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    Creation and Implementation of a Taxonomy for Educational Activities: A Common Vocabulary to Guide Curriculum Mapping.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    H.A. Stoddard is assistant dean, Medical Education Research, and professor of medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; ORCID: http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-7720-0655. E.D. Brownfield is assistant dean, Medical Education, and professor of medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Problem: Undergraduate medical education (UME) has trended toward outcomes-based education, unveiling new issues for UME program organization and leadership. Using a common language for categorizing and linking all program components is essential. The Emory Curriculum Alignment Taxonomy (ECAT) was designed as a common vocabulary for curriculum mapping in the outcomes-based environment of the Emory University School of Medicine. Read More

    Web-Enabled Mechanistic Case Diagramming: A Novel Tool for Assessing Students' Ability to Integrate Foundational and Clinical Sciences.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    K.J. Ferguson is professor of general internal medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and director, Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1605-0611. C.D. Kreiter is professor of family medicine, Department of Family Medicine, and consultant, Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8303-2387. T.H. Haugen is director, Pathology and Laboratory Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, and associate professor of pathology - clinical pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa. F.R. Dee is professor (emeritus), Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.
    Problem: As medical schools move from discipline-based courses to more integrated approaches, identifying assessment tools that parallel this change is an important goal.

    Approach: The authors describe the use of test item statistics to assess the reliability and validity of web-enabled mechanistic case diagrams (MCDs) as a potential tool to assess students' ability to integrate basic science and clinical information. Students review a narrative clinical case and construct an MCD using items provided by the case author. Read More

    How Mentor Identity Evolves: Findings From a 10-Year Follow-Up Study of a National Professional Development Program.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    D.F. Balmer is associate professor of pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6805-4062. A. Darden is director of faculty development, Department of Pediatrics, and director, Academy of Teaching Scholars, College of Medicine, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. L. Chandran is vice dean for academic and faculty affairs, and Distinguished Teaching Professor, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York. D. D'Alessandro is professor of pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa. M.E. Gusic is senior advisor for educational affairs, and professor of medical education, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia.
    Purpose: Despite academic medicine's endorsement of professional development and mentoring, little is known about what junior faculty learn about mentoring in the implicit curriculum of professional development programs, and how their mentor identity evolves in this context. The authors explored what faculty-participants in the Educational Scholars Program implicitly learned about mentoring and how the implicit curriculum affected mentor identity transformation.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews with 19 of 36 former faculty-participants were conducted in 2016. Read More

    Gamification in Action: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Medical Educators.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    C. Rutledge is assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Alabama School of Medicine, and co-director, Children's of Alabama Pediatric Simulation Center, Birmingham, Alabama. C.M. Walsh is assistant professor, Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, staff gastroenterologist, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, and cross-appointed scientist, The Wilson Centre for Research in Education, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. N. Swinger is assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Riley Children's Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana. M. Auerbach is associate professor, Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, director of pediatric simulation, Yale Center for Medical Simulation, and associate pediatric trauma medical director, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. D. Castro is assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. M. Dewan is assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. M. Khattab is assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. A. Rake is clinical assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, and medical director, Children's Hospital Los Angeles Simulation Center and Las Madrinas Pediatric Simulation Research Laboratory, Los Angeles, California. I. Harwayne-Gidansky is assistant professor of clinical pediatrics, Stony Brook Children's Hospital, Stony Brook, New York. T.T. Raymond is professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiac Critical Care, Medical City Children's Hospital, Dallas Texas. T. Maa is assistant clinical professor, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, and medical director, the In Situ Simulation Program, Nationwide Children's, Columbus, Ohio. T.P. Chang is associate professor of clinical pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and also at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
    Gamification involves the application of game design elements to traditionally non-game contexts. It is increasingly being used as an adjunct to traditional teaching strategies in medical education to engage the millennial learner and enhance adult learning. The extant literature has focused on determining whether the implementation of gamification results in better learning outcomes, leading to a dearth of research examining its theoretical underpinnings within the medical education context. Read More

