53 results match your criteria Academy Of Management Review[Journal]


THE ROLE OF AFFECTIVE EXPERIENCE IN WORK MOTIVATION.

Acad Manage Rev 2004 Jul;29(3):423-439

Based on psychological and neurobiological theories of core affective experience, we identify a set of direct and indirect paths through which affective feelings at work affect three dimensions of behavioral outcomes: direction, intensity, and persistence. First, affective experience may influence these behavioral outcomes indirectly by affecting goal level and goal commitment, as well as three key judgment components of work motivation: expectancy judgments, utility judgments, and progress judgments. Second, affective experience may also affect these behavioral outcomes directly. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1519413PMC
July 2004
1 Read

The effects of regulatory tools on organizational populations.

Acad Manage Rev 1991 Oct;16(4):743-67

Carnegie Mellon University.

One of the main activities of regulation is the control of market development by influencing the number of firms in an industry, their entry into an industry, and their exit from an industry. Population ecology is used as a framework for explaining both the direct and indirect effects of regulatory activity on entry, exit, and market structure. This framework is then used to derive specific propositions about regulatory effects on entry, exit, and market structure in the health maintenance organization industry. Read More

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October 1991

The seasons of a CEO's tenure.

Acad Manage Rev 1991 Oct;16(4):719-42

Columbia University.

This article proposes a model of the dynamics of the CEO's tenure in office. The central argument is that there are discernible phases, or seasons, within an executive's tenure in a position, and that these seasons give rise to distinct patterns of executive attention, behavior, and, ultimately, organizational performance. The five delineated seasons are (a) response to mandate, (b) experimentation, (c) selection of an enduring theme, (d) convergence, and (e) dysfunction. Read More

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October 1991

Reconceptualizing the nature and consequences of part-time work.

Authors:
D C Feldman

Acad Manage Rev 1990 Jan;15(1):103-12

College of Business Administration, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208.

This article presents a theoretical framework for understanding the impact of part-time work on employees' attitudes and behaviors. A series of hypotheses also are presented to explain the varying consequences that different types of part-time employment arrangements, work-context factors, and demographic variables have on the experiences of part-time workers. Future issues for theory development and research methodology are discussed as well. Read More

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January 1990

Quasi firms: strategic interorganizational forms in the health care industry.

Acad Manage Rev 1989 Jan;14(1):9-19

In response to significant political, governmental, and socioeconomic changes affecting the health care industry, health care organizations are forming a wide variety of loosely coupled interorganizational arrangements. In this article, loosely coupled forms are classified according to the extent to which they are designed to achieve strategic purposes. The quasi firm is defined as a loosely coupled arrangement created to achieve long-lasting and important strategic purposes. Read More

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January 1989
2 Reads

A life-cycle model of organizational federations: the case of hospitals.

Acad Manage Rev 1987 Jul;12(3):534-45

Hospital federations are a form of multiorganizational collaboration in which a management group coordinates and directs the activities of three or more organizations. This paper introduces a life-cycle model of federations that focuses on factors that influence the transition from one stage to another. Read More

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July 1987
2 Reads

Beyond the Steers and Rhodes model of employee attendance.

Authors:
P P Brooke

Acad Manage Rev 1986 Apr;11(2):345-61

This paper presents a causal model of employee absenteeism which modifies and extends the Steers and Rhodes (1978) process model of employee attendance. A summary and critique of the Steers and Rhodes model is offered. The proposed model integrates diverse literatures regarding organization behavior and occupational health. Read More

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Diagnosis related groups: product line management within hospitals.

Acad Manage Rev 1986 Jan;11(1):41-54

The hospital is viewed as a human service enterprise whose primary function is the provision of diagnostic and therapeutic medical services. Its products are the specific sets of services provided to individual patients. A system for defining hospital products based on the characteristics of patients receiving similar sets of services has been developed and is referred to as Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs). Read More

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January 1986

A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment.

Authors:
A E Reichers

Acad Manage Rev 1985 Jul;10(3):465-76

This paper argues that current, global conceptions of organizational commitment may be deficient in several respects. A review of macro approaches to the nature of organization, as well as research on reference groups and role theory, indicates that a multiple commitments approach may be more precise and meaningful. It is suggested here that employees experience several different commitments to the goals and values of multiple groups. Read More

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Professional women: are distress and disease inevitable?

