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    1 OF 99

    Educational Effects of Radiation Reduction During Fluoroscopic Examination of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Radiology and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of educating radiology residents and radiographers about radiation exposure on reduction of dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time in diagnostic fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in adult patients.

    Materials And Methods: In April 2015, we offered 1 hour of education to radiology residents and radiographers on how to reduce radiation doses during fluoroscopic examinations. Fluoroscopic examinations of the GI tracts of adult patients performed from June 2014 to February 2016 were evaluated. Read More

    Automated Radiology-Operative Note Communication Tool; Closing the Loop in Musculoskeletal Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    New York University Medical Center Department of Radiology, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016.
    Rationale And Objectives: Correlation of imaging studies and reference standard outcomes is a significant challenge in radiology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a new communication tool by assessing the ability of this system to correctly match the imaging studies to arthroscopy reports and qualitatively assessing radiologist behavior before and after the implementation of this system.

    Materials And Methods: Using a commercially available communication or educational tool and applying a novel matching rule algorithm, radiology and arthroscopy reports were matched from January 17, 2017 to March 1, 2017 based on anatomy. Read More

    Can Radiologists Learn From Airport Baggage Screening?: A Survey About Using Fictional Patients for Quality Assurance.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 1975 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158.
    Rationale And Objectives: For both airport baggage screeners and radiologists, low target prevalence is associated with low detection rate, a phenomenon known as "prevalence effect." In airport baggage screening, the target prevalence is artificially increased with fictional weapons that are digitally superimposed on real baggage. This strategy improves the detection rate of real weapons and also allows airport supervisors to monitor screener performance. Read More

    3D Registration of mpMRI for Assessment of Prostate Cancer Focal Therapy.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to assess a novel method of three-dimensional (3D) co-registration of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed before and after prostate cancer focal therapy.

    Materials And Methods: We developed a software platform for automatic 3D deformable co-registration of prostate MRI at different time points and applied this method to 10 patients who underwent focal ablative therapy. MRI examinations were performed preoperatively, as well as 1 week and 6 months post treatment. Read More

    Accuracy of Computed Tomographic Enterography for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Diagnostic Meta-analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, No.6 Hai Er Xiang North Road, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is the bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract without definite source that persists and recurs after a negative endoscopic evaluation. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography enterography on OGIB detection by meta-analysis.

    Materials And Methods: Studies were searched in relevant databases. Read More

    Correlation of Brown Adipose Tissue with Other Body Fat Compartments and Patient Characteristics: A Retrospective Analysis in a Large Patient Cohort Using PET/CT.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Eberhard Karls University, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity with different fat compartments of the body, body mass index (BMI), outdoor temperature, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, blood glucose, age, and sex in a large patient population using F-18-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans obtained under thermoneutral conditions.

    Materials And Methods: FDG-PET/CT scans of 4852 patients were retrospectively analyzed for BAT activity. The volumes of the different fat compartments visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and liver fat, were assessed by computed tomography. Read More

    Imaging Facilities' Adherence to PI-RADS v2 Minimum Technical Standards for the Performance of Prostate MRI.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10016. Electronic address:
    Purpose: This study aimed to assess variability in imaging facilities' adherence to the minimum technical standards for prostate magnetic resonance imaging acquisition established by Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (v2).

    Methods: A total of 107 prostate magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at 107 unique imaging facilities after the release of PI-RADS v2 and that were referred to a tertiary care center for secondary interpretation were included. Image sets, DICOM headers, and outside reports were reviewed to assess adherence to 21 selected PI-RADS v2 minimum technical standards. Read More

    Physician Specialty and Radiologist Characteristics Associated with Higher Medicare Patient Complexity.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Rationale And Objectives: Meaningfully measuring physician outcomes and resource utilization requires appropriate patient risk adjustment. We aimed to assess Medicare patient complexity by physician specialty and to further identify radiologist characteristics associated with higher patient complexity.

