45,425 results match your criteria Accountability In Research-policies And Quality Assurance[Journal]


Low-dose radiation: interagency collaboration on planning research could improve information on health effects.

J Radiol Prot 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

US Government Accountability Office, Washington, District of Columbia, UNITED STATES.

In September 2017, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report on the scientific basis for federal protections against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation-particularly low-dose radiation, or below about 100 millisieverts (10 rem). Read More

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http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6498/ab1ada
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab1adaDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Moderating role of financial ratios in corporate social responsibility disclosure and firm value.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215430. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Lahore Business School, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

This study investigates the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure for multi-stakeholders and financial performance of a firm through accounting-based activities for CSR. A dataset of Chinese non-financial firms listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2012 is taken from the China Stock Market & Accounting Research database. The study compares different financial ratios of CSR disclosure and non-disclosure firms. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215430PLOS
April 2019
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Psyche Meets the Gatekeepers: Creating a More Humane Culture for Women in Medicine.

Acad Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

S.M. Flaherty is communications director, Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5153-0218. M. Misra is professor of pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, and chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts. S. E. Scott-Vernaglia is assistant professor of pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, and director, Pediatric Residency Program, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts. E.M. Taveras is professor of pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, and chief, Division of General Pediatrics, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts. E.J. Israel is assistant professor of pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, and associate unit chief, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts.

In the Greek myth of Psyche and Eros, Psyche must fulfill four seemingly impossible tasks to achieve full consciousness before she can be reunited with her bridegroom, Eros. From early childhood, girls and women can encounter gender stereotyping, sexual harassment and assault, and other gender-related challenges. While both men and women can face mistreatment in medical school, female students experience sexual harassment and sexual assault at higher rates than male students. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002766DOI Listing

Evaluating the Quality and Readability of Online Resources for Labiaplasty.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

From the Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality, readability, and accuracy of Web-based information regarding labiaplasty and to characterize the types of Web sites providing this information.

Methods: Investigators used 3 major search engines to query the internet using the search terms labiaplasty, labia reduction, and vaginal rejuvenation. Two validated tools were used to evaluate Web sites: the JAMA benchmark tool and the DISCERN instrument. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000725DOI Listing

Citizen Science and Gamification.

Hastings Cent Rep 2019 Mar;49(2):40-46

According to the mainstream conception of research involving human participants, researchers have been trained scientists acting within institutions and have been the individuals doing the studying, while participants, who are nonscientist members of the public, have been the individuals being studied. The relationship between the public and scientists is evolving, however, giving rise to several new concepts, including crowdsourcing and citizen science. In addition, the practice of gamification has been applied to research protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hast.992DOI Listing

Causal Economics: A new pluralist framework for behavioral economics that advances theoretical and applied foundations.

Authors:
Andrew Horton

Heliyon 2019 Apr 4;5(4):e01342. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Independent researcher, 48 Thornhill Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M6S 4C5, Canada.

This paper introduces Causal Economics, a new pluralist framework for Behavioral Economics that allows for deep incorporation of psychological drivers at a level not possible in existing models. Its core theoretical breakthrough is the replacement of conventional single-value (net cost OR net benefit), single-period exogenous lottery outcomes as utilized within mainstream economics, with endogenous multi-period outcomes that always contain both personal total benefit (B) and personal total cost (C), including certain (deliberate) and uncertain components, with cause and effect running in at least one direction. Agents optimize an overall cumulative rank dependent weighted outcome value function against internal personal psychological trade-off constraints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451177PMC

Barriers and opportunities for improving childhood immunization coverage in slums: A qualitative study.

Prev Med Rep 2019 Jun 28;14:100858. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

National Polio Surveillance Project, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

There is substantial variability in immunization coverage trends across the globe which can be attributed to a number of factors such as demographic profile, socioeconomic characteristics and political environment. Vaccine preventable diseases contribute to severe disease burden when coverage is low, particularly, in slums. Present qualitative study explored barriers, opportunities, and key facilitators of childhood immunization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453822PMC

Feeling safe or unsafe in psychiatric inpatient care, a hospital-based qualitative interview study with inpatients in Sweden.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2019 8;13:23. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: A major challenge in psychiatric inpatient care is to create an environment that promotes patient recovery, patient safety and good working environment for staff. Since guidelines and programs addressing this issue stress the importance of primary prevention in creating safe environments, more insight is needed regarding patient perceptions of feeling safe. The aim of this study is to enhance our understanding of feelings of being safe or unsafe in psychiatric inpatient care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0282-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452515PMC

Simulation In Surgical Training: Prospective Cohort Study Of Access, Attitudes And Experiences Of Surgical Trainees In The Uk And Ireland.

