5,578 results match your criteria Accident Analysis And Prevention[Journal]


Evaluate driver response to active warning system in level-2 automated vehicles.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 17;128:132-138. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Public Policy, Partnerships, & Outreach Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, 3500 Transportation Research Plaza (0536), Blacksburg, 24061, VA, USA. Electronic address:

As vehicles with automated functions become more prevalent on U.S. roadways, maintaining driver attention while the vehicle is engaged in automation will be an important consideration for safe operation of these vehicles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Exploring the effects of critical driving situations on driver perception time (PT) using SHRP2 naturalistic driving study data.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 13;128:94-102. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Transportation and Logistics Management, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Driver PT is critical when a driver faces an imminent crash risk and needs to determine what evasive maneuvers to execute. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to study how PT varies across different critical driving situations. PT refers to the time drivers need to recognize the nature and significance of external stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Effects of longitudinal pavement edgeline condition on driver lane deviation.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 13;128:87-93. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive MS 0901, Moscow, ID, 83844-0901, United States. Electronic address:

Single vehicle crashes, particularly those classified as run-off-the-road, are very common on two-lane rural highways. One method to potentially reduce such crashes is to provide additional driver information in the form of wider longitudinal edgeline pavement markings. However, since these markings deteriorate over time, the primary objective of this research was to study the effects of longitudinal edgeline pavement markings with varying deterioration levels and widths and to assess a driver's ability to maintain lane position. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.011DOI Listing

On the relationship between road safety research and the practice of road design and operation.

Authors:
Hauer Ezra

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 13;128:114-131. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Civil Engineeering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

How do the findings of road safety research affect the practice by which the road infrastructure is built and operated? The question is seldom asked. I discuss the complexities of the research-practice symbiosis in the light of two historical anecdotes. These allow me to point out several issues of concern. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00014575183117
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.016DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Estimation of heavy vehicle-involved rear-end crash potential using WIM data.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 13;128:103-113. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Division of Architectural, Urban, and Civil Engineering, Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongnam, 52828, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Rear-end crash risk has been modeled and calibrated from various sources of data. The results can be used to develop traffic control strategies for avoiding collision. As the demand for freight transportation has increased in recent years, traffic agencies are more interested in monitoring heavy vehicle-involved crash risk because of the severity of accidents and high secondary crash risks. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00014575183069
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess public receptivity toward autonomous vehicles and its relation with the traffic safety climate in China.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 12;128:78-86. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) has gained increasing attention in China. Although auto manufacturers and innovators have attempted to confirm that AVs are safe and have introduced them on public roads, it is vital to understand end-users' acceptance of AVs. A total of 1453 participants voluntarily and validly completed a series of questionnaires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.006DOI Listing

How much space do drivers provide when passing cyclists? Understanding the impact of motor vehicle and infrastructure characteristics on passing distance.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Institute of Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, Victoria Australia; Amy Gillett Foundation, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Understanding factors that influence the distance that drivers provide when passing cyclists is critical to reducing subjective risk and improving cycling participation. This study aimed to quantify passing distance and assess the impact of motor vehicle and road infrastructure characteristics on passing distance.

Methods: An on-road observational study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00014575183099
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

A Comprehensive Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Consolidation Model: A Machine Learning Approach.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 10;128:65-77. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Geography & Anthropology Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70802, United States.

In the United States, there are approximately 212,000 highway-rail grade crossings, some of which experience vehicle-train incidents that often cause a massive financial burden, loss of life, and injury. In 2017, there were 2,108 highway-rail incidents resulting in 827 injuries and 307 fatalities nationwide. To eliminate collision risks, crossing grade separation and active alarm improvement are commonly used. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00014575183057
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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The effects of public private partnerships on road safety outcomes.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 10;128:53-64. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d'Econometria Estadística i Economia Aplicada, Av. Diagonal 690, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Public Private Partnerships (PPP) have become common in providing high-quality infrastructure in many countries worldwide. One of the main reasons for PPP agreements is to improve efficiency and quality in the delivery of public services, as well as to boost investments for expensive projects. Despite PPPs having been particularly widespread in the case of the construction and rehabilitation of high-capacity road infrastructure, their impact in terms of road safety outcomes is still unexplored. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00014575193049
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.015DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Self-reported aggression amongst active cyclists.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 8;128:46-52. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Monash University, Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 Australia.

