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    Cardiometabolic profile of obese children in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 May 19;17(1):129. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: Cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of obesity in children, unlike adults, are still not well understood nor have they been subject to extensive research in Africa. We aimed to identify the cardio-metabolic complications associated with childhood obesity at the early phase of the management of obese children in a reference center in Cameroon.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted from November 2013 to September 2014 and based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification of Obesity (BMI > 3SD under 5 years and BMI > 2SD from 5 and above), we included children aged 3 to 17 years who were being followed up for obesity at the pediatric endocrinology unit of the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal BIYA Foundation in Yaounde, Cameroon. Read More

    Obstructive sleep apnea and dermatologic disorders.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 May - Jun;35(3):319-327. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto School of Medicine, 645 Windermere Road, London, Ontario, Canada, N5X 2P1.
    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is present in at least 2% of women and 4% of men, and its prevalence is increasing, because a major predisposing factor for OSA is a high body mass index. Psoriasis has the most strongly substantiated link with OSA, where the relationship may be bidirectional. Dermatologic disorders may be comorbid with OSA due to several factors: (i) the heightened proinflammatory state in OSA, which can occur independent of body mass index, and may exacerbate inflammatory dermatoses; (ii) intermittent hypoxemia may promote neovascularization and tumor growth in certain cancers, such as melanoma; (iii) obesity, present in majority of OSA patients, can be associated with a heightened proinflammatory state; (iv) upper airway obstruction due to local tumors or soft tissue swelling due to physical urticaria or angioedema; (v) acute nasal congestion in the atopic patient with allergic rhinitis; (vi) dermatologic disorders associated with other OSA risk factors (eg, acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome); and (vii) a high sympathetic tone (eg, in atopic dermatitis) and resultant sleep fragmentation contributing to upper airway instability during sleep. Read More

    Arterial stiffening, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans in a community sample of adolescents with obesity.
    Int J Obes (Lond) 2017 May 3. Epub 2017 May 3.
    UCL Institute of Child Health, London.
    Acanthosis Nigricans (AN) is a common finding in adolescents with obesity. Little is known about its relevance for cardiovascular (CVS) risk, in particular arterial stiffening.? We investigated associations between AN, conventional markers of CVS risk and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a community sample of adolescents with obesity aged 12-19 recruited to an obesity trial. Read More

    Prepubertal Childhood Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Four Case Reports.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Feb;65(2):43-46
    President, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Chairman, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
    Background: The prevalence of childhood onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, but prepubertal T2D is still unusual.

    Methods: We report four cases of T2D with onset at or below 10 years of age registered at a tertiary diabetes centre in southern India.T2D was diagnosed based on the absence of ketosis, good beta cell reserve as shown by the C peptide assay, absence of GAD antibodies and pancreatic calculi, and response to oral hypoglycemic agents. Read More

    Association of metabolic syndrome with low birth weight, intake of high-calorie diets and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2017 Jan 19;64(1):11-17. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Maestría en Nutrición Clínica, Universidad del Valle de Atemajac, Zapopan, México; Departamento de Clínicas Médicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México; Laboratorio de Inmunodeficiencias y Retrovirus Humanos, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, México. Electronic address:
    Objective: The theory of fetal programming suggests that low birth weight (LBW) predisposes to greater food intake and increases the chance of overweight and obesity, which are in turn associated to conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and acanthosis nigricans. The study objective was to ascertain whether an association exists between MS, LBW, intake of high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity.

    Material And Methods: A case-control was conducted on 100 children who attended the overweight and obesity outpatient clinic of the OPD Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde". Read More

    Severe, Malignant Acanthosis Nigricans Associated with Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium in a Young Obese Female.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2017 Jan-Apr;9(1):30-37. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistance, drugs, endocrine disorders, chromosomal abnormalities (benign AN), and neoplasia (malignant AN). Malignant AN (MAN) is a rare paraneoplastic skin syndrome most commonly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and other intra-abdominal malignancies. We report the case of a 28-year-old female with AN associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Read More

    Cutaneous Manifestations of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Mar-Apr;8(2):104-110
    Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, GMC Srinagar and associated SMHS Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women, affecting 5-10% of reproductive-aged women. The dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, chiefly hirsutism, acne vulgaris, androgenic alopecia, and acanthosis nigricans, are among the cardinal manifestations of PCOS.