Int J Surg 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Association of Surgeons in Training, 35-43 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PE.

Background: Surgical training is evolving, and simulation is becoming more important as a way to expedite the early learning curve and augment surgical techniques. With novel technology, and innovation, major changes are possible in how surgeons are trained. The integration of these concepts into the surgical curriculum may drive up educational standards and enhance patient safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Categorizing and assessing comprehensive drivers of provider behavior for optimizing quality of health care.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214922. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Surgo Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Inadequate quality of care in healthcare facilities is one of the primary causes of patient mortality in low- and middle-income countries, and understanding the behavior of healthcare providers is key to addressing it. Much of the existing research concentrates on improving resource-focused issues, such as staffing or training, but these interventions do not fully close the gaps in quality of care. By contrast, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the full contextual and internal drivers-such as social norms, beliefs, and emotions-that influence the clinical behaviors of healthcare providers. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214922PLOS

Family and friends: Supporting oral care in care homes.

Gerodontology 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Applied Clinical and Public Health Research, Cardiff University School of Dentistry, Cardiff, UK.

Objective: To consider the role of family and friends in supporting oral care.

Background: People who live in care homes are susceptible to oral health problems, which can be detrimental to their health and personal and social well-being. External support from family members and friends has been indicated as being important for maintaining oral health for this vulnerable group of care home residents. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ger.12404
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ger.12404DOI Listing
April 2019
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Exploring thoughts about pain and pain management: Interviews with South Asian community members in the UK.

Musculoskeletal Care 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent, UK.

Objective: This research sought to explore the pain management beliefs of members of the South Asian community living in the UK. In particular, their understanding of the key components of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) informed pain management programmes (PMPs) was explored.

Methods: Snowball sampling was used to recruit 10 participants from a South Asian background for interview. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/msc.1400DOI Listing

Resilience strategies against working pressures in midwives: A qualitative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 15;8:33. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iranian Research Center on Healthy Aging, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

Introduction: The lack of experienced midwifery in obstetrics and gynecology centers would have harmful consequences. Resilience could increase midwives' endurance while caring for women and neonates in the maternity hospitals. Research on resilience of midwives is rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_241_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432840PMC
February 2019
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Moving towards strategic commissioning: impact on clinical commissioning groups as membership organizations.

J Health Serv Res Policy 2019 Apr 16:1355819619842272. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

4 Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Luxembourg.

Objective: This paper aims to explore the nature of clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England as membership organizations. Utilizing the concept of meta-organization as a lens, we discuss the impact that this organizational form might have on CCGs' ability to become 'strategic commissioners'.

Methods: We used a longitudinal qualitative approach to explore the adoption and implementation of primary care co-commissioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1355819619842272DOI Listing

The Nature and Quality of Australian Supermarkets' Policies that can Impact Public Health Nutrition, and Evidence of their Practical Application: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Public Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia, Australia.

Improving population diets is a public health priority, and calls have been made for corporations such as supermarkets to contribute. Supermarkets hold a powerful position within the food system, and one source of power is supermarket own brand foods (SOBFs). Many of the world's largest supermarkets have corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies that can impact public health, but little is known about their quality or practical application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040853DOI Listing

Disentangling the complexity of mobility of older medical patients in routine practice: An ethnographic study in Denmark.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(4):e0214271. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Health and Social Context, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aim: Many older medical patients experience persistent functional limitations after hospitalization, such as dependency in activities of daily living, recurring fall incidents and increased mortality. Therefore, increased activity and mobilization during hospitalization are essential to prevent functional decline in older medical patients. No previous studies have explored how the social context influences how health professionals decide whether or not to mobilize patients. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214271PLOS
April 2019
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Exploring Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions and Adaptation Intentions: Empirical Evidence from Austria.