There is a paucity of research regarding aggressive behaviours of on-road cyclists and the consequences that aggression may have on their safety. To address this, we examined self-reported anger-based aggression in a sample of "active" cyclists (N = 623: males = 69%) defined as those who regularly ride a bicycle on-road (all rode at least once a week, 64% rode between 4-7 days per week). Using the Cyclist Anger Expression Inventory (CAX) three broad types of anger-based aggression were identified: 1) constructive ways of dealing with anger, 2) verbal aggression and 3) personal physical aggression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Identifying characteristics that impact motor carrier safety using Bayesian networks.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 5;128:40-45. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Industrial & Systems Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Problem Statement: In the U.S., a safety rating is assigned to each motor carrier based on data obtained from the Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS) and an on-site investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Assessing the relationship between self-reported driving behaviors and driver risk using a naturalistic driving study.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 4;128:8-16. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

College of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Integrated Optimization of Road Traffic and Safety Analysis Technologies, 88 Qianrong Rd, Wuxi 214151, China.

The Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) identifies risky driving behaviors resulting from psychological mechanisms. Investigating the relationships between these behaviors and drivers' crash risk can provide a better understanding of the personal factors contributing to the incidence of crashes, allowing the more effective development of safety education and road management countermeasures and interventions. The objectives of this study are therefore: 1) to determine the extent to which driver involvement in both crashes and near crashes (CNCs) is related to self-reported driving behaviors, and 2) to assess the relationship between each type of risky behavior and individual driver CNC risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.009DOI Listing
April 2019
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Using crowd sourcing to locate and characterize conflicts for vulnerable modes.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 4;128:32-39. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Vanderbilt University, USA.

Most agencies and decision-makers rely on crash and crash severity (property damage only, injury or fatality) data to assess transportation safety; however, in the context of public health where perceptions of safety may influence the willingness to adopt active transportation modes (e.g. bicycling and walking), pedestrian-motor vehicle and other similar conflicts types may define a better performance measure for safety assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Turn signal use among car drivers and motorcyclists at intersections: a case study of Da Nang, Vietnam.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 4;128:25-31. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Faculty of Tourism, University of Economics, The University of Danang, 71 Ngu Hanh Son, Danang City, Vietnam. Electronic address:

Turn signal neglect is a major cause of traffic crashes, particularly rear-end collisions. However, little research has investigated the use of turn signals among motorists, particularly in developing countries with high levels of motorcycle use. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with turn signal use at intersections among car drivers and motorcyclists in Da Nang, Vietnam. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.012DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Exposure to pedestrian crash based on household survey data: Effect of trip purpose.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 4;128:17-24. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Pedestrian are vulnerable to severe injury and mortality in the road crashes. Understanding the essence of the pedestrian crash is important to the development of effective safety countermeasures and improvement of social well-being. It is necessary to measure the exposure for the quantification of pedestrian crash risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.017DOI Listing

A comparative analysis of black spot identification methods and road accident segmentation methods.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 3;128:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest H-1111, Hungary. Electronic address:

Indicating road safety-related aspects in the phase of planning and operating is always a challenging task for experts. The success of any method applied in identifying a high-risk location or black spot (BS) on the road should depend fundamentally on how data is organized into specific homogeneous segments. The appropriate combination of black spot identification (BSID) method and segmentation method contributes significantly to the reduction in false positive (a site involved in safety investigation while it is not needed) and false negative (not involving a site in safety investigation while it is needed) cases in identifying BS segments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.002DOI Listing

Calibration of inertial consistency models on North Carolina two-lane rural roads.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 29;127:236-245. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Highway Engineering Research Group (HERG), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n 46022, Valencia, 3877374, Spain. Electronic address:

Road crash occurrence is closely related to the geometric design consistency, which can be defined as how drivers' expectancies and road behavior fit. To this regard, the crash rate on a road segment increases as its consistency level decreases. To assess this phenomenon, inertial consistency models were recently developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.013DOI Listing

Behaviors of older pedestrians at crosswalks in South Korea.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 27;127:231-235. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Transportation Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