    Materials And Methods: The average beneficiary Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) risk scores (Medicare's preferred measure of clinical complexity) were identified for all physicians using 2014 Medicare claims data. Read More

    Volumetric MRI Analysis of Plexiform Neurofibromas in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Comparison of Two Methods.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Center for Cancer Research, Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, 10 Center Drive, CRC Room 1-5750, Bethesda, MD 20892. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are complex, histologically benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors that are challenging to measure by simple line measurements. Computer-aided volumetric segmentation of PN has become the recommended method to assess response in clinical trials directed at PN. Different methods for volumetric analysis of PN have been developed. Read More

    Robotically Assisted Long Bone Biopsy Under MRI Imaging: Workflow and Preclinical Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Johns Hopkins University, Brady Urological Institute, Urobotics Laboratory, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Rationale And Objectives: Our research team has developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible robot for long bone biopsy. The robot is intended to enable a new workflow for bone biopsy in pediatrics under MRI imaging. Our long-term objectives are to minimize trauma and eliminate radiation exposure when diagnosing children with bone cancers and bone infections. Read More

    Social Media Utilization at an Academic Radiology Practice.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 North University Blvd, Rm 0663, Indianapolis, IN 46202.
    Rationale And Objectives: We report social media (SoMe) utilization trends at an academic radiology department, highlighting differences between trainees and faculty and between Baby Boomers versus Generation X and Millennials.

    Materials And Methods: An anonymous online survey regarding SoMe utilization and SoMe-based educational curriculum was distributed to all radiologists (trainees and faculty) in our department. Regular chi-square, ordered (Mantel-Haenszel) chi-square, and Fischer exact tests were performed. Read More

    Spectral Beam Shaping in Unenhanced Chest CT Examinations: A Phantom Study on Dose Reduction and Image Quality.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the optimal tube potential for unenhanced chest computed tomographies (CTs) with age-related phantoms.

    Materials And Methods: Three physical anthropomorphic phantoms (newborn, 5-year-old child, and adult) were scanned on a third-generation dual-source CT using CAREkV in semi-mode and CAREDose4D (ref. KV: 120; ref. Read More

    Is Diagnostic Performance of Quantitative 2D-Shear Wave Elastography Optimal for Clinical Classification of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Rationale And Objective: This study is a dedicated 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) review aimed at systematically eliciting up-to-date evidence of its clinical value in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for studies assessing the diagnostic value of 2D-SWE for thyroid malignancy risk stratification published until December 2016. The retrieved titles and abstracts were screened and evaluated according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Read More

    On the Potential Role of MRI Biomarkers of COPD to Guide Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Robarts Research Institute, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street N, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: In patients with severe emphysema and poor quality of life, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) may be considered and guided based on lobar emphysema severity. In particular, x-ray computed tomography (CT) emphysema measurements are used to identify the most diseased and the second-most diseased lobes as BLVR targets. Inhaled gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also provides chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) biomarkers of lobar emphysema and ventilation abnormalities. Read More

    Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value to Evaluate Tumor Response After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Breast Cancer.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Medicina y Hospital Universitario, Unidad de Investigación Clínica, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study explored tumor behavior in patients with breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) by sequential measurements of tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) after each chemotherapy cycle. The aim was to determine if the tumor ADC is useful to differentiate complete pathological response (cPR) from partial pathological response (pPR) during NAC.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 16 cases (in 14 patients) with diagnosis of breast cancer eligible to receive NAC were included. Read More

    Virtual Simulation in Enhancing Procedural Training for Fluoroscopy-guided Lumbar Puncture: A Pilot Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
    Rationale And Objectives: Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture (FGLP) is a basic procedural component of radiology residency and neuroradiology fellowship training. Performance of the procedure with limited experience is associated with increased patient discomfort as well as increased radiation dose, puncture attempts, and complication rate. Simulation in health care is a developing field that has potential for enhancing procedural training. Read More

    Clinical Applications of 3D Printing: Primer for Radiologists.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
    Three-dimensional (3D) printing refers to a number of manufacturing technologies that create physical models from digital information. Radiology is poised to advance the application of 3D printing in health care because our specialty has an established history of acquiring and managing the digital information needed to create such models. The 3D Printing Task Force of the Radiology Research Alliance presents a review of the clinical applications of this burgeoning technology, with a focus on the opportunities for radiology. Read More

    Structured Reporting in Radiology.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Radiology reports are vital for patient care as referring physicians depend upon them for deciding appropriate patient management. Traditional narrative reports are associated with excessive variability in the language, length, and style, which can minimize report clarity and make it difficult for referring clinicians to identify key information needed for patient care. Structured reporting has been advocated as a potential solution for improving the quality of radiology reports. Read More