    A Comparison of Approaches for Mastery Learning Standard Setting.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    J.H. Barsuk is professor, Departments of Medicine and Medical Education, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. E.R. Cohen is research associate, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. D.B. Wayne is vice dean for education, and the Dr. John Sherman Appleman professor, Departments of Medicine and Medical Education, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. W.C. McGaghie is professor, Department of Medical Education, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. R. Yudkowsky is professor, Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
    Purpose: Defensible minimum passing standards (MPSs) must be used to evaluate learner performance outcomes in health professions education. In this study, the authors compared the results of traditional Angoff and Hofstee standard-setting exercises with the Mastery Angoff and Patient-Safety approaches for central venous catheter (CVC) insertion skills examinations. The authors also evaluated how these standards affected evaluation of the historical performance of residents who participated in a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum for CVC insertion skills. Read More

    Learning Through Boundary Crossing: Professional Identity Formation of Clinical Pharmacists Transitioning to General Practice in The Netherlands.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    A.C.M. Hazen is a clinical pharmacist and researcher, Department of General Practice, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. E. de Groot is assistant professor, Department of General Practice, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. A.A. de Bont is professor of Sociology of Innovation in Health Care, Institute of Health Policy and Management at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. S. de Vocht is psychologist-supervisor, Department of General Practice, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. J.J de Gier is professor of Pharmaceutical Care, Department of Pharmacotherapy, Epidemiology and Economics, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. M.L. Bouvy is professor of Pharmaceutical Care, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. N.J. de Wit is professor, Department of General Practice, Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. D.L.M. Zwart is associate professor, Department of General Practice, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Purpose: To unravel boundary crossing as it relates to professional identity formation in pharmacists transitioning from a community pharmacy to working as nondispensing clinical pharmacists in general practice, with the aim of optimizing their education.

    Method: A multiple case study, including two-stage interviews, peer feedback, and individual reflection, that collected data in 2014 and 2015 from eight clinical pharmacists working in general practice in The Netherlands. These pharmacists acted - without a workplace role model - as pharmaceutical care providers in general practices during a 15-month training program. Read More

    The Time Is Now: Using Graduates' Practice Data to Drive Medical Education Reform.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    M.M. Triola is associate professor of medicine; associate dean for educational informatics; and founding director, Institute for Innovations in Medical Education, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6303-3112. R.E. Hawkins is president and chief executive officer, American Board of Medical Specialties, Chicago, Illinois. He was vice president for medical education outcomes, American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois, at the time of writing. S.E. Skochelak is group vice president for medical education, American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9522-4888.
    Medical educators are not yet taking full advantage of the publicly available clinical practice data published by federal, state, and local governments, which can be attributed to individual physicians and evaluated in the context of where they attended medical school and residency training. Understanding how graduates fare in actual practice, both in terms of the quality of the care they provide and the clinical challenges they face, can aid educators in taking an evidence-based approach to medical education. Although in their infancy, efforts to link clinical outcomes data to educational process data hold the potential to accelerate medical education research and innovation. Read More

    Anticipating and Training the Physician of the Future: The Importance of Caring in an Age of Artificial Intelligence.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    S.C. Johnston is dean, Dell Medical School at the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2912-0714.
    Artificial intelligence and other forms of information technology are only just beginning to change the practice of medicine. The pace of change is expected to accelerate as tools improve and as demands for analyzing a rapidly growing body of knowledge and array of data increase. The medical students of today will practice in a world where information technology is sophisticated and omnipresent. Read More