    Aim: To study the incidence and prevalence of various cutaneous manifestations in patients with PCOS and to correlate these skin manifestations with hormonal changes. Read More

    The Associations of Serum Uric Acid with Obesity-Related Acanthosis nigricans and Related Metabolic Indices.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 7;2017:5438157. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Objective. Recent studies have shown that hyperuricemia (HUA) is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to examine the relationship of serum UA with Acanthosis nigricans (AN) and related metabolic indices in obese patients. Read More

    Concomitant confluent and reticulated papillomatosis and acanthosis nigricans in an obese girl with insulin resistance successfully treated with oral minocycline: Case report and published work review.
    J Dermatol 2017 Mar 11. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Related, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
    Concomitant confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) and acanthosis nigricans (AN) is rare. We present a case of concomitant CRP and obesity-associated AN in a 12-year-old obese Japanese girl. Curiously, oral minocycline therapy, which has been shown to be effective for CRP, was effective against both CRP and AN. Read More

    Hormonal therapies for acne.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Mar - Apr;35(2):168-172. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, USA.
    Acne is a common, worldwide problem that is usually multifactorial in etiology, but androgens may play a pivotal role in the development and severity of acne. Endocrinopathies, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors, or adrenal hyperplasia or tumors, may be detected in some patients with acne, especially if acne is sudden in onset, associated with hirsutism or menstrual irregularities, or associated with cushingoid facies, acanthosis nigricans, patterned hair loss, or deepened voice. In these instances, serum-free and total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone should be tested. Read More

    Sex hormones and acne.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Mar - Apr;35(2):130-137. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    IZZ-Immunologie Zentrum Zürich, Walchestr. 11, CH 8006, Zürich, Switzerland; Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technische Universität München, Biedersteinerstr. 29, D-80802, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Read More

    Type B Insulin Resistance in Peru.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 Mar 30;353(3):258-262. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Endocrinology Unit, Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, Lima, Peru.
    Type B insulin resistance (IR) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of insulin receptor autoantibodies, resulting in a marked IR inducing hyperglycemia. Our first case is a 42-year-old female with a history of RA, SLE and Hashimoto-thyroiditis that presented with cachexia, acanthosis-nigricans, hirsutism, negative anti-insulin-ab and glucose level between 400 to 700 mg/dl, despite a total insulin dose of 1000 IU/day. She received pulses of cyclophosphamide along with prednisone. Read More

    Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis With Linear Pseudo-striae: A Description of 20 Cases.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Mar 2. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    E.S.E Centro Dermatológico Federico Lleras Acosta, Bogotá D.C., Colombia; Fundación Universitaria Sanitas, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.
    Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, also known as Gougerot-Carteaud Syndrome, is a rare chronic disease typically affecting young adults. Of unknown etiology, the condition is characterised by oval grayish-brown or erythematous papules that coalesce to form a reticular pattern, usually on the trunk, especially in the intermammary or interscapular region and on the neck. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, based on the appearance of the lesions, the areas affected, and the response to treatment with minocycline. Read More

    Diabetes mellitus and the skin.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;92(1):8-20
    Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP) -Botucatu (SP), Brazil.
    Several dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders, but it is not so clear in others. Dermatoses such necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans and others are discussed in this text, with an emphasis on proven link with the diabetes or not, disease identification and treatment strategy used to control those dermatoses and diabetes. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Noninfectious Rashes.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:18-25
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are among the most common noninfectious rashes of childhood. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are classified as morbilliform, urticarial, bullous, pustular, or psoriasiform. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous eruptions, and is characterized by pruritus and flexural distribution. Read More

    Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in 2 cases of primary insulin receptor defect-associated diseases.
    Pediatr Diabetes 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Defects of the insulin receptor gene ( INSR ) cause wide spectra of congenital insulin resistance. Monoallelic defects result in milder insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans (IRAN, type A). Whereas, leprechaunism (Donahue syndrome), the most severe condition with lethality during the infantile period is caused by biallelic defects of INSR . Read More

    Mild achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia with acanthosis nigricans, normal development, and a p.Ser348Cys FGFR3 mutation.
    Am J Med Genet A 2017 Apr 9;173(4):1097-1101. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    Pathogenic allelic variants in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene have been associated with a number of phenotypes including achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome), and SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans). Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is caused by the pathogenic variant c.1172C>A (p. Read More

    A study of the association of acanthosis nigricans with subclinical atherosclerosis.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017 Mar-Apr;83(2):190-194
    Cardiovascular Research Unit, CUCS, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.
    Background: Hyperinsulinism is related to the presence of acanthosis nigricans and atherosclerosis; however, we were unable to find any study on the prevalence of atherosclerosis in acanthosis nigricans.

    Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and metabolic alterations in Mexican patients with acanthosis nigricans.

    Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study that included 45 patients with acanthosis nigricans, age- and gender-matched with 45 healthy participants. Read More

    Diagnostic and management challenges from childhood, puberty through to transition in severe insulin resistance due to insulin receptor mutations.
    Pediatr Diabetes 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK.
    Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15. Read More

    Acanthosis Nigricans as a Clinical Predictor of Insulin Resistance in Obese Children.
    Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2016 Dec 28;19(4):251-258. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Pediatrics, Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea.
    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the utility of acanthosis nigricans (AN) severity as an index for predicting insulin resistance in obese children.

    Methods: The subjects comprised 74 obese pediatric patients who attended the Department of Pediatrics at Chosun University Hospital between January 2013 and March 2016. Waist circumference; body mass index; blood pressure; fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels; lipid profile; aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glycated hemoglobin, C-peptide, and uric acid levels; and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin check sensitivity index (QUICKI) scores were compared between subjects with AN and those without AN. Read More

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues - an efficient therapeutic option for the severe insulin resistance of lipodystrophic syndromes: two case reports.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Jan 13;11(1):12. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar São João, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200, Porto, Portugal.
    Background: Lipodystrophic syndromes are uncommon medical conditions which are normally associated with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. These complications are generally difficult to treat, particularly diabetes, due to severe insulin resistance. We present two case reports of successful treatment of diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues in patients with clinical features of lipodystrophic syndromes. Read More

    The Clinical Characteristics of Obese Patients with Acanthosis Nigricans and Its Independent Risk Factors.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Mar 12;125(3):191-195. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for acanthosis nigricans (AN) in obese patients. Methods: 80 obese patients without AN (OB group) and 128 obese patients with AN (AN group) were included in this study. Clinical data for each patients were collected. Read More

    Triglyceride to HDL-C Ratio is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Children.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jan 6;7:40055. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Diabetes and Endocrine Unit, Institute For Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of triglyceride to hdl-c ratio (TG:HDL-C) as an insulin resistance (IR) marker for overweight and obese children. A total of 271 blood samples of obese and overweight children aged 9-16 years were analysed for fasting glucose, lipids and insulin. Children were divided into IR and non-insulin resistance, using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Read More

    Double diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A new entity or an underestimated condition.
    World J Diabetes 2016 Dec;7(20):621-626
    Rim Braham, Aus Alzaid, Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Rania Ahmad Ahmad, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 11159, Saudi Arabia.
    Aim: To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of double diabetes (DD) among young people in Saudi Arabia.

    Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive chart review study including 312 young newly diagnosed diabetic patients (aged 12-20 years), whom were admitted over a five year period (January 2009 to December 2013). Family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (first degree), physical body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, history of auto-immune disease and laboratory information for glycosylated hemoglobin, basal C peptide level and diabetes autoantibody response (anti-GAD, anti-IA2 and anti-ICA) were collected from medical report. Read More

    Acanthosis nigricans in obese adolescents: prevalence, impact, and management challenges.
    Adolesc Health Med Ther 2017 16;8:1-10. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong, China.
    Obesity in adolescence is a public health priority because it usually tracks into adulthood, resulting in enormous medical and social costs. This underscores the importance of early identification and intervention. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) was once considered a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis, but is now frequently observed in obese adolescents. Read More

    Palmoplantar Keratoderma in Costello Syndrome Responsive to Acitretin.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Mar 23;34(2):160-162. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by coarse facial features, cardiac defects, intellectual disability, and predisposition to malignancies. Dermatologic findings can include cutaneous papillomas, skin redundancy, acanthosis nigricans, and keratosis pilaris. Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is present in approximately 76% of patients with CS, with disabling functional consequences in severe cases. Read More

