In these regions, scholarship and research have not been keeping up with the technologically developed Western world. In response to this realization, governments are heavily investing in academia and rapid academic expansion and reforms are being made to gain a foothold in the academic and research arena. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1646646DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Mobile eye tracking and academic integrity: A proof-of-concept study in the United Arab Emirates.

Account Res 2019 Jul 30:1-9. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

a College of Natural and Health Sciences, Department of Psychology, Zayed University , Abu Dhabi , United Arab Emirates.

Academic dishonesty has been identified as a significant problem for tertiary educational institutions in the Arab World and beyond. This study aimed to test the efficacy of mobile eye-tracking technology as a means of detecting instances of academic dishonesty during a closed-book exam. Participants were thirty ( = 30) college students attending a university in the United Arab Emirates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1646645DOI Listing
July 2019
6 Reads

Research misconduct, NSF v NIH: Its nature and prevalence and the impact of their respective methods of investigation and adjudication.

Account Res 2019 08 20;26(6):369-378. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Emeritus of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons , New York , USA.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have established separate administrative mechanisms for investigation and adjudication of alleged research misconduct. This report compares research misconduct at NSF and NIH and the possible effects of their respective methods of investigation and adjudication. Notable and paradoxical findings were identified: NIH supported four times the number of grants as NSF, yet NSF reviewed 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1646644DOI Listing

Breaking the germline barrier in a moral vacuum.

Authors:
Sheldon Krimsky

Account Res 2019 08 26;26(6):351-368. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Urban & Environmental Policy & Planning, Tufts University , Medford , MA , USA.

In November 2018 a Chinese scientist claimed to have used CRISPR/Cas 9 technology to genetically modify two human embryos that were then gestated in one adult woman through an IVF pregnancy and brought to term. The twin girls are allegedly the first babies born with their prenatal genomes edited. Using both English language and Chinese supporting documents, this paper discusses the background of this human experiment, the social context of Chinese science, and the alleged ethical transgressions of its principal scientist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1644171DOI Listing

Waivers of parental consent for sexual minority youth.

Account Res 2019 08 21;26(6):379-390. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami , Coral Gables , FL , USA.

The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine emphasizes the need for research to focus on the health outcomes of sexual minority youth (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1632200DOI Listing
August 2019
3 Reads

Implementation of a responsible conduct of research education program at Duke University School of Medicine.

Account Res 2019 07 2;26(5):288-310. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

c Office of Scientific Integrity , Duke University , Durham , NC , USA.

Academic medical centers rarely require of their research faculty and staff to participate in educational programs on the responsible conduct of research (RCR). There is also little published evidence of RCR programs addressing high-profile, internal cases of misconduct as a way of promoting deliberation and learning. In the wake of major research misconduct, Duke University School of Medicine (DUSoM) expanded its RCR education activities to include all DUSoM faculty and staff engaged in research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1621755DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Mapping responsible conduct in the uncharted field of research-creation: A scoping review.

Account Res 2019 07 2;26(5):311-346. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

i School of design , Université de Montréal , Montréal , Canada.

This scoping review addresses the issues of responsible conduct of research (RCR) that can arise in the practice of research-creation (RC), an emergent, interdisciplinary, and heterogeneous field at the interface of academic research and creative activities. Little is yet known about the nature and scope of RCR issues in RC, so our study examined three questions: (1) What are the specific issues in RC in relation to RCR? (2) How does the specificity of RC influence the understanding and practice of RCR? (3) What recommendations could help address the issues highlighted in the literature? To answer these questions, we conducted a scoping review of the academic literature ( = 181 texts) dealing with RCR in RC. We found that researcher-creators faced some very different RCR challenges in comparison with their colleagues in the rest of academia. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1620607DOI Listing
July 2019
5 Reads

Are we ready to genetically modify a human embryo? Or is it too late to ask?

Account Res 2019 05 20;26(4):265-270. Epub 2019 May 20.

b Center for Bioethics, Health and Society , Wake, Forest University , Winston-Salem , NC , USA.