    Time for an Acute Focus on Chronic Care in Undergraduate Medical Education.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    C.R. Shi is a fourth-year medical student, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9166-1549. V.E. Nambudiri is instructor of dermatology, Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4170-7681.
    As the burdens of chronic disease rise in the United States, both undergraduate and graduate medical education must adapt to adequately equip future physicians with the skills to manage the increasingly complex health needs affecting the population. However, traditional models of undergraduate medical education (UME) have made focusing on chronic care education challenging. In this Invited Commentary, the authors advocate for strengthening UME based upon five approaches to engage trainees in learning about chronic care across both the preclinical and clinical phases of their education: (1) introducing chronic care in the preclinical years; (2) prioritizing chronic care education across all specialties; (3) maximizing the fourth year of medical school through a chronic care focus; (4) creating chronic disease-focused advanced clerkships; and (5) leveraging technology for education. Read More

    The Impact of Frequent Transitions on Families in Medical Training.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Seventh-year MD-DrPH student, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis Tennessee; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9907-8806. Third-year combined internal medicine-pediatrics resident physician, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6297-6779.

    A Program in Transition: A Shifting Mindset.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Second-year resident, University of Toronto Medicine, Royal College Emergency Resident Medicine Program, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2421-5017. Fourth-year resident, University of Toronto Medicine, Royal College Emergency Resident Medicine Program, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Twitter: @EMNiran; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4029-1231.

    Is Speed a Desirable Difficulty for Learning Procedures? An Initial Exploration of the Effects of Chronometric Pressure.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    B.L. Gas is education specialist, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences and Department of Subspecialty General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7140-4956. E.H. Buckarma is general surgery resident, Department of Subspecialty General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6396-3176. D.A. Cook is professor of medicine and medical education; chair, Mayo Clinic Multidisciplinary Simulation Center Research Committee; and consultant, Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2383-4633. D.R. Farley is professor of surgery and consultant, Department of Subspecialty General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2970-5114. M.V. Pusic is associate professor of emergency medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, and director, Division of Learning Analytics, Institute for Innovations in Medical Education, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5236-6598.
    Purpose: To determine if "chronometric pressure" (i.e., a verbal prompt to increase speed) could predictably alter medical learners' speed-accuracy trade-off during a simulated surgical task, thus modifying the challenge. Read More

    What to Do About the Transition to Residency? Exploring Problems and Solutions From Three Perspectives.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    B.C. O'Brien is associate professor, Department of Medicine, and educational researcher, Center for Faculty Educators, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9591-5243.
    Transitions are both a blessing and a curse for learning and professional development. While transitions can afford valuable opportunities for growth, they can also burden learners in ways that stymie performance and development. In this Commentary, the author focuses on the transition to residency-a transition that many believe has tipped too far toward burden. Read More

    Implications for the Dental Care of Vulnerable Populations if Medicaid Is Cut Back.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    R.W. Valachovic is president and chief executive officer, American Dental Education Association, and chair of the board of directors, Interprofessional Education Collaborative, Washington, DC.
    Good oral health affects academic performance, employability and annual earnings, military readiness, overall health care costs, and general health status and well-being. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has enhanced the ability of many Americans to receive dental care through the expansion of Medicaid and the inclusion of pediatric oral health as one of the ten "essential health benefits." Almost all of the proposals presented by Congress and the Administration to modify the ACA call for changes to Medicaid that would cut back funding and/or give states more control over programs. Read More

    Navigating the Complexities of Undergraduate Medical Curriculum Change: Change Leaders' Perspectives.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    F. Velthuis is a PhD student, Center for Education Development and Research in Health Professions, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. L. Varpio is associate professor and associate director of research, Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA. E. Helmich is senior researcher, Center for Education Development and Research in Health Professions, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. H. Dekker is senior educationalist, Center for Education Development and Research in Health Professions, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. A.D.C. Jaarsma is professor of health professions education, Center for Education Development and Research in Health Professions, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Purpose: Changing an undergraduate medical curriculum is a recurring, high-stakes undertaking at medical schools. This study aimed to explore how people leading major curriculum changes conceived of the process of enacting change and the strategies they relied on to succeed in their efforts.

