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    Multi-model Analysis of Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Normal Testes at 3.0 T: Preliminary Findings.
    Acad Radiol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    MR Collaboration NE Asia, Siemens Healthcare, Shanghai, China.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to establish diffusion quantitative parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], DDC, α, Dapp, and Kapp) in normal testes at 3.0 T.

    Materials And Methods: Sixty-four healthy volunteers in two age groups (A: 10-39 years; B: ≥ 40 years) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging scanning at 3. Read More

    Uterine Artery Embolization: An Analysis of Online Patient Information Quality and Readability with Historical Comparison.
    Acad Radiol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; Royal College of Surgery, Dublin, Ireland.
    Rationale And Objectives: Investigators aimed to assess online information describing uterine artery embolization (UAE) to examine the quality and readability of websites patients are accessing.

    Materials And Methods: A list of applicable, commonly used searchable terms was generated, including "Uterine Artery Embolization," "Fibroid Embolization," "Uterine Fibroid Embolization," and "Uterine Artery Embolisation." Each possible term was assessed across the five most-used English language search engines to determine the most commonly used term. Read More

    Fully Automated Segmentation of Polycystic Kidneys From Noncontrast Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results.
    Acad Radiol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering "Guglielmo Marconi", University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, Via Venezia 52, 47521 Cesena, Italy. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: Total kidney volume is an important biomarker for the evaluation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression. In this study, we present a novel approach for automated segmentation of polycystic kidneys from non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images.

    Materials And Methods: Non-contrast-enhanced CT images were acquired from 21 patients with a diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Read More

    Quantitative CT Evaluation of Small Pulmonary Vessels in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism.
    Acad Radiol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-Ku, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels and the CT obstruction index in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and the correlation between the changes in these measurements after anticoagulant therapy.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty-two patients with acute PE were selected for this study. We measured the CSA less than 5 mm2 on coronal reconstructed images to obtain the percentage of the CSA (%CSA < 5). Read More

    Quantitative CT Assessment of Gynecomastia in the General Population and in Dialysis, Cirrhotic, and Obese Patients.
    Acad Radiol 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Radiology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Emek HaEla St 1, Ramat Gan 5265601, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Chaim Levanon St 30, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Rationale And Objectives: Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of the male breast because of proliferation of the glandular component. To date, there is no radiological definition of gynecomastia and no quantitative evaluation of breast glandular tissues in the general male population. The aims of this study were to supply radiological-based measurements of breast glandular tissue in the general male population, to quantitatively assess the prevalence of gynecomastia according to age by decades, and to evaluate associations between gynecomastia and obesity, cirrhosis, and dialysis. Read More

    Breast Imaging Outcomes following Abnormal Thermography.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, C415 MIB SPC 5842, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109.
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to determine the outcome of patients presenting for evaluation of abnormal breast thermography.

    Materials And Methods: Following Institutional Review Board approval, retrospective search identified 38 patients who presented for conventional breast imaging following a thermography-detected abnormality. Study criteria included women who had mammogram and/or breast ultrasound performed for evaluation of a thermography-detected abnormality between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. Read More

    How Well Does Dual-energy CT with Fast Kilovoltage Switching Quantify CT Number and Iodine and Calcium Concentrations?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, 3-1-69 Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541-8567, Japan. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: Because it is imperative for understanding the performance of dual-energy computed tomography scanner to determine clinical diagnosis, we aimed to assess the accuracy of quantitative measurements using dual-energy computed tomography with fast kilovoltage switching.

    Materials And Methods: Quantitative measurements were performed for 16 reference materials (physical density, 0.965-1. Read More

    Soft Tissue Sarcoma Response to Two Cycles of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Multireader Analysis of MRI Findings and Agreement with RECIST Criteria and Change in SUVmax.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Box 354755, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: When soft tissue sarcomas are treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the number of cycles of chemotherapy is usually dependent on the tumor's initial response. Popular methods to assess tumor response include Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria, which rely solely on tumor size, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) reduction in positron emission tomography (PET), which requires an expensive and high radiation test. We hypothesized that contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may offer a good alternative by providing additional information beyond tumor size. Read More

    Detection of Intra-Articular Screw Penetration of Proximal Humerus Fractures: Is Postoperative Computed Tomography the Necessary Imaging Modality?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Orthopedic Trauma, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 Jimo Rd, 200120 Shanghai, China.
    Rationale And Objective: Screw penetration is the common complication of proximal humerus fractures treated with locking plates. This study compared postoperative plain radiography to computed tomography (CT) for their abilities in determining screw penetration, and was to evaluate whether advanced imaging modalities (two-dimensional [2D] CT; three-dimensional [3D] CT) could increase surgeons' level of confidence regarding their diagnoses.