Acad Manage Rev 1985 Apr;10(2):206-18

The unique sources of stress for professional women are discrimination, stereotyping, the marriage/work interface, and social isolation. The behavioral, physiological, and psychological consequences of mismanaged stress are examined and four preventive stress management moderators specifically for professional women suggested. These moderators that influence the stress-strain relationships are a mentor, locus of control, self-confidence, and self-awareness. Read More

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A theory of organizational response to hospital regulation: a reply to Smith and Mick.

Acad Manage Rev 1985 Apr;10(2):337-43

Smith and Mick identify four basic problems with the theory the present writers developed to explain organizational responses (in this case the behavior of hospitals) to regulation. They challenge the basic assumption regarding autonomy, disagree with the implied cause and effect relations between organizational response and regulation, criticize the omission of goals, and claim that the theory has only limited generality. In so doing they state that their primary concern is with "improving our understanding of the limitations and benefits of the theory. Read More

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A theory of organizational response to hospital regulation: a reply.

Authors:
H L Smith S S Mick

Acad Manage Rev 1985 Apr;10(2):332-6

A recently published general theory of organizational response to regulation is examined. A number of problems are observed in regard to the basic assumption underlying the theory, the directionality of predicted relationships forming the theory, the exclusion of goal attainment as a realistic motivation for managing, and the generality of the theory. Read More

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Increasing performance appraisal effectiveness: matching task types, appraisal process, and rater training.

Authors:
C Lee

Acad Manage Rev 1985 Apr;10(2):322-31

The search for one best performance appraisal format ignores differences among jobs. A performance appraisal system tailored to fit ratee task characteristics is proposed. This approach, which involves systems designed to deal with tasks where both availability of reliable and valid performance measures and knowledge of the transformation process may be either high or low, is expected to increase the relationship between observational accuracy and accuracy in rating performance, as well as to improve ratees' future performance. Read More

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April 1985
2 Reads

The role of inferential accuracy in performance rating.

Acad Manage Rev 1985 Jan;10(1):109-15

The presence of shared implicit theories of performance is used in explaining the failure of behavioral anchors to improve performance ratings. It is proposed that efforts to improve rating accuracy also will be hampered by a preoccupation with observation. Instead, attention needs to be focused on the inferential accuracy of the rater and the cognitive processes and implicit theories upon which raters rely. Read More

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January 1985
1 Read

Interorganizational cooperation and decision making autonomy in a consortium multihospital system.

Authors:
K G Provan

Acad Manage Rev 1984 Jul;9(3):494-504

This paper discusses interorganizational relationships within one type of multihospital system, a consortium. Reasons for the development of this type of system are presented. Hypotheses are proposed explaining how the general strategic-level decisions of hospitals may be influenced as a result of consortium affiliation. Read More

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The Japanese management theory jungle.

Authors:
J B Keys T R Miller

Acad Manage Rev 1984 Apr;9(2):342-53

Many competing hypotheses have been advanced to account for the apparent effectiveness of Japanese management practices. The present review of some of the leading theories attempts to classify and clarify the state of knowledge of Japanese management. Although each theory may be correct as a partial explanation of Japan's success, no single conceptualization has captured the complexity of Japan's managerial achievement. Read More

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Optimal and dysfunctional turnover: toward an organizational level model.

Acad Manage Rev 1984 Apr;9(2):331-41

Dysfunctional turnover is defined here as the level that produces a divergence between the organization's optimal balance of costs associated with turnover and the costs associated with retaining employees. Under this approach, the optimal level of aggregate turnover for most organizations will be (1) greater than zero and (2) variable across organizations, contingent on particular factors influencing retention costs and quit propensities. The model presented posits that individual, organizational, and environmental attributes influence individual quit propensities of employees and, hence, expected turnover rates for the organization. Read More

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The influence of the physical environment in offices.