After the announcement that a scientist genetically altered human embryos and implanted them for gestation last November, the increased discussion has revolved around the ethical lapses that occurred in the process. The scientist, He Jiankui, forged ethical approval documents, chose a disease target that is preventable and treatable, and did not replicate a naturally occurring mutation, creating a new mutation instead. Aside from these and other ethical concerns about his procedure and protocol, several fundamental questions remain: should scientists be altering the human germline at this time and, if so, under what circumstances? If not, under what circumstances might such research be permissible, if at all? And who should make these decisions? We believe that it is too early for this research to be conducted in embryos intended for gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1617139DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

More on plurality and authorship in science: A reply to Tang.

Authors:
Barton Moffatt

Account Res 2019 07 17;26(5):347-350. Epub 2019 May 17.

a Department of Philosophy and Religion , Mississippi State University , Starkville , USA.

Understanding the "political economy" of the research environment is at the core of getting clear on the ethical aspects of authorship. Questions about who should be an author on a scientific paper are complicated by the fact that authorship is used to determine credit inside science and by outside institutions whose interests and standards often differ dramatically. Much of the research ethics community seeks to impose an elite ethical consensus on scientific fields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1617137DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Fostering a prevention mindset for responsible gene editing.

Account Res 2019 05 17;26(4):251-256. Epub 2019 May 17.

a Biomedical Ethics Research Program , Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic , Rochester , MN , USA.

In this special issue, we solicited three commentators to discuss issues specific to the responsible conduct of research as it relates to the birth of gene-edited children. We explore the ethics of prevention and its ties to the responsible conduct of gene-editing research to introduce three commentaries addressing: (1) the relevance of cultural and regulatory context in China, (2) how to actualize calls for greater public engagement, and (3) where we might improve graduate education of genomic researchers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1617140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545880PMC
May 2019
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Realigning gene editing with clinical research ethics: What the "CRISPR Twins" debacle means for Chinese and international research ethics governance.

Account Res 2019 05 17;26(4):257-264. Epub 2019 May 17.

b Faculties of Law and Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.

The announcement of the "CRISPR babies" reignited the debate surrounding the ethical, legal and social implications of germline gene editing. Despite having been conducted in the context of a clinical trial, Dr. Jiankui He's research appears to have violated both Chinese regulations and standard ethical procedures, as well as internationally accepted research and bioethical standards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1617138DOI Listing
May 2019
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Leading for research excellence and integrity: A qualitative investigation of the relationship-building practices of exemplary principal investigators.

Account Res 2019 04 14;26(3):198-226. Epub 2019 May 14.

a Division of General Medical Sciences , Washington University School of Medicine , St. Louis , MO , USA.

We conducted semi-structured, telephone interviews with 52 federally funded researchers nominated as exemplars for their integrity and professional conduct, and their scientific achievements. The aim was to identify the practices they report utilizing to build respectful relationships in their teams. We found four practices, holding meetings, providing supervision and guidance, encouraging shared ownership, and expressing values, which were also important to performing high-quality, compliant research, were essential to fostering relationships. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1611429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533117PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Publication rates after the first retraction for biomedical researchers with multiple retracted publications.

Account Res 2019 07 14;26(5):277-287. Epub 2019 May 14.

a Department of Medicine , University of Auckland , Auckland , New Zealand.

Retraction of scientific publications can unmask scientific misconduct. We undertook a survey of publication rates, for authors with multiple retractions in the biomedical literature, to determine whether they changed after authors' first retractions. We collected publication and citation data from for 100 authors with multiple retractions (either >10 retractions or 2-5 retractions) in the database. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1612244DOI Listing
July 2019
4 Reads

Ethical consideration of the research proposal and the informed-consent process: An online survey of researchers and ethics committee members in Thailand.

Account Res 2019 04 16;26(3):176-197. Epub 2019 May 16.

b Office of Research Services, Faculty of Tropical Medicine , Mahidol University , Bangkok , Thailand.

Researchers designing and conducting studies using human data should consider the values and principles of ethical conduct. Research ethics committees (RECs) typically evaluate the ethical acceptability of research proposals. Sometimes, differences arise between how researchers and RECs interpret ethical principles, and how they decide what constitutes ethical conduct. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1608190DOI Listing
April 2019
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Emphasizing the experiences of researchers after RCR instructions: Introduction to Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Malaysia.

