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    1 OF 99

    Differential Aging Signals in Abdominal CT Scans.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd, BRC, Ste 100, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825, USA.
    Rationale And Objectives: Changes in the composition of body tissues are major aging phenotypes, but they have been difficult to study in depth. Here we describe age-related change in abdominal tissues observable in computed tomography (CT) scans. We used pattern recognition and machine learning to detect and quantify these changes in a model-agnostic fashion. Read More

    Multicenter Research Studies in Radiology.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.
    Rationale And Objectives: Here we review the current state of multicenter radiology research (MRR), and utilize a survey of experienced researchers to identify common advantages, barriers, and resources to guide future investigators.

    Materials And Methods: The Association of University Radiologists established a Radiology Research Alliance task force, Multi-center Research Studies in Radiology, composed of 12 society members to review MRR. A REDCap survey was designed to gain more insight from experienced researchers. Read More

    Long-term Observation of CT-guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Neoplasm in 476 Consecutive Patients by a Thoracic Surgical Service: A Single-institutional Experience.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The 306th Hospital of PLA, No. 9 An-xiang North Road, Chao-yang District, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) rate, progression survival rate, and local control rate over 10 years of medically inoperable patients with lung cancer undergoing computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

    Materials And Methods: Between September 2004 to March 2016, 668 neoplasms were treated in 476 medically inoperable patients (294 men, 60 women; median age 74 years; range 29-84) who underwent CT-guided RFA. All patients had clinical or pathologic evidence of the neoplastic lesion: 22. Read More

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Left Ventricular Myocardial Strain in Pulmonary Hypertension.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue M391, San Francisco, CA 94143.
    Rationale And Objectives: We investigated the feasibility of detecting left ventricular (LV) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain abnormalities using feature-tracking in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).

    Materials And Methods: CMR was performed in 16 patients with all groups of PH and in 13 controls. Global and regional peak circumferential strains (%) (which have been shown to be robust by CMR), peak diastolic strain rate (%/s), and dyssynchrony index (ms) were quantified with feature-tracking software. Read More

    Increased Epicardial Fat Volume Is Independently Associated with the Presence and Severity of Systemic Sclerosis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Rheumatology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to determine if intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with the presence and severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc), defined by the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

    Materials And Methods: A total of 265 patients were included in the study, 202 of whom had SSc (134 had SSc with no PAH and 68 had SSc-associated PAH) and who underwent high-resolution computed tomography, and 63 controls who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography with calcium scoring. Intrathoracic and epicardial (EFV) fat volumes were quantified by manual tracing of the mediastinum and the pericardium, the difference of which represents the extrapericardial fat volume. Read More

    Lepidic Predominant Pulmonary Lesions (LPL): CT-based Distinction From More Invasive Adenocarcinomas Using 3D Volumetric Density and First-order CT Texture Analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10016.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to differentiate pathologically defined lepidic predominant lesions (LPL) from more invasive adenocarcinomas (INV) using three-dimensional (3D) volumetric density and first-order texture histogram analysis of surgically excised stage 1 lung adenocarcinomas.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. Sixty-four cases of pathologically proven stage 1 lung adenocarcinoma surgically resected between September 2006 and October 2015, including LPL (n = 43) and INV (n = 21), were evaluated using high-resolution computed tomography. Read More

    Promoting Collaborations Between Radiologists and Scientists.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky.
    Radiology as a discipline thrives on the dynamic interplay between technological and clinical advances. Progress in almost all facets of the imaging sciences is highly dependent on complex tools sourced from physics, engineering, biology, and the clinical sciences to obtain, process, and view imaging studies. The application of these tools, however, requires broad and deep medical knowledge about disease pathophysiology and its relationship with medical imaging. Read More

    T2 Star-weighted Angiography (SWAN) Allows to Concomitantly Assess the Prostate Contour While Detecting Fiducials Before MR-based Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Carcinoma.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Radiology, Pellegrin Hospital, Place Amélie Raba Léon, 33076 Bordeaux, France; Department of Radiology, Tenon Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) to concomitantly assess the prostate contour while detecting fiducials before magnetic resonance (MR)-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in prostate carcinoma.