    Materials And Methods: Two observers reviewed radiological images of 134 patients who sustained proximal humerus fractures treated with locking plates. Read More

    Low Tube Voltage and Iterative Model Reconstruction in Follow-up CT Angiography After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair: Ultra-low Radiation Exposure and Contrast Medium Dose.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1, East Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of reducing radiation exposure and contrast medium (CM) dose in follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) using low tube voltage and knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR).

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-six patients that required follow-up CTA after TEVAR were included in this intra-individual study. The conventional protocol with standard tube voltage of 120 kVp and CM volume of 70 mL was applied in the first follow-up CTA of all the patients (control group A). Read More

    Understanding Patient Preference in Female Pelvic Imaging: Transvaginal Ultrasound and MRI.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: Women with pelvic pain or abnormal uterine bleeding may undergo diagnostic imaging. This study evaluates patient experience in transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explores correlations between preference and symptom severity.

    Materials And Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study. Read More

    Essentials of Statistical Methods for Assessing Reliability and Agreement in Quantitative Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114.
    Quantitative imaging is increasing in almost all fields of radiological science. Modern quantitative imaging biomarkers measure complex parameters including metabolism, tissue microenvironment, tissue chemical properties or physical properties. In this paper, we focus on measurement reliability assessment in quantitative imaging. Read More

    Do Residency Selection Factors Predict Radiology Resident Performance?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St, Suite 200 East Wing, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.
    Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of our study is to determine what information in medical student residency applications predicts radiology residency success as defined by objective clinical performance data.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of residents who entered our institution's residency program through the National Resident Matching Program as postgraduate year 2 residents and completed the program over the past 2 years. Medical school grades, selection to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) Honor Society, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and whether the applicant was from a peer institution were the variables examined. Read More

    Diagnostic Utility of 3T Lung MRI in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease: A Prospective Pilot Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Sector-12, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lungs in the detection of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pediatric patients.

    Materials And Methods: Twelve children (mean: 8.5 years, range: 4-12 years) with ILD were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. Read More

    Diagnostic Values of DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI for Differentiation Between High-grade and Low-grade Gliomas: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Medical Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, No.613, Huangpu Road West Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510630, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to collect the studies on the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and evaluate the diagnostic performances of relevant quantitative parameters in glioma grading.

    Materials And Methods: We systematically searched studies on the diagnosis of gliomas with DCE-MRI or DSC-MRI in Medline, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Cochrane Library, and Embase published between January 2005 and December 2016. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans), volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space (Ve), rate constant of backflux (Kep), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Review Manager 5. Read More

    Review of Simulation Training in Interventional Radiology.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Simulation training has evolved and is now able to offer numerous training opportunities to supplement the practice of and overcome some of the shortcomings of the traditional Master-Apprentice model currently used in medical training. Simulation training provides new opportunities to practice skills used in clinical procedures, crisis management scenarios, and everyday clinical practice in a risk-free environment. Procedural and nonprocedural skills used in interventional radiology can be taught with the use of simulation devices and technologies. Read More

    Preventing Overdiagnosis of Acetabular Labral "Tears" in 40-Plus-year-old Patients: Shouldn't these be called Labral "Fissures" Instead?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Acetabular labral tears represent a common finding on magnetic resonance imaging of the hip. Labral tears can arise from a multitude of underlying pathological processes or they may be an asymptomatic incidental finding. The prevalence of labral tears and their lack of specificity make this an area vulnerable to potential overdiagnosis. Read More

    One-Year Follow-up Study Detects Myocardial Changes with Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Tagging in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, PO Box 340, Helsinki FI-00029 HUS, Finland.
    Rationale And Objectives: To evaluate the effects of 1 year of medical treatment on myocardial function in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    Materials And Methods: Thirty-nine female patients with RA without any known cardiovascular disease underwent a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examination before and after 1 year of antirheumatic treatment. The population comprised untreated active early RA (ERA) and chronic RA patients, who were grouped accordingly. Read More

    Epidemiology of Hepatic Steatosis at a Tertiary Care Center: An MRI-based Analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, Saint Louis, MO 63110.
    Rationale And Objectives: Little is known about the frequency and risk factors of hepatic steatosis in the tertiary care setting. Such knowledge is essential to clinicians making decisions about testing for this condition. Thus, our aim was to describe the epidemiology of hepatic steatosis, as captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at a tertiary care center. Read More

    Screening Mammography Utilization and Medicare Beneficiaries' Perceptions of Their Primary Care Physicians.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Rationale And Objectives: To assess associations between screening mammography utilization and Medicare beneficiaries' relationships with, and impressions of, their primary care physicians.