Environ Manage 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Feistmantelstrasse 4, 1180, Vienna, Austria.

The lack of timely adaptation in agriculture may hamper prosperous farm developments by neglecting risks and opportunities emerging from climate change. Understanding farmers' perceptual and socio-cognitive processes is key in order to encourage on-farm adaptation. We aim at investigating how farmers' individual cognition on climate change and adaptation as well as socio-environmental context factors affect agricultural adaptation intention and avoidance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-019-01158-7DOI Listing

Encountering staff-directed aggression within mental health and substance abuse services: exploring conceptions of practice following education.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2019 2;13:20. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Dept. of Health and Social and Welfare Studies, Centre for Mental Health and Substance Abuse, University of South-Eastern Norway, P.O. box 7053, 3007 Drammen, Norway.

Background: Staff-directed aggression represents a considerable concern in mental health and substance abuse services, and presents a substantial challenge to the quality and continuity of service provision for people with mental health and substance abuse problems. The practitioners themselves frequently request increased competence as a way to mediate the negative effects of staff-directed violence and aggression. The aim of this study is to explore how practitioners in municipal mental health and substance abuse services conceptualize practice in prevention and management of staff-directed violence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0277-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444818PMC

Cord Blood Banking: Antenatal Care Provider's Roles and Responsibilities.

Stem Cells Int 2019 7;2019:3598404. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576104, India.

Background: Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) banking done either for private storage or for donation to public cord blood banks involves active participation of obstetricians. Counseling the expectant parents, providing them with unbiased and balanced information, and collecting the UCB with diligence confer a lot of social as well as moral responsibility upon obstetricians. This makes it even more important that the obstetricians in current practice stay well-informed and updated with UCB collection and its storage guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3598404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431514PMC
March 2019
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Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First Century: Strengthening the Global Response.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:549. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.

The world has developed an elaborate global health system as a bulwark against known and unknown infectious disease threats. The system consists of various formal and informal networks of organizations that serve different stakeholders; have varying goals, modalities, resources, and accountability; operate at different regional levels (i.e. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447676PMC
March 2019
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Beyond Research Ethics: Dialogues in Neuro-ICT Research.

Front Hum Neurosci 2019 29;13:105. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.

The increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to help facilitate neuroscience adds a new level of complexity to the question of how ethical issues of such research can be identified and addressed. Current research ethics practice, based on ethics reviews by institutional review boards (IRB) and underpinned by ethical principlism, has been widely criticized. In this article, we develop an alternative way of approaching ethics in neuro-ICT research, based on discourse ethics, which implements Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) through dialogues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449836PMC

Mothers' challenges with the parental control of 3-year-old children in Japan: A qualitative study.

Child Care Health Dev 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University.

Background: Parents often struggle against the negativism of 3-year-old children in exerting parental control. While most research on parental control is from western cultures, Japanese mothers may face unique challenges because of their sociocultural background. We therefore explored mothers' challenges in exerting parental control over 3-year-old children in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.12666DOI Listing

Coming Full Circle: How Health Worker Motivation and Performance in Results-Based Financing Arrangements Hinges on Strong and Adaptive Health Systems.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2018 Oct 29;8(2):101-111. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

KIT Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: This paper presents findings from a study which sought to understand why health workers working under the results-based financing (RBF) arrangements in Zimbabwe reported being satisfied with the improvements in working conditions and compensation, but paradoxically reported lower motivation levels compared to those not working under RBF arrangements.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted amongst health workers and managers working in health facilities that were implementing the RBF arrangements and those that were not. Through purposeful sampling, 4 facilities in RBF implementing districts that reported poor motivation and satisfaction, were included as study sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2018.98DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462202PMC
October 2018

Camp-based psychosocial intervention dosage and changes in independence in young people with spina bifida.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Psychology Department, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Aim: To examine associations between camp-based intervention dosage and changes in independence-related skills for young people with spina bifida.

Method: Participants were 110 individuals (mean age [SD] 14y 7mo [6y 1mo], range 6-32y; 66 females, 54 males) who attended a summer camp for individuals with spina bifida between 2 to 6 times (mean 2.40; operationalized as 'dosage'). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14250DOI Listing

Patients' Experiences and Perspectives of Telehealth Coaching with a Dietitian to Improve Diet Quality in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Qualitative Interview Study.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Background: Dietary behavior change interventions for the self-management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have the potential to slow disease progression and reduce metabolic complications. Telehealth-delivered dietary interventions may assist in the self-management of CKD, although their acceptability by patients is unknown.