This paper aims to explore three walking behaviors of older pedestrians that may increase their crash risks when crossing urban streets. Older and younger pedestrians' start-up delay in initiating a crossing and number of head turns during street crossing are observed at 30 pedestrian crossings in Seoul, South Korea, using video recorders. In addition, their estimation of the safe crossing distance to an approaching vehicle is collected in a survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.005DOI Listing
June 2019
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Analysis of trunk impact conditions in motorcycle road accidents based on epidemiological, accidentological data and multibody simulations.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 25;127:223-230. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Aix-Marseille Univ, IFSTTAR, LBA UMR_T24, F-13016, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Motorcycle accidents lead to a high rate of traffic mortality and morbidity. While helmet development and mandatory wearing have reduced head injuries, little progress has been made regarding trunk protection. Wearable airbag devices represent a promising solution to prevent trunk injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.006DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads

Evaluation of in-vehicle technologies to prevent unlicensed driving in Queensland and Victoria.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 21;127:210-222. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Queensland University of Technology (QUT), CARRS-Q, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Unlicensed driving is a serious problem in many Australian states, with unlicensed driving-related crashes (UDC) costing up to $304 million per year in Queensland, and $176 million in Victoria. In this paper, we present a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) analysis of a set of Intelligent Transportation Systems technologies aimed at preventing unlicensed driving by verifying the driver's identity through biometric technology, as well as the validity of their licence. Utilised together, the technology would essentially take the form of a licence interlock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.023DOI Listing

Modeling safety performance of the new super DDI design in terms of vehicular traffic and pedestrian.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 21;127:198-209. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Wyoming Technology Transfer Center, Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Dept. 3295, Laramie, WY, 82071, United States. Electronic address:

Most existing interchanges in the United States were built more than 50 years ago based on old design policies. Many of these designs are not consistent with current traffic and pedestrian demands anymore. Therefore, this inconsistency has caused problems regarding operation and safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.008DOI Listing

The relative risk of motor vehicle collision on cannabis celebration day in Great Britain.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Cannabis celebration day, also known as "420 day", takes place at 4:20pm on April 20 every year. The objective of this paper is to study whether there is an increase in road traffic collisions in Great Britain on that day. We used daily car crash data resulting in death or injury from all 51 local police forces covering Great Britain over the period 2011-2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.013DOI Listing

Changing patterns of motor vehicle collision risk during winter storms: A new look at a pervasive problem.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 18;127:186-197. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Past research has shown that winter precipitation is an important environmental factor that increases the frequency of motor vehicle collisions that cause personal injury and property damage. Questions remain about the magnitude of winter storm effects on collision occurrence, changes in risk over time, and the role of driver behaviour in conjunction with other factors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.027DOI Listing

The effect of cognitive distraction on perception-response time to unexpected abrupt and gradually onset roadway hazards.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 18;127:177-185. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: A driving simulator study was conducted to investigate the effect of cognitive distraction on different stages of perception-response time (saccade latency, processing time, and movement time) to unexpected roadway hazards, both when the hazard onset is abrupt and when it is gradual.

Background: Prior studies, which typically focus on overall response times, have demonstrated that distraction, including cognitive distraction, leads to an increase in response times. Studies have also shown that response times differ depending on the type and location of the hazard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Safety, security, and serviceability in road engineering.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 17;127:172-176. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008, United States. Electronic address:

Road engineers have special responsibilities to design and maintain roads that are safe, secure, and serviceable. This paper explores some of the challenges such responsibilities pose, especially from the vantage point of non-engineers whose lives are deeply affected by the work of road engineers. It also supports the thesis that road engineers need to be prepared to consult and work with professionals in other fields than engineering in order to fulfill their responsibilities well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.026DOI Listing

Comparison of Bayesian techniques for the before-after evaluation of the safety effectiveness of short 2+1 road sections.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 16;127:163-171. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland. Electronic address:

In evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment, the regression to the mean phenomenon is a cause for concern because of a possible overestimation of benefits. Therefore, Bayesian approaches are usually suggested as the most appropriate methodologies for before-after studies as they account for regression to the mean effects. The empirical Bayes (EB) methodology examines the estimation of the expected number of crashes that would have occurred without treatment and compares them with the crashes observed at the treated sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.009DOI Listing

Review of average sized male and female occupant models in European regulatory safety assessment tests and European laws: Gaps and bridging suggestions.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 16;127:156-162. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI, Regnbågsgatan 1, Gothenburg, Sweden.