    Materials And Methods: Forty patients (mean age: 73.1 ± 7. Read More

    Further Investigation on High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Treatment for Thyroid Nodules: Effectiveness Related to Baseline Volumes.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: Several minimally invasive thermal techniques have been developed for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. A new technique for this indication is high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness in varying preablative nodule volumes and whether outcome patterns that were reported during studies with other thermal ablative procedures for thyroid nodule ablation would also apply to HIFU. Read More

    Thoracic Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Can Sensitively Monitor Bone Mineral Metabolism: Comparison of Thoracic QCT vs Lumbar QCT and Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Detection of Age-relative Change in Bone Mineral Density.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Cardiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 W Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502.
    Rationale And Objective: Sensitive detection of bone mineral density (BMD) change is a key issue to monitor and evaluate the individual bone health status, as well as bone metabolism and bone mineral status. The ability to use thoracic quantitative computed tomography (QCT) to detect the annual change of BMD remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the sensitivity in detecting age-related bone mineral loss using the thoracic QCT from the electrocardiographically gated heart scans in comparison to whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and standard lumbar QCT. Read More

    Coronary Artery Calcium Imaging in the ROBINSCA Trial: Rationale, Design, and Technical Background.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging North-East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: To describe the rationale, design, and technical background of coronary artery calcium (CAC) imaging in the large-scale population-based cardiovascular disease screening trial (Risk Or Benefit IN Screening for CArdiovascular Diseases [ROBINSCA]).

    Materials And Methods: First, literature search was performed to review the logistics, setup, and settings of previously performed CAC imaging studies, and current clinical CAC imaging protocols of participating centers in the ROBINSCA trial were evaluated. A second literature search was performed to evaluate the impact of computed tomography parameter settings on CAC score. Read More

    Translating New Imaging Technologies to Clinical Practice.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Radiology continues to benefit from constant innovation and technological advances. However, for promising new imaging technologies to reach widespread clinical practice, several milestones must be met. These include regulatory approval, early clinical evaluation, payer reimbursement, and broader marketplace adoption. Read More

    Diagnostic Performance of Ultrasonography for Pediatric Appendicitis: A Night and Day Difference?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Texas Medical Center (Clinical Care Tower, 470), 6701 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030.
    Rationale And Objectives: For imaging pediatric appendicitis, ultrasonography (US) is preferred because of its lack of ionizing radiation, but is limited by operator dependence. This study investigates the US diagnostic performance during night shifts covered by radiology trainees compared to day shifts covered by attending radiologists.

    Materials And Methods: Appy-Scores (1 = completely visualized normal appendix; 2 = partially visualized normal appendix; 3 = nonvisualized appendix with no inflammatory changes in the expected region of the appendix; 4 = equivocal; 5a = nonperforated appendicitis; 5b = perforated appendicitis) from 2935 US examinations (2161:774, day-to-night) from July 2013 to 2014 were correlated with the intraoperative diagnoses and the clinical follow-up. Read More

    Differences in Texture Analysis Parameters Between Active Alveolitis and Lung Fibrosis in Chest CT of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Feasibility Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic aid of computed tomography (CT) features for the differentiation of active alveolitis and fibrosis using a CT texture analysis (CTTA) prototype and CT densitometry in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) using ancillary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features and their longitudinal course as standard of reference.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed thin-slice noncontrast chest CT image data of 43 patients with SSc (18 men, mean age 51.55 ± 15. Read More

    The Best Single Measurement for Assessing Splenomegaly in Patients with Cirrhotic Liver Morphology.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
    Rationale And Objectives: There is little agreement within the radiology literature as to the best single measurement for assessing splenomegaly. In this study, we evaluate the correlation of multiple unidirectional measurements of the spleen with splenic volume in patients with cirrhotic liver morphology on computed tomography (CT).

    Materials And Methods: Splenic volume was retrospectively calculated from CT examinations of 179 adult patients, 47 of whom were approved as renal donors, and 132 of whom were referred for various other indications, and were found to have cirrhotic liver morphology on CT. Read More

    Evaluation of a High Concentrated Contrast Media Injection Protocol in Combination with Low Tube Current for Dose Reduction in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Randomized, Two-center Prospective Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 160 Pu-jian Road, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the radiation dose reduction potential and image quality (IQ) of a high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) injection protocol in combination with a low tube current (mAs) in coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Materials And Methods: Eighty-one consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years; 34 females; body mass index: 18-31) were included and randomized-assigned into two groups. All computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in two groups with the same tube voltage (100 kV), flow rate of contrast medium (5. Read More

    Added Value of Bone Subtraction in Dual-energy Digital Radiography in the Detection of Pneumothorax: Impact of Reader Expertise and Medical Specialty.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Radiology and Imaging Department Guilloz, 29 Ave du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54000 Nancy, France.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the value of dual-energy thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of pneumothorax considering the reader's experience.