    Specific skin signs as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state - a systematic review.
    Dan Med J 2017 Jan;64(1)
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state are associated with a number of skin manifestations. This study is a systematic review of the following manifestations: acanthosis nigricans (AN), skin tags (ST), diabetic dermopathy (DD), rubeosis faciei (RF), pruritus (PR), granuloma annulare (GA), necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), scleroedema diabeticorum (SD) and bullosis diabeticorum (BD). These conditions possibly relate to underlying diabetogenic mechanisms. Read More

    Comparison of long-pulsed alexandrite laser and topical tretinoin-ammonium lactate in axillary acanthosis nigricans: A case series of patients in a before-after trial.
    Caspian J Intern Med 2016 ;7(4):290-293
    Department of Dermatology, Razi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a brown to black, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin that usually involves cutaneous folds. Treatment of AN is important regarding cosmetic reasons and various therapeutic modalities have been used for these purposes. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of long-pulsed alexandrite laser and topical tretinoin-ammonium lactate for treatment of axillary-AN. Read More

    A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 Nov-Dec;7(6):498-503
    Consultant Pathologist, Toprani Advanced Lab Systems, Race Course Circle, Vadodara, India.
    Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases.

    Materials And Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. Read More

    Assessment of EGF receptor ligand expression in gastric carcinoma and in lesional skin of paraneoplastic acanthosis nigricans: a case report.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Dec 17. Epub 2016 Dec 17.
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University Clinic of Navarra, University of Navarra, IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, PO Box 4209, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain.

    Achondroplasia: Development, pathogenesis, and therapy.
    Dev Dyn 2017 Apr 2;246(4):291-309. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Imagine Institute, Inserm U1163, Université Paris Descartes, Service de Génétique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    Autosomal dominant mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) cause achondroplasia (Ach), the most common form of dwarfism in humans, and related chondrodysplasia syndromes that include hypochondroplasia (Hch), severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN), and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). FGFR3 is expressed in chondrocytes and mature osteoblasts where it functions to regulate bone growth. Analysis of the mutations in FGFR3 revealed increased signaling through a combination of mechanisms that include stabilization of the receptor, enhanced dimerization, and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. Read More

    Bariatric surgery: is it reasonable before the age of 16?
    Rev Col Bras Cir 2016 Sep-Oct;43(5):360-367
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.
    Objective:: to assess the severity of obesity in children and adolescents through the presence of comorbidities and the potential indication of bariatric surgery.

    Methods:: we conducted a cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data of the first consultation of patients at the childhood obesity clinic at a tertiary hospital from 2005 to 2013. We divided the patients into groups with or without potential indication for surgery, and recorded age, gender, birth weight, age of obesity onset, BMI Z score, presence of acanthosis nigricans, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, blood glucose and fasting insulin, HOMA1-IR, CRP and ESR. Read More

    Clinical Features and Management of Non-HIV-Related Lipodystrophy in Children: A Systematic Review.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb;102(2):363-374
    Evidence-Based Practice Center and.
    Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue.

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review to synthesize data on clinical and metabolic features of lipodystrophy (age at onset, < 18 years).

    Data Source: Sources included Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Non-Indexed Citations from inception through January 2016. Read More

    Skin manifestations of Cushing's syndrome.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2016 Sep;17(3):283-286
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room East 1330, CRC, 10 Center Dr. MSC1862, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1862, USA.
    Among the most common diagnostic manifestations of Cushing's syndrome (CS) are those involving the skin; they include violaceous striae, facial acne, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans (AN), fungal infections, hyperpigmentation (Hp) and easy bruisability. Fortunately, most resolve within a year or two after cure of CS, although light-colored striae can persist for years depending on the age of the patients. AN, Hp, and bruisability usually resolve within months after cure in almost all ages. Read More

    Acral manifestations of paraneoplastic and collagen vascular diseases.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):50-54. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address:
    The skin often signals a number of systemic disease, making skin findings of paramount significance. Paraneoplastic diseases and collagen vascular diseases are vitally important illnesses. Paraneoplastic diseases and collagen vascular diseases may also occur with many different acral skin findings. Read More

    Skin Manifestations of Insulin Resistance: From a Biochemical Stance to a Clinical Diagnosis and Management.
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2017 Mar 5;7(1):37-51. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Dermatology Division, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José E. González", Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, and around 600 million people suffer from obesity. Similarly, ~382 million individuals live with diabetes, and 40-50% of the global population is labeled at "high risk" (i. Read More