Authors:
T R Davis

Acad Manage Rev 1984 Apr;9(2):271-83

Physical settings in offices have largely been ignored by managers and scholars. Physical settings can influence behavior in numerous ways. This paper pulls together relevant research and writing and examines it in terms of the physical structure, physical stimuli, and symbolic artifacts that comprise office settings. Read More

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Mingling decision making metaphors.

Authors:
A D Meyer

Acad Manage Rev 1984 Jan;9(1):6-17

Organizational decisions provide conceptual playing fields wherein scientists adhering to rival theories based on different metaphors skirmish in-decisively. Organizational decisions, however, are also empirical arenas wherein practitioners espousing discordant theories-in-use reconcile their differences pragmatically. Practitioners' decision-making metaphors encountered while studying capital budgeting suggest how disjoint perspectives are assimilated and shifts from instrumental to symbolic actions are triggered. Read More

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January 1984

Work and nonwork influences on health: a research agenda using inability to leave as a critical variable.

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Oct;8(4):650-9

A basic path analytic model of stressor-health relationships is formulated from a multidisciplinary literature base. Work, nonwork, and individual difference variables act as exogenous stressors influencing endogenous job and life satisfaction variables, which are then posited to influence health variables. Inability to leave is added to the model as a means of more completely integrating a research framework investigating work and nonwork influences on health. Read More

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October 1983

The role of goal acceptance in goal setting and task performance.

Authors:
M Erez F H Kanfer

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Jul;8(3):454-63

Goal setting has been widely used to enhance work motivation. This paper discusses the importance of goal acceptance in moderating goal setting effects and shows how workers' acceptance of goals can be influenced at various stages of the progression from goal setting to goal attainment. A heuristic organization of goal acceptance strategies is proposed as a basis for extending the theoretical framework underlying goal setting research. Read More

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Motivating the client/employee system as a service production strategy.

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Apr;8(2):301-10

Productivity improvement in service organizations is of major concern to managers as one way of countering escalating costs. In service organizations in which the client/customer is directly involved in the production function, improved performance can be secured by viewing the client/customer as a "partial" employee. This proposition in turn leads to the suggestion that productivity gains can be realized for services by expanding conventional motivation concepts to include the client/customer. Read More

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Employer-employee based quality circles in Japan: human resource policy implications for American firms.

Authors:
G Munchus

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Apr;8(2):255-61

This paper traces the development of the quality circle in Japan with reference to such traditions as permanent employment, nenko (seniority-based compensation), enterprise unionism, and management paternalism. Quality circles are examined as tools for motivating employees, reducing labor turnover, effecting employee "career expansion," and allowing employee participation in job redesign. Read More

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A theory of organizational response to regulation: the case of hospitals.

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Apr;8(2):193-205

This paper presents a general theory of organizational response to regulation, a theory that integrates adaptation and mutual selection perspectives. Two major forms of regulation in the hospital industry, certificate of need and rate review, are examined. Hypotheses are derived concerning the nature and timing of the various adjustments hospitals make both in internal organizational arrangements and in patterns of interorganizational activity in the face of regulatory constraints. Read More

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A systems paradigm of organizational adaptations to the social environment.

Authors:
R Strand

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Jan;8(1):90-6

In order to define generic research questions and to develop a typology of organizational social performance concepts, a systems paradigm for organizational adaptations to social environments is advocated. The active distinction between descriptive, normative, and evaluative inquiry is emphasized. Organizational social responsibility, social responsiveness, and social responses are defined in context of the systems paradigm. Read More

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January 1983

The hypothesized effects of ability in the turnover process.

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Jan;8(1):46-9

Findings from studies that have investigated the relationship between task-relevant ability and turnover have been inconsistent. A process model is presented that suggests that ability may be related to turnover through the individual's perception of both the ease and desirability of movement. The potential effect of ability on the turnover process and its practical and theoretical implications are discussed. Read More

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January 1983

A critique of Theory Z.

Authors:
J J Sullivan

Acad Manage Rev 1983 Jan;8(1):132-42

Ouchi's Theory Z prescribes how employees should be motivated for increased productivity. Based on the theoretical work of Emile Durkheim, it views the modern large corporation as a communal alternative to the shortcomings of other institutions in industrial mass society. Ouchi's assertion that Japan is the industrial society in which Theory Z has flourished received limited support from research findings. Read More

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January 1983

Beyond expectancy theory: an integrative motivational model from health care.