    Materials And Methods: Forty patients with a suspected pneumothorax, imaged with dual-energy chest radiographs, were divided into two groups: those with pneumothorax as the final diagnosis (n = 19) and those without (n = 21). The images were analyzed by 36 readers (5 interns, 16 residents, 15 senior physicians) for the presence or absence of pneumothorax during three readout sessions at 2-week intervals: standard images alone (session 1), dual-energy images with bone subtraction alone (session 2), and a combination of the two (session 3). Read More

    The Incidence of Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices Insertion and the Associated Abnormalities in Patients With Cancer Revealed in (18)F-FDG PET-CT Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan; Division of Thoracic Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of totally implantable venous access devices, also called ports, implantation and the associated abnormalities in 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images for patients with cancer, and to determine the percentage of abnormalities identified in the original reports.

    Materials And Methods: The study aimed to perform a retrospective review of all FDG PET-CT imaging in a 3-year period. Cases of port-associated abnormalities found on the FDG PET-CT images were identified and then correlated with X-ray reports and clinical treatment or follow-up. Read More

    Validation of Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Measurement of Depth of Tumor Invasion in Distal Bile Duct Cancer According to the New American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Surgery, Division of HBP Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Korea University, Anam Hospital, Seoul 136-705, South Korea.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to develop and validate a method for measuring the depth of tumor invasion (DoI) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the diagnostic performance of the measured DoI for stratifying tumor (T) classification in patients with distal bile duct cancer according to the new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty-four patients (30 men and 24 women; age range, 43-81 years) with distal bile duct cancer were enrolled. A study coordinator first developed a "provisional method" for measuring DoI on T2-weighted MRI. Read More

    CT Image-based Decision Support System for Categorization of Liver Metastases Into Primary Cancer Sites: Initial Results.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Image Processing Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, Haim Levanon 55, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to provide decision support for the human expert, to categorize liver metastases into their primary cancer sites. Currently, once a liver metastasis is detected, the process of finding the primary site is challenging, time-consuming, and requires multiple examinations. The proposed system can support the human expert in localizing the search for the cancer source by prioritizing the examinations to probable cancer sites. Read More

    Differentiation Between Luminal-A and Luminal-B Breast Cancer Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to investigate whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can differentiate luminal-B from luminal-A breast cancer MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biexponential analyses of IVIM and DCE MRI were performed using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, involving 134 patients with 137 pathologically confirmed luminal-type invasive breast cancers. Luminal-type breast cancer was categorized as luminal-B breast cancer (LBBC, Ki-67 ≧ 14%) or luminal-A breast cancer (LABC, Ki-67 < 14%). Read More

    Does the Oral "Mock Board" Examination Still Have a Role as a Training Tool?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12631 E. 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045.
    Rationale And Objectives: The American Board of Radiology has adopted a new standardized board examination and the traditional oral examination has been abandoned. Although many programs have changed their educational efforts to reflect the new test format, some faculty members and residents have expressed a desire to keep an oral examination as a component of education and evaluation in radiology residency programs.

    Materials And Methods: An oral comprehensive examination including all the appropriate subspecialties was administered to each second year and third year resident in our training program by faculty members. Read More

    Strategies for Decreasing Screening Mammography Recall Rates While Maintaining Performance Metrics.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline St Suite 4120 E, Baltimore, MD 21287. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of interventions designed to reduce screening mammography recall rates on screening performance metrics.

    Materials And Methods: We assessed baseline performance for full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis mammography (DBT) for a 3-year period before intervention. The first intervention sought to increase awareness of recalls from screening mammography. Read More

    The Addition of Automated Breast Ultrasound to Mammography in Breast Cancer Screening Decreases Stage at Diagnosis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Karuk Tribal Health Program, Yreka, CA.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the best screening strategy using automated whole-breast ultrasound and mammography in women with increased breast density or an elevated risk of breast cancer.