There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part comprised reviewing how men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. This part also contains an overview of some differences between females and males that may influence dynamic responses in a crash. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.030DOI Listing

How to trade safety against cost, time and other impacts of road safety measures.

Authors:
Rune Elvik

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 14;127:150-155. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Public policy, including road safety policy, involves balancing competing values against each other. Several techniques of policy analysis, most prominently cost-benefit analysis, have been developed to help policy makers prioritize between different values. Valuation studies have not produced credible monetary values of life and limb. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.028DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

A comparison of statistical learning methods for deriving determining factors of accident occurrence from an imbalanced high resolution dataset.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 8;127:134-149. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Institute of Applied Statistics and Scientific Computing, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

One of the main aims of accident data analysis is to derive the determining factors associated with road traffic accident occurrence. While current studies mainly use variants of count data regression to achieve this aim, the problem can also be considered as a binary classification task, with the dichotomous target variable indicating events (accidents) and non-events (no accidents). The effects of 45 variables - describing road condition and geometry, traffic volume and regulations, weather, and accident time - are analyzed using a dataset in high temporal (1 h) and spatial (250 m) resolution, covering the whole highway network of Austria over the period of four consecutive years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.008DOI Listing

Exploring the contribution of executive functions to on-road driving performance during aging: A latent variable analysis.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 6;127:96-109. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

LabPsy, University of Bordeaux, France.

With the aging of the population the issue of older drivers safety has gained importance in recent years. Age-related cognitive decline is frequently cited as the main cause of unsafe driving performance in older drivers.

Objective: The present study investigated how executive functions (EFs), measured as latent variables, are related to on-road driving performance during aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.010DOI Listing

How instantaneous driving behavior contributes to crashes at intersections: Extracting useful information from connected vehicle message data.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 7;127:118-133. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States.

Connected and automated vehicles have enabled researchers to use big data for development of new metrics that can enhance transportation safety. Emergence of such a big data coupled with computational power of modern computers have enabled us to obtain deeper understanding of instantaneous driving behavior by applying the concept of "driving volatility" to quantify variations in driving behavior. This paper brings in a methodology to quantify variations in vehicular movements utilizing longitudinal and lateral volatilities and proactively studies the impact of instantaneous driving behavior on type of crashes at intersections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.01.014DOI Listing

Impact of regulations to control alcohol consumption by drivers: An assessment of reduction in fatal traffic accident numbers in the Federal District, Brazil.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 7;127:110-117. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Transportes, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil. Electronic address:

In 2008 Brazil enacted Law n° 11.705, known as the Lei Seca (in Portuguese) or Dry Law, altering the National Traffic Code by establishing zero tolerance for the presence of alcohol in drivers' bloodstreams and toughening punishment for offenders. In 2012 the New Dry Law, Law n° 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.01.017DOI Listing

Analyzing freeway crash severity using a Bayesian spatial generalized ordered logit model with conditional autoregressive priors.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 4;127:87-95. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Traffic and Transportation, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410114, PR China. Electronic address:

This study develops a Bayesian spatial generalized ordered logit model with conditional autoregressive priors to examine severity of freeway crashes. Our model can simultaneously account for the ordered nature in discrete crash severity levels and the spatial correlation among adjacent crashes without fixing the thresholds between crash severity levels. The crash data from Kaiyang Freeway, China in 2014 are collected for the analysis, where crash severity levels are defined considering the combination of injury severity, financial loss, and numbers of injuries and deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.029DOI Listing
June 2019
6 Reads

Middle-aged Drivers' subjective categorization for combined alignments on mountainous freeways and their speed choices.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 2;127:80-86. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Melbourne School of Design/Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Road geometric design is a fundamental factor that impacts driving speed. Previous research generally paid attentions to the influences of specific road characteristics (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.020DOI Listing

A new integrated collision risk assessment methodology for autonomous vehicles.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 2;127:61-79. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering Loughborough University Loughborough, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Real-time risk assessment of autonomous driving at tactical and operational levels is extremely challenging since both contextual and circumferential factors should concurrently be considered. Recent methods have started to simultaneously treat the context of the traffic environment along with vehicle dynamics. In particular, interaction-aware motion models that take inter-vehicle dependencies into account by utilizing the Bayesian interference are employed to mutually control multiple factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.01.029DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads

An evaluation of the effects of an innovative school-based cycling education program on safety and participation.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 1;127:52-60. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

ACT Education and Training Directorate, Australia.