    Logistics of Three-dimensional Printing: Primer for Radiologists.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Radiology, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.
    The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a review of the logistic considerations for establishing a clinical service using this new technology, specifically focused on implications for radiology. Specific topics include printer selection for 3D printing, software selection, creating a 3D model for printing, providing a 3D printing service, research directions, and opportunities for radiologists to be involved in 3D printing. A thorough understanding of the technology and its capabilities is necessary as the field of 3D printing continues to grow. Read More

    Improving Performance of Breast Cancer Risk Prediction by Incorporating Optical Density Image Feature Analysis: An Assessment.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
    Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of this study is to improve accuracy of near-term breast cancer risk prediction by applying a new mammographic image conversion method combined with a two-stage artificial neural network (ANN)-based classification scheme.

    Materials And Methods: The dataset included 168 negative mammography screening cases. In developing and testing our new risk model, we first converted the original grayscale value (GV)-based mammographic images into optical density (OD)-based images. Read More

    Differential Aging Signals in Abdominal CT Scans.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd, BRC, Ste 100, Baltimore, MD 21224-6825, USA.
    Rationale And Objectives: Changes in the composition of body tissues are major aging phenotypes, but they have been difficult to study in depth. Here we describe age-related change in abdominal tissues observable in computed tomography (CT) scans. We used pattern recognition and machine learning to detect and quantify these changes in a model-agnostic fashion. Read More

    Multicenter Research Studies in Radiology.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.
    Rationale And Objectives: Here we review the current state of multicenter radiology research (MRR), and utilize a survey of experienced researchers to identify common advantages, barriers, and resources to guide future investigators.

    Materials And Methods: The Association of University Radiologists established a Radiology Research Alliance task force, Multi-center Research Studies in Radiology, composed of 12 society members to review MRR. A REDCap survey was designed to gain more insight from experienced researchers. Read More

    Long-term Observation of CT-guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Neoplasm in 476 Consecutive Patients by a Thoracic Surgical Service: A Single-institutional Experience.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The 306th Hospital of PLA, No. 9 An-xiang North Road, Chao-yang District, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) rate, progression survival rate, and local control rate over 10 years of medically inoperable patients with lung cancer undergoing computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

    Materials And Methods: Between September 2004 to March 2016, 668 neoplasms were treated in 476 medically inoperable patients (294 men, 60 women; median age 74 years; range 29-84) who underwent CT-guided RFA. All patients had clinical or pathologic evidence of the neoplastic lesion: 22. Read More

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Left Ventricular Myocardial Strain in Pulmonary Hypertension.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue M391, San Francisco, CA 94143.
    Rationale And Objectives: We investigated the feasibility of detecting left ventricular (LV) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain abnormalities using feature-tracking in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).

    Materials And Methods: CMR was performed in 16 patients with all groups of PH and in 13 controls. Global and regional peak circumferential strains (%) (which have been shown to be robust by CMR), peak diastolic strain rate (%/s), and dyssynchrony index (ms) were quantified with feature-tracking software. Read More

    Increased Epicardial Fat Volume Is Independently Associated with the Presence and Severity of Systemic Sclerosis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Rheumatology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to determine if intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with the presence and severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc), defined by the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

    Materials And Methods: A total of 265 patients were included in the study, 202 of whom had SSc (134 had SSc with no PAH and 68 had SSc-associated PAH) and who underwent high-resolution computed tomography, and 63 controls who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography with calcium scoring. Intrathoracic and epicardial (EFV) fat volumes were quantified by manual tracing of the mediastinum and the pericardium, the difference of which represents the extrapericardial fat volume. Read More

    Lepidic Predominant Pulmonary Lesions (LPL): CT-based Distinction From More Invasive Adenocarcinomas Using 3D Volumetric Density and First-order CT Texture Analysis.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10016.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to differentiate pathologically defined lepidic predominant lesions (LPL) from more invasive adenocarcinomas (INV) using three-dimensional (3D) volumetric density and first-order texture histogram analysis of surgically excised stage 1 lung adenocarcinomas.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. Sixty-four cases of pathologically proven stage 1 lung adenocarcinoma surgically resected between September 2006 and October 2015, including LPL (n = 43) and INV (n = 21), were evaluated using high-resolution computed tomography. Read More