    Rabson Mendenhall Syndrome caused by a novel missense mutation.
    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2016 17;2016:21. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Rabson Mendenhall syndrome is a rare endocrine condition characterized by severe insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. It occurs due to mutations in the insulin receptor gene. Few mutations which are associated with Rabson Mendenhall syndrome have been identified and reported in the past. Read More

    [Cutaneous manifestations of metabolic syndrome].
    Hautarzt 2016 Dec;67(12):982-988
    SMZ Ost, Abteilung für Dermatologie, Donauspital, Langobardenstr. 122, 1220, Wien, Österreich.
    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors which increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. High blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and central obesity are the main risk factors. While MetS is not a dermatological diagnosis per se, several cutaneous manifestations can serve as a clinical indicator for impending MetS and facilitate an early diagnosis and therapy in order to prevent its long-term sequelae. Read More

    Type 2 diabetes in a 5-year-old and single center experience of type 2 diabetes in youth under 10.
    Pediatr Diabetes 2016 Nov 3. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology & Diabetes & Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
    The worrisome rise in pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is most prevalent among minority ethnic/racial populations. Typically, T2DM occurs during puberty in high risk obese adolescents with evidence of insulin resistance. Screening for T2DM in obese youth can be a daunting task for pediatricians and differentiating between pediatric T1DM and T2DM in obese youth can be challenging for pediatric endocrinologists. Read More

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis.
    Wien Med Wochenschr 2017 Mar 21;167(3-4):66-69. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) belongs to the group of "dirty dermatoses" and represents a not well-known and surely underestimated vexing skin condition. Firstly described by Duncan, Tschen and Knox in 1987, it accounts for a few case series in the literature and has a still undefined aetiology. The authors present an additional report of TFFD, occurring in a young Caucasian girl, and briefly review the current medical literature on the topic. Read More

    [Woman 19-old with hirsutism, obesity and acanthosis nigricans].
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2016 Sep;41(243):141-144
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland: Student's Scientific Circle "Endocrinus", Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology.
    19-year-old hirsute woman with obesity, skin lesions with features of acanthosis nigricans around neck, armpits, thoracic cage and wrists escalating for couple of months, elevated testosterone and insulin plasma levels was admitted to hospital to perform diagnostic approach. The final diagnosis was hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome (HAIR-AN syndrome), considered as a subtype of policystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and impaired glucose tolerance. HAIR-AN is characterized by coexistence of: hyperandrogenism (HA), insulin resistance (IR) and acanthosis nigricans (AN). Read More


    Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Recent solutions, unresolved issues, and future research directions.
    World J Gastroenterol 2016 Sep;22(36):8078-93
    Maria Grazia Clemente, Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]. Read More

    Cutaneous problems in elderly diabetics: A population-based comparative cross-sectional survey.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017 Mar-Apr;83(2):205-211
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
    Background: There are few population-based studies on prevalence of cutaneous problems in diabetes mellitus.

    Aims: To identify skin problems associated with diabetes mellitus among elderly persons in a village in Kerala.

    Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional survey, we compared the prevalence of skin problems among 287 elderly diabetics (aged 65 years or more) with 275 randomly selected elderly persons without diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Correlation of Lipid Profile and Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in 10-14 Year Old Children.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2016 19;39(5):1695-1704. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.
    Background/aims: The role of lipid profile in predicting the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children is not clearly established. Our aim is to screen non-diabetic children aged 10-14 years for risk of developing T2DM and evaluate the association of abnormal lipids and socioeconomic status (SES).

    Methods: Data on race/ethnicity, family history, body mass index percentile, blood pressure and presence of neck pigmentation (acanthosis nigricans) were collected from 149 non-diabetic children. Read More

    Prevalence of comorbidities in obese New Zealand children and adolescents at enrolment in a community-based obesity programme.
    J Paediatr Child Health 2016 Dec 16;52(12):1099-1105. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics at enrolment of children and adolescents referred to an obesity programme and to determine how the prevalence of comorbidities differed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children.

    Methods: Participants were residents of a semi-rural region of New Zealand (NZ). Eligibility was defined by a body mass index (BMI) of ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities. Read More

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