Acad Manage Rev 1982 Apr;7(2):187-94

Expectancy theory has been criticized for its omission of normative, habitual, and other motivational elements. This paper describes the sources and features of an integrative motivational model from the field of preventive health care that combines expectancy/valence factors with habitual, normative, and conative motivational elements. The model is viewed as having implications for work motivation as well. Read More

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Studies in MBO effectiveness.

Authors:
J N Kondrasuk

Acad Manage Rev 1981 Jul;6(3):419-30

Management by objectives (MBO) is a popular management approach the efficacy of which has been seriously questioned recently. I have analyzed 185 studies for the effects of MBO on employee productivity and/or job satisfaction. Research support for MBO was found to be inversely related to the degree of research design sophistication. Read More

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MBO and goal directedness in a hospital context.

Acad Manage Rev 1981 Jul;6(3):409-18

In this article, we examine the attempt of two hospitals to implement management by objectives (MBO) as a means of improving organizational planning and control. Our conclusion is that, as a goal-directed form of management technology, MBO may lead to dysfunctional decision making at the institutional level within organizations, especially those facing complex, dynamic environments. However, if viewed as a philosophy of management administered at the sub-unit level, MBO may serve as a catalytic agent for encouraging decentralized decision making and performance evaluation. Read More

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Cost containment in health care: a model for management research.

Acad Manage Rev 1981 Jul;6(3):397-407

Cost containment is a dominant problem in the health care field, but it has not been addressed from a comprehensive management perspective. To fill this gap, we have developed an inclusive model of the cost containment process. The model has implications for management research in several areas: cost containment baselines, incentive systems, organization structures, cost/quality trade-offs, and cost containment constraints. Read More

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The compressed work week as organizational change: behavioral and attitudinal outcomes.

Authors:
S Ronen S B Primps

Acad Manage Rev 1981 Jan;6(1):61-74

The results from recent studies on the compressed work week have been compiled and categorized in order to provide some basis for generalizing the effects of the work schedule on employee attitudes and behavior. It appears that attitudes toward the compressed week are favorable, with some generalization to job attitudes. Performance outcomes are ambiguous, although there are no reported decreases; fatigue seems to be the only negative aspect of the longer day. Read More

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January 1981

Is management really generic?

Authors:
M D Fottler

Acad Manage Rev 1981 Jan;6(1):1-12

Four classes of organizations can be identified along the continuum between classical private profit-making firms and strictly governmental agencies: private for-profit, private non-profit, private quasi-public, and public. These four organization prototypes have different management functions because they receive their support from different subsectors of the society. Dependence on different individuals, groups, and organizations in the external environment creates different values, incentives, and constraints for management. Read More

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January 1981

Some methodological issues concerning comparative hospital-organization studies.

Authors:
C L Graeff

Acad Manage Rev 1980 Oct;5(4):539-48

There are methodological issues associated with using hospital ownership and size as determinants of the structure and behaviors of hospitals. Theoretical and empirical inconsistencies reported in the literature prompted me to examine the relationships between ownership and size for a large sample of general hospitals (i.e. Read More

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October 1980

Development, application, and evaluation of an "action-reaction" planning method.

Acad Manage Rev 1980 Jan;5(1):83-7

It is difficult to design and implement new public policies and programs, at least partially owing to the fact that few useful methods are available to help shape the planning, decision-making, and implementation processes required for change. Planning often tends to focus on wishful thinking rather than on a realistic assessment of the probable outcomes. In this article we describe an action-reaction approach to planning that explicitly recognizes the restrictions on program impact arising from the system in which change is being attempted. Read More

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January 1980

Leadership reexamined: a behaviorial approach.

Authors:
T R Davis F Luthans

Acad Manage Rev 1979 Apr;4(2):237-48

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Calling out and calling off the dogs: managerial diagnosis in public service organizations.