Cycling education programs for children could play a role in promoting both cycling participation and cycling safety, and they exist in many countries - often in school settings. Evaluations have generally shown improvements in skills and knowledge, but effects on less-researched outcomes such as safety-related behaviour, crashes or injuries, cycling participation, and cycling confidence, are unclear. The present research evaluated Safe Cycle, an innovative Australian school-based program that addresses hazard awareness and overconfidence in addition to more typical content (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.021DOI Listing

Hidden figures behind two-vehicle crashes: An assessment of the risk and external costs of drunk driving in Spain.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 1;127:42-51. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Economics, Carretera Utrera km. 1, 41013, Sevilla, Spain.

In this paper, we estimate the relative risk that drunk drivers pose on sober drivers, passengers and pedestrians, and quantify the external cost of drunk driving in Spain between 2004-2015. Eventually we arrive at the following conclusions. Firstly, we find the relative risk of drunk drivers causing a crash during the night to be between 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.017DOI Listing

Mobile device use while crossing the street: Utilizing the theory of planned behavior.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 28;127:9-18. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

The University of Alabama, Department of Health Science, Box 870311, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, United States.

Every year, thousands of pedestrians are killed and tens-of-thousands are nonfatally injured as a result of traffic crashes. The year 2016 holds the record for the most pedestrians killed in one year since 1990. Mobile device use while crossing the street has been associated with unsafe crossing behaviors and gait abnormalities, potentially increasing the risk of pedestrian injury or death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.006DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Sickness absence, disability pension and permanent medical impairment among 64 000 injured car occupants of working ages: A two-year prospective cohort study.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 1;127:35-41. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden; Folksam Research, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: There is a lack of knowledge regarding sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP) as consequences of road traffic injuries, and on the association between DP and permanent medical impairment (PMI). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate SA, DP, and PMI among injured passenger car occupants two years after a crash, and how they are associated, accounting for sociodemographics, crash-related factors, and previous SA/DP.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 64 007 injured car occupants aged 17-62 years at the time of a crash occurring in 2001-2013, involving a car insured at Folksam Insurance Group in Sweden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.019DOI Listing

Associations between emotional symptoms and self-reported aberrant driving behaviors in older adults.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 1;127:28-34. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Louisiana State University, Department of Psychology, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, United States.

Objective: To examine associations between internalizing symptoms and self-reported aberrant driving behaviors in a large sample (n = 341) of older adults (mean age = 62.6 years, SD = 4.8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.024DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Regulatory focus, time perspective, locus of control and sensation seeking as predictors of risky driving behaviors.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 1;127:19-27. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

University of Montreal-HEC, Canada.

Empirical evidence shows that most of the road safety efforts fail to reach the most risk-prone drivers. In light of this issue, we have developed this study in order to distinguish between high-risk drivers and low-risk drivers based on variables that have already been shown to affect the effectiveness of preventive messages: regulatory focus orientation, time perspective, locus of control and sensation seeking. We sent paper and pencil questionnaires to five thousand low-risk drivers and five thousand high-risk drivers randomly selected based on their driving records. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.025DOI Listing

Texting while walking: An expensive switch cost.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 28;127:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

HEC Montreal, Canada.