    Method: The first author individually interviewed nine leaders who were leading or had led the most recent undergraduate curriculum change in one of the eight medical schools in the Netherlands. Read More

    Characteristics of Successful Internal Medicine Resident Research Projects: Predictors of Journal Publication Versus Abstract Presentation.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    A.R. Atreya is a fellow, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Springfield, Massachusetts. M. Stefan is associate professor, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Springfield, Massachusetts. J.L. Friderici is an informatics/analytics senior specialist, Cigna HealthCare, Bloomfield, Connecticut. R. Kleppel is research coordinator, Department of Internal Medicine, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts. J. Fitzgerald is a research nurse, Faculty and Resident Development, Department of Internal Medicine, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts. M.B. Rothberg is professor, Center for Value-Based Care Research, Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
    Purpose: To identify the characteristics of successful research projects at an internal medicine residency program with an established research curriculum.

    Method: The authors collected data about all research projects initiated by or involving medicine residents from 2006 to 2013 at Baystate Medical Center, using departmental files and institutional review board applications. Resident and mentor characteristics were determined using personnel files and Medline searches. Read More

    Curricular Transformation: The Case Against Global Change.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    J.M. Borkan is assistant dean, Primary Care - Population Medicine, and chair, Family Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1385-4737. P. George is assistant dean, Medical Education, director, Clinical Curriculum, and associate professor of family medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7433-9099. A.R. Tunkel is associate dean, Medical Education, and professor of medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
    In this Commentary, the authors make the case for medical schools to pursue more circumscribed solutions to curricular redesign for undergraduate medical education (UME) rather than whole system changes-at least as first steps and perhaps as ultimate solutions. While they focus primarily on the experience at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS), they believe that the insights gleaned from their experiences are generalizable to other innovations and other medical schools. The authors describe the implementation of the Primary Care - Population Medicine track at AMS as a working example of implementing circumscribed rather than global change, and they discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to curriculum transformation. Read More

    Gender Differences in Academic Medicine: Retention, Rank, and Leadership Comparisons From the National Faculty Survey.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    P.L. Carr is associate physician, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and associate professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. A. Raj is professor and director, Center on Gender Equity and Health, Division of Global Public Health, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. S.E. Kaplan is assistant professor and assistant dean for diversity, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. N. Terrin is professor and director, Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Research Design, Tufts Clinical Translational Science Institute and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. J.L. Breeze is assistant professor and epidemiologist, Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Research Design, Tufts Clinical Translational Science Institute and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. K.M. Freund is professor and vice chair of medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Purpose: Prior studies have found that women in academic medicine do not advance or remain in their careers in parity with men. The authors examined a national cohort of faculty from the 1995 National Faculty Survey to identify predictors of advancement, retention, and leadership for women faculty.

    Method: The authors followed 1,273 faculty at 24 medical schools in the continental United States for 17 years to identify predictors of advancement, retention, and leadership for women faculty. Read More

    Delivering on the Promise of CLER: A Patient Safety Rotation that Aligns Resident Education with Hospital Processes.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    E. Patel is a chief resident, Department of Psychiatry, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, New York. P. Muthusamy is a chief resident, Department of Psychiatry, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, New York. J.Q. Young is professor and vice chair for education, Department of Psychiatry, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, New York.
    Problem: Residency programs must provide training in patient safety. Yet, significant gaps exist among published patient safety curricula. The authors developed a rotation designed to be scalable to an entire residency, built on sound pedagogy, aligned with hospital safety processes, and effective in improving educational outcomes. Read More

    Whose Paper Is It Anyway? Authorship Criteria According to Established Scholars in Health Professions Education.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    S. Uijtdehaage is professor of medicine, and associate director, Graduate Programs in Health Profession Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. B. Mavis is professor, Office of Medical Education Research and Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. S.J. Durning is professor of medicine and pathology, and director, Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Purpose: The health professions education (HPE) community is a crossroad of scholars from various disciplines with potentially conflicting views on who qualifies as author. Established HPE scholars are expected to model ethical research conduct but no research has investigated the extent to which authorship criteria are understood and applied by leaders in the field. This study investigated what leading scholars consider appropriate criteria for authorship and how often these criteria are ignored. Read More