    Materials And Methods: After an institutional review board waiver was obtained, a retrospective review of 122 cancer cases diagnosed in 3435 women with increased breast density or an elevated risk of breast cancer, screened with mammography and supplemental automated whole-breast ultrasound, was performed. The imaging modality on which each cancer was seen was noted. Read More

    Differentiation of Intrahepatic Cholangiocellular Carcinoma from Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Cirrhotic Liver Using Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer-Guertel 18-20, 1090Vienna, Austria.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the potential of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging features to differentiate between mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic livers.

    Materials And Methods: This study, performed between 2001 and 2013, included 64 baseline magnetic resonance imaging examinations with pathohistologically proven liver cirrhosis, presenting with either ICC (n = 32) or HCC (n = 32) tumors. To distinguish ICC form HCC tumors, 20 qualitative single-lesion descriptors were evaluated by two readers, in consensus, and statistically classified using the chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) methodology. Read More

    Automated Volumetric Mammographic Breast Density Measurements May Underestimate Percent Breast Density for High-density Breasts.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived measurements.

    Materials And Methods: An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study was performed to calculate percent breast density (PBD) by quantifying fibroglandular volume and total breast volume derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation and mammograms using two commercially available software programs (Volpara and Quantra). Consecutive screening MRI exams from a 6-month period with negative or benign findings were used. Read More

    Contrast Enhancement in Breast Cancer and Background Mammary-Gland Tissue During the Super-Early Phase of Dynamic Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 21. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi-cho, Shizuoka,Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: We aimed to compare the contrast enhancement between tumor and mammary-gland tissue to distinguish lesions in the super-early phase, during which minimal contrast media uptake is observed in mammary-gland tissue.

    Materials And Methods: Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, including the super-early phase with bolus tracking (BT) method (to determine the optimal imaging start time), was performed by using identical parameters to obtain transverse fat-suppressed T1-weighted images of both breasts. The percent enhancement (PE) and the contrast ratio (CR) indicators for tumor and mammary-gland tissue were assessed in each dynamic phase. Read More

    Potential Use of American College of Radiology BI-RADS Mammography Atlas for Reporting and Assessing Lesions Detected on Dedicated Breast CT Imaging: Preliminary Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
    Rationale And Objectives: Dedicated breast computed tomography (DBCT) is an emerging and promising modality for breast lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of applying the BI-RADS Mammography Atlas 5th Edition for reporting and assessing breast lesions on DBCT. Currently, no atlas exists for DBCT. Read More

    Regional Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Volume with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Results in 42 Subjects.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Université de Lille 2 Nord de France, Lille F-59000, France. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The noninvasive approach of lung perfusion generated from dual-energy computed tomography acquisitions has entered clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the regional distribution of iodine within distal portions of the pulmonary arterial bed on dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography examinations in a cohort of subjects without cardiopulmonary pathologies.

    Materials And Methods: The study population included 42 patients without cardiorespiratory disease, enabling quantitative and qualitative analysis of pulmonary blood volume after administration of a 40% contrast agent. Read More

    Imaging Features of Patients Undergoing Active Surveillance for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710.
    Rationale And Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the imaging appearance of patients undergoing active surveillance for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively identified 29 patients undergoing active surveillance for DCIS from 2009 to 2014. Twenty-two patients (group 1) refused surgery or were not surgical candidates. Read More

    The U.S. Online News Coverage of Mammography Based on a Google News Search.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NYU School of Medicine, 660 First Avenue, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10016.
    Rationale And Objectives: To characterize online news coverage relating to mammography, including articles' stance toward screening mammography.

    Materials And Methods: Google News was used to search U.S. Read More

    Implementation of Upright Digital Breast Tomosynthesis-guided Stereotactic Biopsy.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Radiology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., CPB 5.3208, Houston, TX 77030.
    With growing adoption of digital breast tomosynthesis, an increasing number of imaging abnormalities are being identified only by tomosynthesis. Upright digital breast tomosynthesis-guided stereotactic biopsy is a proven method for sampling these abnormalities as well as abnormalities traditionally evaluated using conventional stereotactic biopsy. In this article, we describe the technique of upright digital breast tomosynthesis-guided stereotactic biopsy and outline a systematic operational approach to implementation of this technique in clinical radiology practices. Read More

    "Rounding" the Size of Pulmonary Nodules: Impact of Rounding Methods on Nodule Management, as Defined by the 2017 Fleischner Society Guidelines.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215.
    Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of different rounding methods on size measurements of pulmonary nodules and to determine the number of nodules that change management categories as a result of rounding.