    Promoting Collaborations Between Radiologists and Scientists.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky.
    Radiology as a discipline thrives on the dynamic interplay between technological and clinical advances. Progress in almost all facets of the imaging sciences is highly dependent on complex tools sourced from physics, engineering, biology, and the clinical sciences to obtain, process, and view imaging studies. The application of these tools, however, requires broad and deep medical knowledge about disease pathophysiology and its relationship with medical imaging. Read More

    T2 Star-weighted Angiography (SWAN) Allows to Concomitantly Assess the Prostate Contour While Detecting Fiducials Before MR-based Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Carcinoma.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Radiology, Pellegrin Hospital, Place Amélie Raba Léon, 33076 Bordeaux, France; Department of Radiology, Tenon Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) to concomitantly assess the prostate contour while detecting fiducials before magnetic resonance (MR)-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in prostate carcinoma.

    Materials And Methods: Forty patients (mean age: 73.1 ± 7. Read More

    Further Investigation on High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Treatment for Thyroid Nodules: Effectiveness Related to Baseline Volumes.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: Several minimally invasive thermal techniques have been developed for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. A new technique for this indication is high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness in varying preablative nodule volumes and whether outcome patterns that were reported during studies with other thermal ablative procedures for thyroid nodule ablation would also apply to HIFU. Read More

    Thoracic Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Can Sensitively Monitor Bone Mineral Metabolism: Comparison of Thoracic QCT vs Lumbar QCT and Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Detection of Age-relative Change in Bone Mineral Density.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Cardiology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 W Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502.
    Rationale And Objective: Sensitive detection of bone mineral density (BMD) change is a key issue to monitor and evaluate the individual bone health status, as well as bone metabolism and bone mineral status. The ability to use thoracic quantitative computed tomography (QCT) to detect the annual change of BMD remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the sensitivity in detecting age-related bone mineral loss using the thoracic QCT from the electrocardiographically gated heart scans in comparison to whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and standard lumbar QCT. Read More

    Coronary Artery Calcium Imaging in the ROBINSCA Trial: Rationale, Design, and Technical Background.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging North-East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: To describe the rationale, design, and technical background of coronary artery calcium (CAC) imaging in the large-scale population-based cardiovascular disease screening trial (Risk Or Benefit IN Screening for CArdiovascular Diseases [ROBINSCA]).

    Materials And Methods: First, literature search was performed to review the logistics, setup, and settings of previously performed CAC imaging studies, and current clinical CAC imaging protocols of participating centers in the ROBINSCA trial were evaluated. A second literature search was performed to evaluate the impact of computed tomography parameter settings on CAC score. Read More

    Translating New Imaging Technologies to Clinical Practice.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Radiology continues to benefit from constant innovation and technological advances. However, for promising new imaging technologies to reach widespread clinical practice, several milestones must be met. These include regulatory approval, early clinical evaluation, payer reimbursement, and broader marketplace adoption. Read More

    Diagnostic Performance of Ultrasonography for Pediatric Appendicitis: A Night and Day Difference?
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Texas Medical Center (Clinical Care Tower, 470), 6701 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030.
    Rationale And Objectives: For imaging pediatric appendicitis, ultrasonography (US) is preferred because of its lack of ionizing radiation, but is limited by operator dependence. This study investigates the US diagnostic performance during night shifts covered by radiology trainees compared to day shifts covered by attending radiologists.

    Materials And Methods: Appy-Scores (1 = completely visualized normal appendix; 2 = partially visualized normal appendix; 3 = nonvisualized appendix with no inflammatory changes in the expected region of the appendix; 4 = equivocal; 5a = nonperforated appendicitis; 5b = perforated appendicitis) from 2935 US examinations (2161:774, day-to-night) from July 2013 to 2014 were correlated with the intraoperative diagnoses and the clinical follow-up. Read More

    Differences in Texture Analysis Parameters Between Active Alveolitis and Lung Fibrosis in Chest CT of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Feasibility Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic aid of computed tomography (CT) features for the differentiation of active alveolitis and fibrosis using a CT texture analysis (CTTA) prototype and CT densitometry in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) using ancillary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features and their longitudinal course as standard of reference.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed thin-slice noncontrast chest CT image data of 43 patients with SSc (18 men, mean age 51.55 ± 15. Read More

    The Best Single Measurement for Assessing Splenomegaly in Patients with Cirrhotic Liver Morphology.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
    Rationale And Objectives: There is little agreement within the radiology literature as to the best single measurement for assessing splenomegaly. In this study, we evaluate the correlation of multiple unidirectional measurements of the spleen with splenic volume in patients with cirrhotic liver morphology on computed tomography (CT).