    In Reply to Fisher.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):153
    Fourth-year medical student, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4594-9570; e-mail: Internal medicine resident, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Fourth-year medical student, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Sixth-year MD/PhD student, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4306-5061. Fourth-year medical student, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Fourth-year medical student, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Fourth-year medical student, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9642-9589.

    In Reply to Wang and Myers.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):152
    Associate professor of family medicine, director, Foundations, MD Program, University of Toronto, and director of medical education, Michael Garron Hospital and Toronto East Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9746-6381; Twitter: Associate professor, Faculty of Medicine, and scientist, Wilson Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0012-5375. Independent research consultant, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Strategies for Residency Programs to Enhance Personal Relationships and Prevent Resident Burnout.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):151-152
    Assistant professor, Clinical Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Professor, clinical medicine, director, Quality & Safety Education, and director, Center for Healthcare Improvement and Patient Safety, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Beyond Test Scores and Medical Knowledge: The Standardized Video Interview, an Innovative and Ethical Approach for Holistic Assessment of Applicants.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):151
    Professor of emergency medicine, vice chair of education, and residency program director, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5804-5063. Professor, vice chair for academic affairs and business development, and division chief of general emergency medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5760-6351. Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, and assistant dean, Student Affairs and Colleges, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8123-1112. Associate professor of emergency medicine, Residency Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2690-3270; e-mail: Twitter:

    In Reply to Sun et al.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):150-151
    Joseph R. Kahn Professor, chair of pathology, and director, Medical Scientist Training Program, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio; e-mail: ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6333-162X. Professor of physiology and biophysics and director, Medical Scientist Training Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8781-7846. Professor of physiology and biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, and director, Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program, New York, New York; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3026-6710.

    Remembering Thought Diversity: The Value of Social Science and Humanities Physician-Scholars in MD-PhD Programs.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):150
    MD/PhD candidate, Department of Psychology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. MD/PhD candidate, Medical School/School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Professor of internal medicine and history, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0527-4700;

    Social Determinants of Health Education: A Call to Action.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):149-150
    Associate professor of pediatrics, Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6802-1954; Assistant professor of pediatrics, Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4262-663X.

    At the Nexus of Academic and Social Change: The School for the Science of Health Care Delivery.
    Acad Med 2018 Feb;93(2):149
    Interim director and clinical professor, School for the Science of Health Care Delivery, College of Health Solutions, and faculty, Barrett, the Honors College, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona; e-mail: Twitter: Lecturer, School for the Science of Health Care Delivery, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona. Former director, School for the Science of Health Care Delivery, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona, and former chief executive officer, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona.

    Evaluation Apprehension and Impression Management in Clinical Medical Education.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    W.C. McGaghie is professor of medical education and professor of preventive medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
    Historically, clinical medical education has relied on subjective evaluations of students and residents to judge their clinical competence. The uncertainty associated with these subjective clinical evaluations has produced evaluation apprehension among learners and attempts to manage one's professional persona (impression management) among peers and supervisors. Such behavior has been documented from antiquity through the Middle Ages to the present, including in two new qualitative studies in this issue of Academic Medicine on the social psychology of clinical medical education. Read More