    Materials And Methods: For this retrospective institutional review board-approved study, we included 503 incidental pulmonary nodules (308 solid and 195 subsolid) from a data repository. Long and short axes were measured. Read More

    The Reproducibility of Changes in Diagnostic Figures of Merit Across Laboratory and Clinical Imaging Reader Studies.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.
    Rationale And Objectives: In this paper we examine which comparisons of reading performance between diagnostic imaging systems made in controlled retrospective laboratory studies may be representative of what we observe in later clinical studies. The change in a meaningful diagnostic figure of merit between two diagnostic modalities should be qualitatively or quantitatively comparable across all kinds of studies.

    Materials And Methods: In this meta-study we examine the reproducibility of relative measures of sensitivity, false positive fraction (FPF), area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and expected utility across laboratory and observational clinical studies for several different breast imaging modalities, including screen film mammography, digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and ultrasound. Read More

    Evaluation of Texture Analysis Parameter for Response Prediction in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Drug-eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) Using Biphasic Contrast-enhanced CT Image Data: Correlation with Liver Perfusion CT.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, Tuebingen 72076, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) of arterial and portal-venous enhancement phase image data for prediction and accurate assessment of response of hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by comparison to liver perfusion CT (PCT).

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight patients (27 male; mean age 67.2 ± 10. Read More

    The Efficacy of Low-intensity Vibration to Improve Bone Health in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease Is Highly Dependent on Compliance and Muscle Response.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 1 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    Rational And Objectives: Low intensity vibration (LIV) may represent a nondrug strategy to mitigate bone deficits in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Materials And Methods: Thirty end-stage renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis were randomized to stand for 20 minutes each day on either an active or placebo LIV device. Analysis at baseline and completion of 6-month intervention included magnetic resonance imaging (tibia and fibula stiffness; trabecular thickness, number, separation, bone volume fraction, plate-to-rod ratio; and cortical bone porosity), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (hip and spine bone mineral density [BMD]), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (tibia trabecular and cortical BMD; calf muscle cross-sectional area). Read More

    Improving Abnormality Detection on Chest Radiography Using Game-Like Reinforcement Mechanics.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    Rationale And Objectives: Despite their increasing prevalence, online textbooks, question banks, and digital references focus primarily on explicit knowledge. Implicit skills such as abnormality detection require repeated practice on clinical service and have few digital substitutes. Using mechanics traditionally deployed in video games such as clearly defined goals, rapid-fire levels, and narrow time constraints may be an effective way to teach implicit skills. Read More

    Characterization of Breast Masses in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Digital Mammograms: An Observer Performance Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr., Med Inn Building C477, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5842.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to compare Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment of lesions in two-view digital mammogram (DM) to two-view wide-angle digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) without DM.

    Materials And Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBTs were acquired from 134 subjects and the corresponding DMs were collected retrospectively. The study included 125 subjects with 61 malignant (size: 3. Read More

    Practical Considerations for the Use of Breast MRI for Breast Cancer Evaluation in the Preoperative Setting.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Radiology, Scott & White Medical Center, 2401 South 31st Street, MS-01-W256, Temple, TX 76508. Electronic address:
    Preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE) breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains controversial in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient. Additional lesions are frequently discovered in these patients with CE breast MRI. As staging and treatment planning evolve to include more information on tumor biology and aggression, so should our consideration of extent of disease. Read More

    Pulmonary (3)He Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers of Regional Airspace Enlargement in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Robarts Research Institute, 1151 Richmond Street North, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B7; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St North, London, ON, Canada N6A 5C1. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: Thoracic x-ray computed tomography (CT) and hyperpolarized (3)He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide quantitative measurements of airspace enlargement in patients with emphysema. For patients with panlobular emphysema due to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), sensitive biomarkers of disease progression and response to therapy have been difficult to develop and exploit, especially those biomarkers that correlate with outcomes like quality of life. Here, our objective was to generate and compare CT and diffusion-weighted inhaled-gas MRI measurements of emphysema including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and MRI-derived mean linear intercept (Lm) in patients with AATD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ex-smokers, and elderly never-smokers. Read More

    Diagnostic Medical Imaging in Pediatric Patients and Subsequent Cancer Risk.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Jun 20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901. Electronic address:
    The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Read More

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