Objective: This study aims to describe the acceptability and experiences of a telehealth coaching intervention that utilized telephone calls and tailored text messages to improve diet quality in patients with stage 3 to 4 CKD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.01.023DOI Listing

Gender equality and sick leave among first-time parents in Sweden.

Scand J Public Health 2019 Apr 11:1403494819837791. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: To examine gender equality in the family and sick leave among first-time parents.

Methods: Heterosexuals who became first-time parents between 2002 and 2009 ( N = 223,332) were identified in national registers. Gender equality in the family was evaluated by parental insurance and income from gainful employment representing the domestic and work spheres respectively and was defined as each parent contributing 40-60% of the family total. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494819837791DOI Listing

Obesity prevention in children and young people: what policy actions are needed?

Public Health Res Pract 2019 Mar 6;29(1). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the lifecourse. Rates of childhood overweight and obesity have reached alarming proportions in many countries and pose an urgent and serious challenge. Policy responses across the world have been piecemeal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17061/phrp2911902DOI Listing
March 2019
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Too little, too slowly: international perspectives on childhood obesity.

Public Health Res Pract 2019 Mar 6;29(1). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Childhood obesity is a global concern. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in many countries at all levels of development, for school-aged children and adolescents aged 5-19 years as well as preschool children younger than 5 years. Childhood obesity has implications not only for children's physical and psychological health, but it increases the risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases into adulthood. Read More

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http://www.phrp.com.au/?p=38064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17061/phrp2911901DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

The Cognitive Profile of Persons with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2018 30;14:304-311. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Section of Psychology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.

Introduction: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). But to what extent can obsessional symptoms in individuals with ASD be considered "genuinely" comorbid OCD - or are there other mechanisms that are related to ASD? Which mechanisms in OCD with and without ASD share common features? People with ASD have a cognitive profile characterized by "mindblindness"; the antecedent is often referred to in terms of not knowing how to perform or behave and this is the cause of discomfort. This raises the question whether individuals with ASD and comorbid OCD share the same cognitive elements of responsibility interpretation and the same fear of causing harm as individuals who merely have OCD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901814010304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407650PMC
November 2018
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Experimental evidence for a pure collaboration effect.

Nat Hum Behav 2019 Apr 18;3(4):354-360. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Political Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

What makes us willing to sacrifice our own self-interest for another person? Humans can forgo short-term individual gain to achieve long-term benefits-but long-run self-interest cannot fully explain unselfish behaviour. Collaboration in our evolutionary past may have played a role in shaping an innate human sense of distributive justice, influencing who we consider deserving of our aid or generosity. Previous research has not been able to isolate this response to collaboration as an independent effect, distinct from other motivations to share. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0530-9DOI Listing

Technology for Behavioral Change in Rural Older Adults with Obesity.

J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Apr 11:1-19. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

b Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth , Hanover , NH , USA.

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies comprise a multidisciplinary treatment strategy providing potential solutions for overcoming challenges of successfully delivering health promotion interventions in rural areas. We evaluated the potential of using technology in a high-risk population.

Methods: We conducted a convergent, parallel mixed-methods study using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and self-reported questionnaires, using purposive sampling of 29 older adults, 4 community leaders and 7 clinicians in a rural setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21551197.2019.1600097DOI Listing

Enhancing Equitable Access to Assistive Technologies in Canada: Insights from Citizens and Stakeholders.

Can J Aging 2019 Apr 10:1-20. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

McMaster Health Forum,McMaster University.

ABSTRACTThe need for assistive technologies in Canada is increasing, but access is inconsistent and fragmented which can result in unmet needs. We aimed to identify citizens' values and preferences for how to enhance equitable access to assistive technologies and to engage policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers in deliberations to spark action. In spring 2017, we convened three citizen panels and a stakeholder dialogue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0714980819000187DOI Listing

The Anthropology of Plastics: An Agenda for Local Studies of a Global Matter of Concern.

Med Anthropol Q 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona.

Anthropology has largely ignored plastics, even as they have emerged as the paradigmatic material-and problem-of our times. In this article, we make the case for an anthropology of plastics as a priority for environmental and medical anthropological research. Drawing from exploratory fieldwork in India, we briefly highlight the benefits and risks of different types of plastics, identify areas for anthropological investigations of human-plastic entanglements, and unpack major debates about plastic control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/maq.12514DOI Listing

The Inheritance of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Authors:
Mark Hanson

Acta Paediatr 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton and NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is foremost among the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which account for 71% of deaths globally each year. CVD is also prominent among the pre-existing conditions still accounting for nearly 25% of maternal deaths, and is linked to gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Markers of CVD risk have been reported even in young children, related to prenatal factors such as mother's diet or body composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14813DOI Listing

Lay Perspectives on Receiving Different Types of Genomic Secondary Findings: a Qualitative Vignette Study.

J Genet Couns 2019 Apr 14;28(2):343-354. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 37, P.O. Box 54, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Genome-wide sequencing may generate secondary findings (SFs). It is recommended that validated, clinically actionable SFs are reported back to patients/research participants. To explore publics' perspectives on the best ways to do this, we performed a vignette study among Finnish adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10897-018-0288-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Authorship: from credit to accountability. Reflections from the Editors' Network.

Basic Res Cardiol 2019 04 8;114(3):23. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria IIS-IP, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Diego de León 62, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

The Editors' Network of the European Society of Cardiology provides a dynamic forum for editorial discussions and endorses the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) to improve the scientific quality of biomedical journals. Authorship confers credit and important academic rewards. Recently, however, the ICMJE emphasized that authorship also requires responsibility and accountability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-019-0729-yDOI Listing

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Combat Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2019 22;13:419-430. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Iranian Research Center on Ageing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

Purpose: Treatment adherence is one of the major strategies in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans. This study developed and psychometrically assessed the Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Combat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Participants And Methods: This methodological study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, during 2016-2017 in two phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S175353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434911PMC
March 2019
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1.491 Impact Factor

A 'community enterprise' model for recreational cannabis: Lessons from alcohol licensing trusts in New Zealand.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 5;67:72-78. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

SHORE & Whāriki Research Centre, College of Health, Massey University, New Zealand.

The legalisation of cannabis on the American continent in recent years has reinvigorated calls for cannabis law reform in many countries. Yet researchers have described potentially negative public health and social impacts of profit driven commercial markets for cannabis. Consequently, they have suggested exploring a number of alternative regulatory options, such as "not-for-profit" or "for-benefit" organisations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Examining professional competencies for emerging and novice social workers in health care.

Soc Work Health Care 2019 Apr 8:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

b Department of Social Work , Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital , Edmonton , Alberta , Canada.

This participatory project identified competencies of social workers in health care, with a focus on entry to the field. Findings reflected discussion groups with n = 24 social workers in health care settings. Identified core competencies were: (a) a core base of knowledge specific to social work in health care, (b) understanding of the health care system and implications for practice, (c) a strong work ethic and confidence working with limited supervision, (d) interpersonal skills for multi-disciplinary teamwork, (e) understanding about complex role and power dynamics, (f) accountability for one's own work/practice and commitment to professional development, (g) reflectiveness on practice, and (h) an organizational commitment to capacity building. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2019.1601650DOI Listing
April 2019
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Addressing Health System Values in Health Technology Assessment: The Use of Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes.

Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2019 Apr 8:1-3. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Consultant, Ecorys Nederland B.V.

Health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly used around the globe to inform resource allocation decisions. Furthermore, the importance of using explicit and transparent criteria for coverage decision making in line with health system values has been acknowledged. However, the values of a health system are often not explicitly taken into account in the HTA process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266462319000187DOI Listing

"Sex Offender" Versus "Person": The Influence of Labels on Willingness to Volunteer With People Who Have Sexually Abused.

Sex Abuse 2019 Apr 8:1079063219841904. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1 The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

The present study examined the effect of offense-based labels on community members' willingness to volunteer with people convicted for varying offenses and any priming effect of labeling language. Participants ( N = 310) were randomly assigned to a label condition or a neutral condition and completed an anonymous online survey about their willingness to volunteer with different groups. The labeling condition utilized labels (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063219841904DOI Listing

Environmental Health Sciences in a Translational Research Framework: More than Benches and Bedsides.