    Materials And Methods: Using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Access to Care Public Use File, we retrospectively studied responses from a national random cross section of Medicare beneficiaries surveyed in 2013 regarding perceptions of their primary care physicians and their screening mammography utilization. Statistical analysis accounted for subject weighting factors to estimate national screening utilization. Read More

    Bone Marrow Involvement in Malignant Lymphoma: Evaluation of Quantitative PET and MRI Biomarkers.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Vienna, 1090, Austria.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic utility of standardized uptake values (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) for assessment of focal and diffuse bone marrow involvement in patients with malignant lymphoma.

    Materials And Methods: Sixty treatment-naive patients (28 males; mean age 51.2 ± 16. Read More

    Determinants of Difficulty and Discriminating Power of Image-based Test Items in Postgraduate Radiological Examinations.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Center for Research and Development of Education, University Medical Center, Utrecht 3508 GA, The Netherlands.
    Rationale And Objectives: The psychometric characteristics of image-based test items in radiological written examinations are not well known. In this study, we explored difficulty and discriminating power of these test items in postgraduate radiological digital examinations.

    Materials And Methods: We reviewed test items of seven Dutch Radiology Progress Tests (DRPTs) that were taken from October 2013 to April 2017. Read More

    Prognostic Factors for Survival After Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined with Sorafenib in the Treatment of BCLC Stage B and C Hepatocellular Carcinomas.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Department of Interventional Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 107 Yanjiang Road West, Guangzhou 510210, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for survival after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages B and C.

    Materials And Methods: Clinical data of 198 patients with BCLC stage B and C HCCs who underwent TACE combined with sorafenib between June 2012 and January 2017 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Survival curves were detected using log-rank test. Read More

    Quantitative Measurements Versus Receiver Operating Characteristics and Visual Grading Regression in CT Images Reconstructed with Iterative Reconstruction: A Phantom Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Diagnostic Physics, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box, 0454 Oslo, Norway; Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of quantitative measurements with visual grading regression (VGR) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis in computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with iterative reconstruction.

    Materials And Methods: CT scans on a liver phantom were performed on CT scanners from GE, Philips, and Toshiba at three dose levels. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and hybrid iterative techniques (ASiR, iDose, and AIDR 3D of different strengths). Read More

    The Study of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with MR Diffusion Kurtosis Tensor Imaging and Its Histopathologic Correlation.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    MR Collaboration, United Imaging Healthcare, Shanghai, China.
    Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in the characterization of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and their correlations with tumor histopathology.

    Materials And Methods: Ninety-one patients diagnosed with ccRCC who underwent diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging were included in this study. Fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, axial diffusivity, mean kurtosis (MK), radial kurtosis (Krad), and axial kurtosis (Kax) data were produced. Read More

    High-risk Plaque and Calcification Detected by Coronary CT Angiography to Predict Future Cardiovascular Events After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Cardiology, New Tokyo Hospital, Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high-risk plaque (HRP) and calcium assessed by coronary computed tomography (CT) could predict future cardiovascular events after second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) placement.

    Materials And Methods: We analyzed 317 patients from December 2012 to April 2015 who underwent coronary CT followed by DES placement. HRP was defined as a plaque with positive remodeling and low attenuation or a plaque with a napkin-ring sign. Read More

    Normal Axillary Lymph Node Variability Between White and Black Women on Breast MRI.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine if there were differences in the imaging features of normal lymph nodes between white and black women using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Materials And Methods: Following institutional review board approval, we identified white and black women who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging from November 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 at our institution. To identify normal lymph nodes for measurement, patients with any benign or malignant causes for lymph node enlargement and patients with any subsequent breast cancer in the following 2 years were excluded. Read More

    Chest High-resolution Computed Tomography Findings in 601 Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Radiology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: Pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease may reflect the common embryonic origin of the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchial tree. No studies have compared pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the relationship between pulmonary HRCT findings and inflammatory bowel disease activity and to compare HRCT findings between UC and CD. Read More