Account Res 2019 04 5;26(3):157-175. Epub 2019 May 5.

a Pusat Citra Universiti , University Kebangsaan Malaysia , Bangi , Selangor , Malaysia.

The purpose of this study is to highlight the experiences of individuals who participate in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training program held at various universities in Malaysia. In response to a mailing request sent to 40 individuals who had undertaken a RCR training program, 15 participants agreed to be interviewed. The results of the study showed that the three main reasons for participating in the training were as follows: anticipation for knowledge gained; personal experience with research misconduct; and establishing a new network of researchers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1607312DOI Listing
April 2019
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Twentieth-century science education and 21st-century genetic engineering technologies: A toxic mix.

Authors:
Mark Yarborough

Account Res 2019 05 12;26(4):271-275. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

a Bioethics Program , University of California Davis , Sacramento , CA , USA.

I challenge the "convenient consensus" that He Jiankui is a "bad apple" in order to consider alternative explanations for why He may have ventured down the ill-considered path in his research that he did. The answer I want to proffer is that He was ill-equipped by his education and training in biomedical research to appropriately weigh the competing goods he encountered and thus was not able to be swayed by the clear guidance that basic ethical considerations would have provided. If true, this shows us why, much as we would like to take solace in him being a bad apple, we should be prompted by this episode to focus instead on systems level contributors to He's decisions that, if left unaddressed, will surely lead to similarly reckless episodes by other researchers in the future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1596031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538434PMC
May 2019
3 Reads

Effect of impact factor and discipline on journal data sharing policies.

Account Res 2019 04 25;26(3):139-156. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

e OHSU Library , Oregon Health & Science University , Portland , OR , USA.

Data sharing is crucial to the advancement of science because it facilitates collaboration, transparency, reproducibility, criticism, and re-analysis. Publishers are well-positioned to promote sharing of research data by implementing data sharing policies. While there is an increasing trend toward requiring data sharing, not all journals mandate that data be shared at the time of publication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1591277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533124PMC
April 2019
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Stewardship of research resources.

Authors:
David B Resnik

Account Res 2019 04 1;26(3):246-251. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

a Bioethicist and IRB Chair National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences , National Institutes of Health , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.

Most accounts of research ethics focus on the importance of a handful of ethical and epistemological norms for the conduct of science, such as honesty, integrity, transparency, accountability, objectivity, collegiality, fairness, social responsibility, but have little to say about another, less well-known norm that also deserves attention: stewardship of research resources. Many of the behaviors and practices that are widely regarded as unethical or ethically questionable involve wasting or misusing money, time, and other resources. While good stewardship of resources may not be as crucial to the ethics of science as other norms, it is an important consideration that scientists should keep in mind when managing their own resources or mentoring students and trainees in the responsible conduct of research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1585819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533156PMC
April 2019
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A single, open access journal may prevent the primary publishing problems in the life sciences.

Account Res 2019 08 1;26(6):391-396. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine , Göttingen , Germany.

Herein, we discuss a novel way to knit current life sciences publishing structures together under the scope of a single life science journal that would countermand many of the issues faced in current publishing paradigms. Such issues include, but are not limited to, publication fees, subscription fees, impact factor, and publishing in more "glamorous" journals for career health. We envision a process flow involving (i) a single, overall, life sciences journal, (ii) divided into sections headed by learned societies, (iii) to whom all scientific papers are submitted for peer review, and (iv) all accepted scientific literature would be published open access and without author publication fees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1582340DOI Listing
August 2019
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Preregistering qualitative research.

Account Res 2019 04 1;26(3):229-244. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

b Department of Methodology & Statistics , Tilburg University , Tilburg , The Netherlands.

The threat to reproducibility and awareness of current rates of research misbehavior sparked initiatives to better academic science. One initiative is preregistration of quantitative research. We investigate whether the preregistration format could also be used to boost the credibility of qualitative research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2019.1580147DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads