5,909 results match your criteria Accident Analysis And Prevention[Journal]


Crash causation and prevention.

Authors:
Ezra Hauer

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 31;143:105528. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Knowledge of crash causes is important because it directs the mind to the consideration of potential prevention actions and because knowledge of the frequency with which various causes arise in crashes is necessary for determining the promise of potential prevention actions. Clinical crash causation studies consistently found that in the majority of crashes the road user was the sole cause and that in almost all crashes the road user was one of the causes. This is a 'quasi-finding' which provides false respectability to a style of road safety management that makes the road-user the primary target of prevention actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105528DOI Listing

Mobile phone use among car drivers and motorcycle riders: The effect of problematic mobile phone use, attitudes, beliefs and perceived risk.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 30;143:105592. Epub 2020 May 30.

Faculty of Bridge and Road Engineering, University of Science and Technology - The University of Danang, 54 Nguyen Luong Bang Street, Lien Chieu District, Danang City, Vietnam. Electronic address:

Mobile phone use while driving presents significant risks, potentially leading to injury or death through distracted driving. Using a case study of Vietnam, this research aimed to understand the effect of problematic mobile phone use (also known as mobile phone addiction or compulsive mobile phone use), attitudes and beliefs, and perceived risk on the frequency of mobile phone use among motorcyclists and car drivers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to motorcyclists (n= 529) and car drivers (n= 328) using an online survey and face-to-face survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105592DOI Listing

Understanding take-over performance of high crash risk drivers during conditionally automated driving.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 30;143:105543. Epub 2020 May 30.

School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China.

Understanding driver behavior of conditionally automated driving is necessary to ensure a safe transition from automated to manual driving. This study aimed to examine the difference in take-over performance between high crash risk (HCR) and lower crash risk (LCR) drivers in emergency take-over situations during conditionally automated driving. In the current simulator study, a 3 × 3 (within-subjects) factorial design was used, including the task factors (no task, reading the news, and watching a video) and time budget factors (time budget = 3 s, 4 s, and 5 s). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105543DOI Listing

Identifying high-risk commercial vehicle drivers using sociodemographic characteristics.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 29;143:105582. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, 161 Raymond Bldg., Lexington, KY 40506-0281, United States. Electronic address:

Crash data, from the state of Kentucky, for the 2015-2016 period, show that per capita crash rates and increases in crash-related fatalities were higher than the national average. In an effort to explain why the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105582DOI Listing

Safety of micro-mobility: Analysis of E-Scooter crashes by mining news reports.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 29;143:105608. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, New York University, New York, NY 11201, United States. Electronic address:

Dockless electric scooters (E-Scooters) have emerged as a popular micro-mobility mode for urban transportation. This new form of mobility offers riders a flexible option for massive first-/last-mile trips. Despite the popularity, the limited regulations of E-Scooters raise numerous safety concerns among the public and agencies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105608DOI Listing

Evaluating the causal effects of cellphone distraction on crash risk using propensity score methods.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 29;143:105579. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Statistical Science, Duke University, 122 Old Chemistry Building, Durham, NC, 27708, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction/objective: This paper evaluates the causal effects of cellphone distraction on traffic crashes using propensity score weighting approaches and naturalistic driving study (NDS) data.

Methods: We adopt three propensity score weighting approaches to estimate the causal odds ratio (OR) of cellphone use on three different event-populations, including average treatment effect (ATE) on the whole population, average treatment effect on the treated population (ATT), and average treatment effect on the overlapping population (ATO). Three types of cellphone distractions are evaluated: overall cellphone use, talking, and visual-manual tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105579DOI Listing

Are collision and crossing course surrogate safety indicators transferable? A probability based approach using extreme value theory.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 29;143:105517. Epub 2020 May 29.

Delft University of Technology, Department of Transport and Planning, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, Netherlands. Electronic address:

In order to overcome the shortcomings of crash data a number of surrogate measures of safety have been developed and proposed by various researchers. One of the most widely used temporal indicators is time-to-collision (TTC) which requires the road users to be on a collision course. Road users that are strictly speaking not on a collision course actually might behave and take evasive actions as if they were, thus indicating that such near-miss situations might also be relevant for safety analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105517DOI Listing

Evaluating the combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on motorcyclist fatalities in Taiwan.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 28;143:105594. Epub 2020 May 28.

Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Alcohol-involved riders tend to engage in other risk-taking behaviours such as un-helmeted riding which could further increases injury severity. The combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on fatal injuries is rarely investigated. This study investigated the interaction effect between blood alcohol concentration and helmet use on fatal injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105594DOI Listing

Simulating Automated Emergency Braking with and without Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Braking for cyclists: Effect of brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view on accidents, injuries and fatalities.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 26;142:105538. Epub 2020 May 26.

Autoliv Research, Wallentinsvägen 22, 44783 Vårgårda, Sweden.

This study estimates how many additional cyclist accidents, injuries or fatalities are avoided or mitigated by adding a system which increases braking levels, the Torricelli Vacuum Emergency Brake (VEB), to a state-of-the-art Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) system. To obtain a realistic state-of-the-art AEB system, the AEB parameter settings were defined to fulfil but not exceed the performance necessary to achieve a full score in the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP). The systems are simulated in a simple but realistic simulation model in MATLAB with varying brake deceleration and sensor field-of-view (FoV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105538DOI Listing

Can a new emergency response system reduce traffic fatalities? The case of the 911-emergency response system in the Dominican Republic.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 26;143:105513. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Background: In May 2014, the Dominican Republic introduced the 911-emergency response system (ERS) in Santo Domingo. Before its introduction, more than 40 phone numbers were available to report emergencies. The objective of this work is to assess whether this new emergency response system was effective in reducing traffic fatalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105513DOI Listing

Driver performance under simulated and actual driving conditions: Validity and orthogonality.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 24;143:105593. Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

This study contrasted the performance of drivers under actual and simulated driving conditions, in order to assess the validity of the simulators and test the hypothesis that driving is composed of largely orthogonal sub-tasks. Thirty experienced drivers completed an on-road driving test and drove two different simulators, each simulator drive comprising seven difficulty-moderated driving scenarios. Between-simulator contrasts revealed largely absolute validity, the anticipated effects of increased difficulty within driving scenarios, but weak relationships between performance of different driving scenarios. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105593DOI Listing

Underestimation tendencies of vehicle speed by pedestrians when crossing unmarked roadway.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 23;143:105586. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Traffic Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia.

To make safe road crossing decisions, the pedestrians need to estimate the distance and speed of oncoming vehicles, in order to make conclusions about the available time gap they need for their road crossing. Since the speed represents combination of distance and time, we focused on pedestrians' ability to estimate the speed of the oncoming vehicles accurately. The aim of this study was to find some characteristics important for the speed mis-estimation tendencies and its values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105586DOI Listing

Revisiting freeway single tunnel crash characteristics analysis: A six-zone analytic approach.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 21;142:105542. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410075, China. Electronic address:

Considerable studies have been conducted to investigate the tunnels' traffic safety. However, the entrance and exit parts of a tunnel are mostly considered symmetrical in previous studies, and the different lengths (long, medium, and short) of tunnels have not been separately studied. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of traffic crashes in freeway single tunnels by separately considering the entrance and exit of the tunnel as well as the different lengths of tunnels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105542DOI Listing

Crash risk and subjective risk perception during urban cycling: Evidence for congruent and incongruent sources.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 20;142:105584. Epub 2020 May 20.

Center for Cognitive Science, Freiburg University, Hebelstr. 10, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Urban planners frequently neglect the role of subjective risk perception during urban cycling. Several findings suggest a complex relationship between the risk of being involved in a crash and the subjective anticipation of this risk.

Data Collection And Methods: We investigate the relation of objective risks (operationalized through crashes involving cyclists) and subjective risk perception (operationalized through citizens' reports in a crowdsourcing project) in a medium-sized German city. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105584DOI Listing

Development and validation of a model predicting post-traumatic headache six months after a motor vehicle collision in adults.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 20;142:105580. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Epidemiology and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: The prognosis of post-traumatic headache is poorly understood.

Objective: To develop and validate a prognostic model to predict the presence of post-traumatic headache six months after a traffic collision in adults with incident post-traumatic headache.

Design: Secondary analyses of adults with incident post-traumatic headache injured in traffic collisions between November 1997 and December 1999 in Saskatchewan, Canada (development cohort); and between January 2004 and January 2005 in Sweden (validation cohort). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105580DOI Listing

How do oncoming traffic and cyclist lane position influence cyclist overtaking by drivers?

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 20;142:105569. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Hörselgången 4, 41756 Göteborg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Overtaking cyclists is challenging for drivers because it requires a well-timed, safe interaction between the driver, the cyclist, and the oncoming traffic. Previous research has investigated this manoeuvre in different experimental environments, including naturalistic driving, naturalistic cycling, and simulator studies. These studies highlight the significance of oncoming traffic-but did not extensively examine the influence of the cyclist's position within the lane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105569DOI Listing

Safety analysis of work zone complexity with respect to driver characteristics - A simulator study employing performance and gaze measures.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 19;142:105566. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, United States. Electronic address:

Driving is a complex task that consists of several physical (motor-related) and physiological (biological changes within the body) processes occurring simultaneously. The complexity of the task depends on several factors, but this research focuses on work zone configurations and their effect on driver performance and gaze behavior. The increase in work zone fatalities in the United States between 2015 and 2018 coupled with the limited literature of driver behavior in these complex environments requires a more comprehensive study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105566DOI Listing

Application of association rules mining algorithm for hazardous materials transportation crashes on expressway.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 19;142:105497. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Transportation Engineering, The University of Seoul, 163 Seoulsiripdae-ro Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02504, South Korea. Electronic address:

Although crashes involving hazardous material (HAZMAT) vehicles on expressways do not occur frequently compared with other types of vehicles, the number of lives lost and social damage is very high when a HAZMAT vehicle-involved crash occurs. Therefore, it is essential to identify the leading causes of crashes involving HAZMAT vehicles and make specific countermeasures to improve the safety of expressways. This study aims to employ the association rules mining (ARM) approach to discover the contributory crash-risk factors of HAZMAT vehicle-involved crashes on expressways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105497DOI Listing

Exposure to a motor vehicle collision and the risk of future back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 18;142:105546. Epub 2020 May 18.

Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence for the association between exposure to a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and future low back pain (LBP).

Literature Survey: Persistent low back pain (LBP) is a relatively common complaint after acute injury in a MVC, with a reported 1 year post-crash prevalence of at least 31 % of exposed individuals. Interpretation of this finding is challenging given the high incidence of LBP in the general population that is not exposed to a MVC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105546DOI Listing

Are safety and performance affected by navigation system display size, environmental illumination, and gender when driving in both urban and rural areas?

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 18;142:105585. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Industrial Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology College of Engineering, Irbid 22110, Jordan.

Driving with the aid of a navigation system could distract drivers. A high level of distraction influences driver performance and safety, leading to a possible increase in road crashes. The illumination level and size of the GPS display may influence the duration and frequency of a driver's glances, which in turn may affect driver distraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105585DOI Listing

Factor structure of the family climate for road safety scale in emerging adults in the United States.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 15;142:105563. Epub 2020 May 15.

Washington State University, United States.

The Family Climate for Road Safety Scale (FCRSS) was developed to measure parenting behaviors specific to the driving context. The original validation study found a scale structure composed of seven factors. However, this structure has not been consistently replicated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105563DOI Listing

Comparing distance and time as driving exposure measures to evaluate fatal crash risk ratios.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 14;142:105576. Epub 2020 May 14.

The Center for Injury Research and Policy, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The use of an appropriate driving exposure measure is essential to calculate traffic crash rates and risks. Commonly used exposure measures include driving distance and the number of licensed drivers. These measures have some limitations, including the unavailability of disaggregated estimates for consecutive years, low data quality, and the failure to represent the driving population when the crash occurred. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105576DOI Listing

The paradox of pedestrian's risk aversion.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 13;142:105518. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Industrial Engineering & Management, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel. Electronic address:

Traffic accidents are becoming a significant cause for unnatural deaths around the world, with more than 1.25 million fatalities in road accidents each year, and over 20 million people severely injured. A large portion of accidents that result in fatalities involve interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105518DOI Listing

Exploring the role of delta-V in influencing occupant injury severities - A mediation analysis approach to motor vehicle collisions.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 12;142:105577. Epub 2020 May 12.

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Instituto Sistemas Complejos de Ingeniería (ISCI), Chile.

This study investigates the impact that delta-V, the relative change in vehicle velocity pre- and post-crash, has on the severity of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). We study injury severity using two metrics for each occupant - the number of injuries suffered, and the probability of suffering a serious or worse (MAIS 3+) injury. We use a cross-sectional set of generally-representative MVC data between 2010 and 2015 as a basis for our research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105577DOI Listing

Estimating the number of traffic crash-related cervical spine injuries in the United States; An analysis and comparison of national crash and hospital data.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 12;142:105571. Epub 2020 May 12.

Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Cervical spine injury is a common result of traffic crashes, and such injuries range in severity from minor (i.e. sprain/strain) to moderate (intervertebral disk derangement) to serious and greater (fractures, dislocations, and spinal cord injuries). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105571DOI Listing

Analyzing road near departures as failure-caused events.

Authors:
Andrew P Tarko

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 12;142:105536. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center for Road Safety, Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 3000 Kent Avenue, West Lafayette, IN, 47906, United States. Electronic address:

Surrogate measures of safety attract revived interest thanks to the advancements in traffic observations techniques and the growing need for rapid safety evaluation. A new method of safety analysis based on failure-caused traffic conflicts and the Lomax distribution was recently proposed to estimate crash frequency more efficiently than with crash data. This paper has two objectives: (1) demonstrate the method applicability to near-departure data collected in a driving simulator, and (2) provide initial evidence of the method validity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105536DOI Listing

Cognitive anticipation cellular automata model: An attempt to understand the relation between the traffic states and rear-end collisions.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 12;142:105507. Epub 2020 May 12.

Laboratoire de Matière Condensée et Sciences Interdisciplinaires, Département de Physique, B.P.1014, Faculté des Sciences, University Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco.

We have investigated the accident's statistics of Europe and North America that are provided by the UN. This investigation has shown that accidents due to the traffic represent around 50 % of the total number of accidents every year. Among them, rear-end collisions hold a 20 % share. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105507DOI Listing

Trajectory-level fog detection based on in-vehicle video camera with TensorFlow deep learning utilizing SHRP2 naturalistic driving data.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 11;142:105521. Epub 2020 May 11.

University of Wyoming, Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, 1000 E University Ave, Dept. 3295, Laramie, WY 82071, United States. Electronic address:

Providing drivers with real-time weather information and driving assistance during adverse weather, including fog, is crucial for safe driving. The primary focus of this study was to develop an affordable in-vehicle fog detection method, which will provide accurate trajectory-level weather information in real-time. The study used the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) video data and utilized several promising Deep Learning techniques, including Deep Neural Network (DNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105521DOI Listing

Highlighting Bicyclist Biological Motion Enhances Their Conspicuity in Daylight.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 11;142:105575. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Psychology, Clemson University, United States.

For safety purposes, it is critical that bicyclists be conspicuous to drivers. We report two experiments that investigated the benefits of bicycle taillights and fluorescent clothing for enhancing the bicyclist's rear conspicuity in daylight. In Experiment 1, 24 participants sat in a car parked on a closed road at each of three distances and rated the conspicuity of four bicyclists displaying taillights that varied in their placement, intensity, and mode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105575DOI Listing

The impact of a new casino on the motor vehicle crash patterns in suburban Maryland.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 11;142:105554. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States; Maryland Center of Excellence on Problem Gambling, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Many states have legalized casino gambling, and casinos create increased vehicle traffic, but the strength of the association between casino construction and vehicle crashes is unknown.

Methods: Retrospective analyses of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) occurring within Anne Arundel County, Maryland (2010-2014) were conducted. The ratio of crashes within one mile of the casino's location after it was opened were compared to the ratio occurring in the same area before it was opened to determine how the incidence of MVCs near the casino changed with time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105554DOI Listing

Detecting lane change maneuvers using SHRP2 naturalistic driving data: A comparative study machine learning techniques.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 11;142:105578. Epub 2020 May 11.

University of Wyoming, Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, 1000 E University Ave, Dept. 3295, Laramie, WY, 82071, United States. Electronic address:

Lane change has been recognized as a challenging driving maneuver and a significant component of traffic safety research. Developing a real-time continuous lane change detection system can assist drivers to perform and deal with complex driving tasks or provide assistance when it is needed the most. This study proposed trajectory-level lane change detection models based on features from vehicle kinematics, machine vision, roadway characteristics, and driver demographics under different weather conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105578DOI Listing

How do drivers negotiate intersections with pedestrians? The importance of pedestrian time-to-arrival and visibility.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 7;141:105524. Epub 2020 May 7.

Autoliv Research, Wallentinsvägen 22, 447 83, Vårgårda, Sweden.

Forward collision warning (FCW) and autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems are increasingly available and prevent or mitigate collisions by alerting the driver or autonomously braking the vehicle. Threat-assessment and decision-making algorithms for FCW and AEB aim to find the best compromise for safety by intervening at the "right" time: neither too early, potentially upsetting the driver, nor too late, possibly missing opportunities to avoid the collision. Today, the extent to which activation times for FCW and AEB should depend on factors such as pedestrian speed and lane width is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105524DOI Listing

Factors influencing pedestrians' decision to cross the road by risky rolling gap crossing strategy at intersections in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 8;142:105564. Epub 2020 May 8.

Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA), Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh.

Pedestrian road-crossing strategy is one of the most important pedestrian road-crossing behaviors. The safety of the pedestrians often depends on it. Among the road-crossing strategies, rolling gap crossing strategy is the riskiest one. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105564DOI Listing

Temporal stability of the factors related to the severity of drivers' injuries in rear-end collisions.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 7;142:105562. Epub 2020 May 7.

Advantage Forensics Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Most of the previous studies that investigated the factors increasing the severity of rear-end collisions were based on analyzing collision reports from multiple years and combining them into a single dataset for analysis. Analyzing pooled data from multiple years carries the risk of introducing aggregation bias in the analysis. Those aggregated models might be structurally unstable, and the significance of the risk factors identified using those aggregated models might change over time due to the ongoing changes in vehicle technologies, law-enforcement technologies, and drivers' attitudes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105562DOI Listing

The role of control in risk perception on rural roads.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 6;142:105573. Epub 2020 May 6.

Transport Research Group, School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Risk perception plays an important role in driver behaviour, particularly for speed choice. Risk perception studies use a range of techniques from on-road data collection to ratings of still photos, however participants' ratings differ depending on the study methodology, possibly due to their perception of control. To explore this we conducted a multiple methods study to investigate drivers' perceptions of risk on rural roads. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105573DOI Listing

Effectiveness of child restraint legislation to reduce motor vehicle related serious injuries and fatalities: A national interrupted time series analysis.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 6;142:105553. Epub 2020 May 6.

The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Australia; The Australian Prevention Partnership Centre, Australia.

Children that are unrestrained while travelling in a motor vehicle are more vulnerable to serious injury and death. The greatest levels of crash protection are achieved when children use the most age or size appropriate form of restraint. In this study, we aimed to examine the effectiveness of the introduction of age-appropriate child restraint legislation on serious and fatal injury in five Australian states and territories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105553DOI Listing

Investigating safety effects of wider longitudinal pavement markings.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 7;142:105527. Epub 2020 May 7.

Road Safety Engineer, de Leur Consulting Ltd., 3435 Cadboro Bay Road, Victoria, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Many road authorities in Canada have been contemplating the use of wider longitudinal pavement markings (LPMs) to enhance road safety and driver comfort. However, conclusive evidence on the safety impacts of wider LPMs has not been available. To address this gap in the literature, this study was conducted to investigate the safety impacts of wider LPMs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105527DOI Listing

Not all protected bike lanes are the same: Infrastructure and risk of cyclist collisions and falls leading to emergency department visits in three U.S. cities.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 6;141:105490. Epub 2020 May 6.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, VA, United States.

Objective: Protected bike lanes separated from the roadway by physical barriers are relatively new in the United States. This study examined the risk of collisions or falls leading to emergency department visits associated with bicycle facilities (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105490DOI Listing

Assessing hospital treatment for alcohol-related injury in Minnesota using 2000 - 2015 hospital discharge data: Opportunities and challenges.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 5;142:105570. Epub 2020 May 5.

Injury and Violence Prevention Section, Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul, MN, United States.

Objective: Excessive alcohol use, especially binge drinking, is an important risk factor for unintentional and intentional injuries. This study used hospital discharge data (HDD) to estimate the prevalence and trends of treatments for alcohol-related injury (ARI) in Minnesota, and discussed opportunities and challenges for public health surveillance.

Method: We examined hospital-treated ARI in Minnesota between 2000 and 2015 using HDD (age ≥12 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105570DOI Listing

Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Braking Response of Drivers in Hazard Scenarios.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 4;142:105545. Epub 2020 May 4.

Transportation Systems Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Electronic address:

This study aimed at modeling the Response Time (RT) and Total Braking Time (TBT) of drivers under Partial Sleep Deprivation (PSD). Fifty male participants drove the driving simulator in three experimental conditions: two test sessions and a baseline. The two test sessions were conducted after one and two nights of PSD (sleep = 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105545DOI Listing

Truck drivers' interaction with cyclists in right-turn situations.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 4;142:105515. Epub 2020 May 4.

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.

One of the more hazardous situations for a bicyclist is to go straight on in an intersection where a motor vehicle is turning right, and especially so when heavy vehicles are involved. The aim of this study was to investigate truck drivers' speed choice, gaze behaviour and interaction strategies in relation to vulnerable road users (VRU) when turning right in signalised and non-signalised intersections. Truck drivers experienced (n = 14) or inexperienced (n = 15) with urban traffic drove a 15 km long test route in an urban environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105515DOI Listing

Comprehensive safety assessment in mixed fleets with connected and automated vehicles: A crash severity and rate evaluation of conventional vehicles.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 29;142:105567. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Research Centre for Integrated Transport Innovation (rCITI), Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) technology, although in the development stage, is quickly expanding throughout the vehicle market. However, full market penetration will most likely require considerable planning as key stakeholders, manufacturers, consumers and governing agencies work together to determine optimal deployment strategies. Specifically, road safety is a critical challenge to the widespread deployment and adoption of this disruptive technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105567DOI Listing

Safety stressors, safety-specific trust, and safety citizenship behavior: A contingency perspective.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 29;142:105572. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

Employee safety citizenship behavior (SCB) is critical for workplace safety in a high-risk work environment, but few studies have addressed how safety stressors affect SCB. This study investigates the different relationships between safety stressors (safety role ambiguity, safety role conflict, and interpersonal safety conflict) and two forms of SCB (proactive and prosocial). It also examines the moderating effect of safety-specific trust (cognition- and affect-based) within these relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105572DOI Listing

Risks to pedestrians in traffic systems with unfamiliar driving rules: a virtual reality approach.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 30;142:105565. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a virtual-reality (VR) pedestrian simulation method was used to evaluate the risks to pedestrians crossing streets in a traffic system with driving rules that were unfamiliar to them. Pedestrians from mainland China (which has a right-side driving (RD) system) and Hong Kong (which has a left-side driving (LD) system) were studied. Significant differences were observed between pedestrians from the different locations in terms of the direction in which the pedestrians habitually first looked before crossing. Read More

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Quantifying accident risk and severity due to speed from the reaction point to the critical conflict in fatal motorcycle accidents.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 29;141:105548. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Transport Safety Research Group, Design School, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. Electronic address:

In fatal road vehicle accidents motorcycles are overrepresented per vehicle kilometre travelled. Fatal accidents involving motorcycles contain mode specific characteristics, and in common with fatal accidents involving all road users, speed typically presents as a significant contributory factor. The aim of the present study is to provide quantitative estimates for the contribution of speed in situations commencing from the reaction location to the safety critical event involving a motorcyclist and resulting in a fatal accident. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105548DOI Listing

Impact of the Rural Intersection Active Warning System (RIAWS) on driver speed: A driving simulator study.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 28;141:105541. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Australian Road Research Board (ARRB), 191 Carr Pl, Leederville, Western Australia, 6007, Australia.

The Rural Intersection Active Warning System (RIAWS) is an innovative road safety treatment designed to slow traffic on major approaches to a high-risk rural intersection when vehicles are turning or crossing into or out of the side roads, thus reducing fatal and serious casualties. A 2 × 2 experimental driving simulation study was undertaken which aimed to determine the impact of signage (RIAWS versus traditional painted) and sign content (80 km/h versus slow down) on drivers' instantaneous speed at rural intersections. The driving simulator assessment was completed by 96 drivers aged between 18 and 80 years with a current WA C class licence (passenger vehicle). Read More

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Improving the transferability of the crash prediction model using the TrAdaBoost.R2 algorithm.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 23;141:105551. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao'an Road, Jiading District, Shanghai, 201804, China; The Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering, Ministry of Education, China. Electronic address:

The crash prediction model is a useful tool for traffic administrators to identify significant risk factors, estimate crash frequency, and screen hazardous locations, but some jurisdictions interested in traffic safety analysis can collect only limited or low-quality data. Existing crash prediction models can be transferred if calibrated, but the current aggregate calibration method limits prediction accuracy and the disaggregate method is resource-consuming. Transfer learning is another approach to calibration that acquires knowledge from old data domains to solve problems in new data domains. Read More

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Status of signalized intersection safety-A case study of Kolkata.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 22;141:105525. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India. Electronic address:

Urban signalized intersections in Indian cities experience a high share of fatalities and serious injuries. However, assessment of safety using rigorous statistical technique is still in an early stage in India, primarily due to challenges in obtaining crash data, road geometric and traffic data. This study intended to focus on safety issues associated with the planning, design, and operation of signalized intersections, and identify the risk factors affecting the frequency and severity of crashes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105525DOI Listing

Effects of the penalty mechanism against traffic violations in China: A joint frailty model of recurrent violations and a terminal accident.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 22;141:105547. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

A penalty mechanism is usually considered as a powerful means to reduce the probability of traffic violations and accidents by encouraging drivers to comply with traffic regulations. Penalty point and fine strategies are often used in parallel. Different degrees of penalty points and/or fines are imposed according to the specific violation behavior of drivers. Read More

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Influence of traffic congestion on driver behavior in post-congestion driving.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Apr 22;141:105508. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Neural Engineering, College of Mechatronics and Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China. Electronic address:

Traffic congestion is more likely to lead to aggressive driving behavior that is associated with increased crash risks. Previous studies mainly focus on driving behavior during congestion when studying congestion effects. However, the negative effects of congestion on driving behavior may also affect drivers' post-congestion driving. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105508DOI Listing