    Interpreting Change in Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Quantitative Health Sciences/JJN3, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195-5196. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) are becoming increasingly adopted into clinical practice to monitor changes in patients' conditions. The repeatability coefficient (RC) is the clinical cut-point used to discern between changes in a biomarker's measurements due to measurement error and changes that exceed measurement error, thus indicating real change in the patient. Imaging biomarkers have characteristics that make them difficult for estimating the repeatability coefficient, including nonconstant error, non-Gaussian distributions, and measurement error that must be estimated from small studies. Read More

    CT Features of Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease: A Meta-analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second XiangYa Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China.
    Rationale And Objective: The computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD) could play a role in its diagnosis. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of studies examining the CT features of HVOD.

    Methods: Relevant studies published up to May 3, 2017 were searched in major electronic databases. Read More

    Breast MRI as a Problem-solving Study in the Evaluation of BI-RADS Categories 3 and 4 Microcalcifications: Is it Worth Performing?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Radiology, Sagara Hospital Affiliated Breast Center, Tenokuchi-cho, Kagoshima, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: We aimed to investigate the utility of problem-solving breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for mammographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories 3 and 4 microcalcifications.

    Materials And Methods: Between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011, 138 women with 146 areas of categories 3 and 4 microcalcifications without sonographic correlates underwent breast MRI and had a stereotactic core biopsy using an 11-gauge needle or follow-up at least for 24 months. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated on the basis of BI-RADS category, with categories 1-3 being considered benign and categories 4 and 5 being considered malignant. Read More

    Model-based Iterative Reconstruction in Low-radiation-dose Computed Tomography Colonography: Preoperative Assessment in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: To assess the effect of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) on image quality and diagnostic performance of low-radiation-dose computed tomography colonography (CTC) in the preoperative assessment of colorectal cancer.

    Materials And Methods: This study included 30 patients with colorectal cancer referred for surgical treatment. All patients underwent CTC with a standard dose (SD) protocol in the supine position and a low-dose (LD; radiation dose reduction of approximately 85%) protocol in the prone position. Read More

    Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Imaging Method for Post-lumpectomy Breast Margin Assessment-A Multi-reader Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether different breast cancer subspecialty physicians can be trained to distinguish non-suspicious from suspicious areas of post-lumpectomy specimen margin in patients with breast cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) images (a near-infrared based imaging technique) with final histology as the reference standard.

    Materials And Methods: This institutional review board-exempt, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was performed on 63 surgically excised breast specimens from 35 female patients, creating a 90-case atlas containing both non-suspicious and suspicious areas for cancer. OCT images of the specimens were performed, providing 6. Read More

    Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in the Evaluation of Palpable Breast Abnormalities.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, 395 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210.
    Rationale And Objectives: The role of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in evaluating palpable abnormalities has not been evaluated and its accuracy compared to 2D mammography is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate combined 2D mammography, DBT, and ultrasound (US) at palpable sites.

    Materials And Methods: Two breast imagers reviewed blinded consecutive cases with combined 2D mammograms and DBT examinations performed for palpable complaints. Read More

    The Current State of Radiology Call Assistant Triage Programs Among US Radiology Residency Programs.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710.
    Rationale And Objectives: Given increasing volume and workflow interruptions in radiology, we sought to identify and characterize radiology call assistant triage (RCAT) programs among US radiology residency programs.

    Materials And Methods: A survey was created using Qualtrics survey software and emailed to all members of the Association of Program Directors in Radiology listserv. A total of 296 active members belong to this listserv, including program directors and assistant program directors. Read More

    Expanding the Definition of a Benign Renal Cyst on Contrast-enhanced CT: Can Incidental Homogeneous Renal Masses Measuring 21-39 HU be Safely Ignored?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr B2-A209P, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; Michigan Radiology Quality Collaborative, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Urology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objective: We aimed to determine the frequency and clinical significance of homogeneous renal masses measuring 21-39 Hounsfield units on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT).