Environ Health Perspect 2019 Apr;127(4):45001

2 Department of Community and Environmental Health, Boise State University , Boise, Idaho, USA.

Background: Environmental health scientists may find it challenging to fit the structure of the questions addressed in their discipline into the prevailing paradigm for translational research.

Objective: We aim to frame the translational science paradigm to address the stages of scientific discovery, knowledge acquisition, policy development, and evaluation in a manner relevant to the environmental health sciences. Our intention is to characterize differences between environmental health sciences and clinical medicine, and to orient this effort towards public health goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP4067DOI Listing

Medicaid Accountable Care Organizations in Four States: Implementation and Early Impacts.

Milbank Q 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

Policy Points Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Vermont leveraged State Innovation Model awards to implement Medicaid accountable care organizations (ACOs). Flexibility in model design, ability to build on existing reforms, provision of technical assistance to providers, and access to feedback data all facilitated ACO development. Challenges included sustainability of transformation efforts and the integration of health care and social service providers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12386DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Reality of Pain Scoring in the Emergency Department: Findings From a Multiple Case Study Design.

Ann Emerg Med 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England.

Study Objective: Documentation of pain severity with pain scores is recommended within emergency departments (EDs) to improve consistency of assessment and management of pain. Pain scores are used in treatment guidelines and triage algorithms to determine pain management and in audit and research to evaluate pain management practices. Despite significant debate of their benefits, there has been limited evaluation of their use in practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.02.018DOI Listing

Air quality changes after Hong Kong shipping emission policy: An accountability study.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 29;226:616-624. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Background: On July 1st 2015, Hong Kong became the first city in Asia to implement a policy regulating sulfur dioxide (SO) in shipping emissions. We conducted an accountability study assessing the improvement in ambient air quality and estimating the effect on health outcomes of the policy.

Method: We used interrupted time series (ITS) with segmented regression to identify any change in ambient concentrations of SO in contrast to other ambient pollutants (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO) and ozone (O)) at 10 monitoring stations in Hong Kong from 2010 to 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.173DOI Listing
March 2019
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Primary care reform in Manitoba, Canada, 2011-15: Balancing accountability and acceptability.

Health Policy 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

George & Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Canada.

Primary care reform cannot succeed without substantive change on the part of providers. In Canada, these are mostly fee-for-service physicians, who tend to regard themselves as independent professionals and not under managerial sway. Hence, policymakers must balance two conflicting imperatives: ensuring the acceptability of renewal efforts to these physicians while enforcing their accountability for defined actions or outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2019.03.014DOI Listing

The Responsibility to Recontact Research Participants after Reinterpretation of Genetic and Genomic Research Results.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 Apr;104(4):578-595

Social Issues Committee, American Society of Human Genetics, Rockville, MD 20852, USA; Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The evidence base supporting genetic and genomic sequence-variant interpretations is continuously evolving. An inherent consequence is that a variant's clinical significance might be reinterpreted over time as new evidence emerges regarding its pathogenicity or lack thereof. This raises ethical, legal, and financial issues as to whether there is a responsibility to recontact research participants to provide updates on reinterpretations of variants after the initial analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451731PMC
April 2019
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Risk Management - evaluation of healthcare professionals' reasoning about and understanding of maternity care.

J Nurs Manag 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Health Sciences, University West, SE-46186, Trollhättan, Sweden.

Aim: To evaluate healthcare professionals' explanations of the prerequisites for safe maternity care and understanding of risk management, including the underlying reasons for decision-making intended to ensure safe care.

Background: Risk management focuses on maintaining and promoting safe care by identifying circumstances that place childbearing women at risk of harm, thus reducing risks.

Methods: A hermeneutic action research approach was chosen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12778DOI Listing
April 2019
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Transitioning to adulthood with a mild intellectual disability-Young people's experiences, expectations and aspirations.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aim: Very little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of young people with mild intellectual disabilities on the broad topics of adulthood and adult identity. The following study was undertaken to explore how young adults with mild intellectual disabilities conceptualize, relate to, and experience the process of transition.

Method: Eight young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities participated in semi-structured interviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12582DOI Listing
April 2019
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