    Materials And Methods: Splenic volume was retrospectively calculated from CT examinations of 179 adult patients, 47 of whom were approved as renal donors, and 132 of whom were referred for various other indications, and were found to have cirrhotic liver morphology on CT. Read More

    Evaluation of a High Concentrated Contrast Media Injection Protocol in Combination with Low Tube Current for Dose Reduction in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Randomized, Two-center Prospective Study.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 160 Pu-jian Road, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the radiation dose reduction potential and image quality (IQ) of a high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) injection protocol in combination with a low tube current (mAs) in coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Materials And Methods: Eighty-one consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years; 34 females; body mass index: 18-31) were included and randomized-assigned into two groups. All computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in two groups with the same tube voltage (100 kV), flow rate of contrast medium (5. Read More

    Added Value of Bone Subtraction in Dual-energy Digital Radiography in the Detection of Pneumothorax: Impact of Reader Expertise and Medical Specialty.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Radiology and Imaging Department Guilloz, 29 Ave du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 54000 Nancy, France.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the value of dual-energy thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of pneumothorax considering the reader's experience.

    Materials And Methods: Forty patients with a suspected pneumothorax, imaged with dual-energy chest radiographs, were divided into two groups: those with pneumothorax as the final diagnosis (n = 19) and those without (n = 21). The images were analyzed by 36 readers (5 interns, 16 residents, 15 senior physicians) for the presence or absence of pneumothorax during three readout sessions at 2-week intervals: standard images alone (session 1), dual-energy images with bone subtraction alone (session 2), and a combination of the two (session 3). Read More

    The Incidence of Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices Insertion and the Associated Abnormalities in Patients With Cancer Revealed in (18)F-FDG PET-CT Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan; Division of Thoracic Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, 110, Section 1, Jianguo North Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of totally implantable venous access devices, also called ports, implantation and the associated abnormalities in 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images for patients with cancer, and to determine the percentage of abnormalities identified in the original reports.

    Materials And Methods: The study aimed to perform a retrospective review of all FDG PET-CT imaging in a 3-year period. Cases of port-associated abnormalities found on the FDG PET-CT images were identified and then correlated with X-ray reports and clinical treatment or follow-up. Read More

    Validation of Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Measurement of Depth of Tumor Invasion in Distal Bile Duct Cancer According to the New American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Surgery, Division of HBP Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Korea University, Anam Hospital, Seoul 136-705, South Korea.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to develop and validate a method for measuring the depth of tumor invasion (DoI) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the diagnostic performance of the measured DoI for stratifying tumor (T) classification in patients with distal bile duct cancer according to the new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty-four patients (30 men and 24 women; age range, 43-81 years) with distal bile duct cancer were enrolled. A study coordinator first developed a "provisional method" for measuring DoI on T2-weighted MRI. Read More

    CT Image-based Decision Support System for Categorization of Liver Metastases Into Primary Cancer Sites: Initial Results.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Image Processing Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, Haim Levanon 55, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.
    Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to provide decision support for the human expert, to categorize liver metastases into their primary cancer sites. Currently, once a liver metastasis is detected, the process of finding the primary site is challenging, time-consuming, and requires multiple examinations. The proposed system can support the human expert in localizing the search for the cancer source by prioritizing the examinations to probable cancer sites. Read More

    Differentiation Between Luminal-A and Luminal-B Breast Cancer Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Rationale And Objectives: The study aimed to investigate whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can differentiate luminal-B from luminal-A breast cancer MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biexponential analyses of IVIM and DCE MRI were performed using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, involving 134 patients with 137 pathologically confirmed luminal-type invasive breast cancers. Luminal-type breast cancer was categorized as luminal-B breast cancer (LBBC, Ki-67 ≧ 14%) or luminal-A breast cancer (LABC, Ki-67 < 14%). Read More

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