Authors:
P C Nutt

Acad Manage Rev 1979 Apr;4(2):203-14

Decision-makers spend their professional lives identifying situations that merit action. Nutt defines this process of placing problems in action or deferred categories as "managerial diagnosis." It is felt that this is a critical aspect of managerial action because it rests on assumptions that need to be considered in project planning and evaluation. Read More

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Turnover turned over: an expanded and positive perspective.

Acad Manage Rev 1979 Apr;4(2):225-35

The negative impact of turnover is well documented in the literature. This paper examines turnover with a unique, positive focus. Turnover is reviewed, not only from the standpoint of the organizational theorist, but with economic, sociological, and psychological/social psychological perspectives. Read More

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A clarification of the goal setting and appraisal processes in MBO.

Authors:
M L McConkie

Acad Manage Rev 1979 Jan;4(1):29-40

Under the guise of Management by Objectives, "goal setting" and "performance appraisal" have assumed many different shapes and purposes. To clarify the concept of MBO, this review examines the writings of leading MBO experts, extracts those elements common to their respective definitions of goal setting and performance appraisal, and joins them into a single definition of MBO. Read More

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January 1979

An approach for assessing and managing inter-unit interdependence.

Acad Manage Rev 1979 Jan;4(1):113-9

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January 1979

Measuring professional obsolescence: a half-life model for the physician.

Authors:
E P Smith

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Oct;3(4):914-7

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October 1978

A survey of the empirical literature on flexible workhours: character and consequences of a major innovation.

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Oct;3(4):837-53

Programs of flexible workhours (flexi-time) have a reputation for broad and substantial effects in organizations. This article provides a summary evaluation of the empirical flexible workhours literature, focuses upon the characteristics of flexi-time programs, and details "hard" and "soft" effects of the intervention revealed by the literature. Despite limitations of available studies, both behavioral and attitudinal data encourage more flexi-time applications and suggest future research needs. Read More

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October 1978

The evolving board: a look at the board's changing roles and information needs.

Authors:
W R Boulton

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Oct;3(4):827-36

In looking at the practices of firms in developing active boards with highly informed directors, information needs of directors were found to increase dramatically with increased board activity. This article discusses the changing role of the board and the corresponding change in director information needs. Read More

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October 1978

Contextual influences on personnel policies and programs: an explanatory model.

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Oct;3(4):750-61

There has been a general absence of research to explain why personnel policies develop in organizations. This article has two objectives: (a) development of a theoretically relevant scheme for clustering personnel policies for analytic purposes, and (b) presentation of an explanatory model suggesting how contextual influences shape these policies. Read More

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October 1978

The performance appraisal process: a model and some testable propositions.

Authors:
T DeCotiis A Petit

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Jul;3(3):635-46

A literature-based model of the determinants of the accuracy of performance ratings is presented. The model indicates that the major determinants of accuracy are: (a) rater motivation; (b) rater ability; and (c) availability of appropriate judgmental norms. Several propositions and suggestions for further research are derived from the components of the model. Read More

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Organizational strategy, structure, and process.

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Jul;3(3):546-62

Organizational adaptation is a topic that has received only limited and fragmented theoretical treatment. Any attempt to examine organizational adaptation is difficult, since the process is highly complex and changeable. The proposed theoretical framework deals with alternative ways in which organizations define their product-market domains (strategy) and construct mechanisms (structures and processes) to pursue these strategies. Read More

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An information-task approach to organizational communication.

Authors:
M S Poole

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Jul;3(3):493-504

Considering communication as an organizational task, this article suggests three variables (availability, uniformity, and independence) that characterize the information task at the work unit level and explicates their dependence on strategic choices by work units. Three sets of propositions are developed relating information task characteristics to: (a) organizational task variables; (b) the organization's communication structure; (c) power and influence in the organization. Implications of the framework are considered. Read More

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Organizational/environmental interchange: a model of boundary spanning activity.

Authors:
R Leifer A Delbecq

Acad Manage Rev 1978 Jan;3(1):40-50

A theoretical framework is developed for analyzing determinants and functions of activity at the boundaries of organizations. The process of boundary spanning, based on internal and external organizational factors, is conceptualized. A model of the organizational/environmental information interchange process suggests relationships between organizational, environmental, and individual aspects of boundary activity. Read More

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January 1978