Texting while walking has been highlighted as a dangerous behavior that leads to impaired judgment and accidents. This impairment could be due to task switching which involves activation of the present task and the inhibition of the previous task. However, the relative contributions of these processes and their brain activity have not yet been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.022DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Network screening for large urban road networks: Using GPS data and surrogate measures to model crash frequency and severity.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 25;125:290-301. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Decision Sciences, HEC Montréal, 3000 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, Québec, H3T 2A7, Canada. Electronic address:

Crash frequency and injury severity are independent dimensions defining crash risk in road safety management and network screening. Traditional screening techniques model crashes using regression and historical crash data, making them intrinsically reactive. In response, surrogate measures of safety have become a popular proactive alternative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.016DOI Listing

Impact of heterogeneity of car-following behavior on rear-end crash risk.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 23;125:275-289. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Big Data and Brain Computing, Beijing Key Laboratory for Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure Systems and Safety Control, Beijing 100191, China; School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

An increasing number of vehicles travel on freeways result not only in traffic congestions but also accidents. Rear-end crashes in freeways can be collectively attributed to drivers, vehicles, and road infrastructure, but driving behavior plays a key role in influencing car-following safety. This study aims to investigate the impact of heterogeneity of driving behavior on rear-end crash risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.018DOI Listing

Impact evaluation of camera enforcement for traffic violations in Cali, Colombia, 2008-2014.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 22;125:267-274. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Cisalva Institute, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia; School of Public Health, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cameras for detecting traffic violations have been used as a measure to improve road safety in different countries around the world. In Cali, Colombia, fixed cameras were installed in March 2012 on a number of roads and intersections. All camera devices are capable of detecting simultaneously the following traffic violations: driving over the speed limit, running a red light or stop sign, violation of the traffic ban schedule, and blocking the pedestrian crosswalk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Risk of automated driving: Implications on safety acceptability and productivity.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 22;125:257-266. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Research Centre for Integrated Transportation Innovation, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, 2052, Australia.

Autonomous Vehicles have captured the imagination of our society and have promised a future of safe and efficient mobility. However, there is a need to understand behaviour and its consequences in the use of autonomous vehicles. Using paradigms of behavioural and experimental economics, we show that risk attitudes play a role in acceptability of autonomous vehicles, productivity in autonomous vehicles and safety under risk of failures of autonomous systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.005DOI Listing

Macro-level traffic safety analysis in Shanghai, China.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 22;125:249-256. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Shanghai City, Comprehensive Transportation Planning Institute.

Continuing rapid growth in Shanghai, China, requires traffic safety to be considered at the earliest possible stage of transport planning. Macro-level traffic safety studies have been carried out extensively in many countries, but to date, few have been conducted in China. This study developed a macro-level safety model for 263 traffic analysis zones (TAZs) within the urban area of Shanghai in order to examine the relationship between traffic crash frequency and road network, traffic, socio-economic characteristics, and land use features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.014DOI Listing

Detecting DUI (Non) deterrence: A macro-methodology to uncover "restrictive v permissive" county jurisdictions in California.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 21;125:241-248. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

California State University, Fresno, 5245 N Backer Ave, 93740-8001, Fresno, California, United States. Electronic address:

This paper builds a method to detect the apparent restrictiveness or permissiveness of communities towards drunk-driving. A framework of three mutually interacting community domains is used to motivate a minimum set of DUI patterns to be expected from an appropriately deterrent environment. Based on the (simplified) system dynamics model, an empirical estimation strategy and scoring methodology is outlined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.011DOI Listing

Machines versus humans: People's biased responses to traffic accidents involving self-driving vehicles.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 21;125:232-240. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

School of Information Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710064, PR China.

Although self-driving vehicles (SDVs) bring with them the promise of improved traffic safety, they cannot eliminate all crashes. Little is known about whether people respond crashes involving SDVs and human drivers differently and why. Across five vignette-based experiments in two studies (total N = 1267), for the first time, we witnessed that participants had a tendency to perceive traffic crashes involving SDVs to be more severe than those involving conventionally human-driven vehicles (HDVs) regardless of their severity (injury or fatality) or cause (SDVs/HDVs or others). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.012DOI Listing

Crash causes, countermeasures, and safety policy implications.

Authors:
David Shinar

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 19;125:224-231. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. Electronic address:

There are interrelationships between crash causes, countermeasures, and policy implications, but they are not necessarily direct and obvious. Part of the problem is the definition of a cause. The seminal 1979 Indiana University "Study of Accident Causes" has cemented some false assumptions that must be overcome to yield an effective crash countermeasures policy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.015DOI Listing