    Methods: Subjects 40-69 years old undergoing portal-venous-phase contrast-enhanced abdominal CT from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 with slice thickness ≤5 mm and no prior CT or magnetic resonance imaging were identified (n = 1387) for this institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study. Images were manually reviewed by three radiologists in consensus to identify all circumscribed homogeneous renal masses (maximum of three per subject) ≥10 mm with a measured attenuation of 21-39 Hounsfield units. Read More

    Communicating Radiology Test Results: Are Our Phone Calls Excessive, Just Right, or Not Enough?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr. B2-A209P, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108; Michigan Radiology Quality Collaborative, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr. B2-A209P, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the preferences of radiology and referring provider residents regarding direct communication of radiology test results.

    Methods: This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant quality improvement effort was exempt from institutional review board oversight. An anonymous survey was emailed to 44 radiology residents and 364 referring resident providers who routinely provide or receive direct communication of test results at our quaternary care medical center. Read More

    Regional Heterogeneity of Lobar Ventilation in Asthma Using Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706; Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53792. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: To determine lobar ventilation patterns in asthmatic lungs with hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging (HP 3He MRI).

    Materials And Methods: Eighty-two subjects (14 normal, 48 mild-to-moderate asthma, and 20 severe asthma) underwent HP 3He MRI, computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function testing. After registering proton to 3He images, we segmented the lungs from proton MRI and further segmented the five lung lobes (right upper lobe [RUL], right middle lobe [RML], and right lower lobe [RLL]; left upper lobe and left lower lobe [LLL]) by referring to the lobar segmentation from CT. Read More

    Impact of Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Computed Tomography on Diagnostic Accuracy and Diagnostic Performance in Patients with Suspected Appendicitis: An Intraindividual Comparison.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: To determine the intraindividual impact of radiation dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography (CT) on diagnostic performance in patients with suspected appendicitis.

    Materials And Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board. Seventy-five patients who underwent standard contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis between 2004 and 2009 were retrospectively included. Read More

    Performance of Ultrafast DCE-MRI for Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to test high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for different zones of the prostate and evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Determine whether the addition of ultrafast DCE-MRI improves the performance of multiparametric MRI.

    Materials And Methods: Patients (n = 20) with pathologically confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3T MRI with T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and high temporal resolution (~2. Read More

    Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) for Monitoring of Treatment of Tendinopathies: A Double-blinded, Longitudinal Clinical Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstr. 30, Aachen, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy with which shear wave elastography (SWE) can be used to monitor response to treatment of tendinopathies, and to compare it to conventional ultrasound (US)-imaging methods (B-mode US (B-US) and power Doppler US (PD-US)).

    Materials And Methods: A prospective Institutional Review Board-approved longitudinal study on 35 patients with 47 symptomatic tendons (17 Achilles-, 15 patellar-, and 15 humeral-epicondylar) who underwent standardized multimodal US and standardized clinical assessment before and after 6 months of treatment (tailored stretching exercise, sport break, and local Polidocanol) was carried out. All US studies were performed by radiologists blinded to the clinical symptoms on both tendon sides to avoid biased interpretations, by B-US, PD-US, and SWE, conducted in the same order, using a high-resolution linear 15 MHz probe (Aixplorer). Read More

    Sonographic Criteria Predictive of Malignant Thyroid Nodules: Which Lesions Should be Biopsied?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Serviço de Radiologia, Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra Praceta Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound features of thyroid nodules and their association with malignancy, focusing on establishing feature-oriented ultrasound criteria to determine proper management of a thyroid nodule.

    Materials And Methods: A sample of 379 thyroid nodules were biopsied (from a total of 357 patients aged 59.8 ± 14. Read More

    Educational Effects of Radiation Reduction During Fluoroscopic Examination of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Radiology and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of educating radiology residents and radiographers about radiation exposure on reduction of dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time in diagnostic fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in adult patients.

    Materials And Methods: In April 2015, we offered 1 hour of education to radiology residents and radiographers on how to reduce radiation doses during fluoroscopic examinations. Fluoroscopic examinations of the GI tracts of adult patients performed from June 2014 to February 2016 were evaluated. Read More

    Automated Radiology-Operative Note Communication Tool; Closing the Loop in Musculoskeletal Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    New York University Medical Center Department of Radiology, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016.
    Rationale And Objectives: Correlation of imaging studies and reference standard outcomes is a significant challenge in radiology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a new communication tool by assessing the ability of this system to correctly match the imaging studies to arthroscopy reports and qualitatively assessing radiologist behavior before and after the implementation of this system.

    Materials And Methods: Using a commercially available communication or educational tool and applying a novel matching rule algorithm, radiology and arthroscopy reports were matched from January 17, 2017 to March 1, 2017 based on anatomy. Read More

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