    Drawing Boundaries: The Difficulty in Defining Clinical Reasoning.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    M. Young is assistant professor, Department of Medicine, and research scientist, Centre for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. A. Thomas is assistant professor, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, and research scientist, Centre for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University; and researcher, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation of greater Montreal, Montreal, Canada. S. Lubarsky is assistant professor, Department of Neurology, and core member, Centre for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. T. Ballard is a plastic surgery resident, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. D. Gordon is associate professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine], Durham, North Carolina. L.D. Gruppen is professor, Department of Learning Health Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, United States. E. Holmboe is senior vice president for Milestone Evaluation and Development, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, Illinois; and is adjunct professor of medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, and Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. T. Ratcliffe is associate professor, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. J. Rencic is associate professor of medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, and a member, Division of General Internal Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. L. Schuwirth is professor of medical education, Flinders University, and director, Flinders University Prideaux Centre for Research in Health Professions Education, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; and professor of medical education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands; Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan, and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. S.J. Durning is professor of medicine and director of Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Clinical reasoning is an essential component of a health professional's practice. Yet clinical reasoning research has produced a notably fragmented body of literature. In this article, the authors describe the pause-and-reflect exercise they undertook during the execution of a synthesis of the literature on clinical reasoning in the health professions. Read More

    A Qualitative Study of the Influences on Clinical Academic Physicians' Postdoctoral Career Decision-Making.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    V.F. Ranieri is research associate, Academic Careers Office, School of Life and Medical Sciences, and Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0528-8640. H. Barratt is clinical senior research associate, Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1387-137X. G. Rees is dean, Faculty of Life Sciences, professor of cognitive neurology, and director, Academic Careers Office, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9623-7007. N.J. Fulop is professor of health care organization and management, Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5306-6140.
    Purpose: To describe the influences on clinical academic physicians' postdoctoral career decision-making.

    Method: Thirty-five doctoral trainee physicians from University College London took part in semi-structured interviews in 2015 and 2016. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their career to-date, their experiences undertaking a PhD, and their career plans post-PhD. Read More

    How Academic Health Systems Can Achieve Population Health in Vulnerable Populations Through Value-Based Care: The Critical Importance of Establishing Trusted Agency.
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    D.E. Wesson is president, Baylor Scott & White Health and Wellness Center, Baylor Scott & White Health, Dallas, Texas. H.E. Kitzman is director of research and education, Baylor Scott & White Health and Wellness Center, Baylor Scott & White Health, Dallas, Texas; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1219-6189.
    Improving population health may require health systems to proactively engage patient populations as partners in the implementation of healthy behaviors as a shared value using strategies that incentivize healthy outcomes for the population as a whole. The current reactive health care model, which focuses on restoring the health of individuals after it has been lost, will not achieve the goal of improved population health. To achieve this goal, health systems must proactively engage in partnerships with the populations they serve. Read More

    The R2C2 Model in Residency Education: How Does It Foster Coaching and Promote Feedback Use?
    Acad Med 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    J. Sargeant is professor, Continuing Professional Development Program and Division of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. J.M. Lockyer is professor, Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. K. Mann was professor emeritus, Division of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. H. Armson is assistant dean, Continuing Professional Development, and associate professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A. Warren is associate professor, Department of Pediatrics, and associate dean, Postgraduate Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. M. Zetkulic is assistant professor, Seton Hall School of Medicine, Director of Medical Education, Department of Medicine, Hackensack University Hospital, Hackensack, New Jersey. S. Soklaridis is assistant professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. K.D. Könings is associate professor, Department of Educational Development & Research and School of Health Professions Education, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands. K. Ross is research associate, Department of Evaluation, Research and Development, American Board of Internal Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. I. Silver is vice-president, Education, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, and professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. E. Holmboe is senior vice president, Milestones Development and Evaluation, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, Illinois; adjunct professor of medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; and adjunct professor, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. C. Shearer is evaluation specialist, Postgraduate Medical Education, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. M. Boudreau is evaluation specialist, Continuing Professional Development, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
    Purpose: The authors previously developed and tested a reflective model for facilitating performance feedback for practice improvement, the R2C2 model. It consists of four phases: relationship building, exploring reactions, exploring content, and coaching. This research studied the use and effectiveness of the model across different residency programs and the factors that influenced its effectiveness and use. Read More

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